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California State Library 

> > * < -> 

Accession No •_>.< 

Call No. c»&\e2,2jX)-$..^N\\f>.. 


Mining and Scientific Press 

July to December, 1919 


Abrasives and abrasive wheels, Fred B. Jacobs, new- 
book 212 

Accidents in mines Harry S. Cordell. . . . 804 

In mining 46 

Addicks, Lawrence Editorial. . . . 768 

Afterthought metallurgy Herbert Lang. . . . 400 

Mine, Horwood process A. H. Heller. . . . 151 

Mine, methods S. E. Bretherton .... 148 

Ditto Frank L. Wilson. . . . 147 

Ahmeek Mining Co., company report 173 

'Air Derby' Editorial 588 

Alaska placer yield 417 

Alaska Gold Mines Co., company report 943 

Alaska Gold Mining Co., labor costs 748 

Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co., labor controversy. . . . 536 

Labor costs 748 

Alaska Road Commission work 162 

Albert, King ot Belgians, in San Francisco. . .Editorial 623 

Allis-Chalmera Mfg. Co. new design of motors 38 5 

Amendments to compensation laws in California 19 4 

American Association of Engineers Editorial. ... 321 

A. I. M. & M. E. convention at Chicago. .Editorial. . . . 387 

American Mining Congress Editorial. ... 801 

Ditto Edwin Higgins. . . . 913 

Resolution regarding Minerals Separation 

George L. Nye. ... 856 

American potash Editorial. ... 180 

Ditto Herbert H. Roe 195 

American Trona Corporation Herbert H. Roe. ... 197 

Ames slide on Rio Grande Southern Railroad. ........ 611 

Anaconda Copper Co., slag granulation 118 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co., farm for employees 

Oliver E. Jager. . . . 159 

Reduction works, apron feeder 237 

Slag granulation 118 

Step-bearing for Wedge furnace 192 

Antimony: Chemistry, metallurgy, uses, etc., Chung 

Yu Wang, new book 835 

Apex case, unusual R. T. Walker. . . . 262 

Litigation, Elm Orlu v. Butte & Superior 

Walter W. Lytzen.... 36 5 

Suits Editorial. . . . 911 

Applied mechanics, Charles E. Fuller and William A. 

Johnston, new book 549 

Science for metal workers, W. H. Dooley, new book 873 

Apron feeder at Anaconda reduction works 237 

Argall, Philip Crowe process .... 393 

Ditto Crowe vacuum process. ... 634 

Arizona mining during 1919 V. C. Heikes. . . . 508 

Arizona Smelting & Power Co. construction 273 

Arrival of fleet , Editorial. . . . 321 

Ashton, E. Conway, obituary. . 614 

Asphalt, production in 1917 and 1918 204 

Assessed valuation of Arizona mines 167 

Astronomy for surveyors, R. W. Chapman, new book. . 549 

Aulbach, Adam. .Reminiscences of Prichard creek. ... 891 

Austin, F. E., Examples in magnetism, new book 731 

Ditto Induction coils in theory and practice, 

new book 731 

Australian gold production 264 

Labor conditions William Motherwell. ... 591 

Authority and brains N. H. Emmons, 2nd. ... 255 


Babbitt, analysis of, James Brakes, new book. . '. 731 

Ballot, John, and flotation Editorial. . . . 840 

Ball-mill drives at Rochester Combined mill 

K. Freitag. ... 7 

Bancroft, George J Genesis of quartz in veins. ... 447 

Banquet at A. I. M. & M. E., Chicago meeting 528 

Barker, W. M. .Handling and smelting of flue-dust. ... 593 

Ditto Smelting flue-dust and fine ore. ... 226 

Ditto Utilizing furnace slag. ... 465 

Barrows, David P., new president for the University of 

California , Editorial. . . . 839 

Bartlett, Frank W., Engineering, descriptive geometry 

and drawing, new book 874 

Bedding system at Cananea G. W. Price. . . . 668 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co. and Minerals Separation 

George L. Nye .... 851 

Belgian Congo copper 868 

Belgian zinc industry future 372 

Belt fastener, 'high duty' type 73 

Benedict, W. de L. . . .Gold, prices, and war debts. . . . 557 

Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., company report. . . . 546 

Berry, Edwin S Mining at Braden. ... 593 

Betts, Anson G. . . .Leaching flotation concentrate. ... 184 
Bingham & Garfield Railway engineering features .... 

R. C. Gemmell. . . . 441 

Blast-furnace v. reverberator}' C. V. Corliss. ... 431 

Ditto Editorial .... 428 

Ditto E. P. Mathewson. . . . 323 

Ditto Walter G. Perkins. ... 79 

Bolshevism in Russia Editorial. . . . 497 

Botulism George E. Collins. ... 185 

Boutwell, John M Platinum at Grand Canyon. . . . 148 

Braden Copper Co. mining methods. . .F. Cameron. . . . 405 

Bradford, Edw. A. . .Economic education of labor. . . . 713 

Brakes, James Analysis of babbitt, new book. ... 731 

Brannt, W. T. . . .Metal workers handy book, new book 212 

Ditto. .Teehno-chemical receipt book, new book. ... 657 

Brazil, manganese in 924 

Breakey, A. S. .Selling prices of machinery since 1913 475 

Bretherton, S. E. .Methods at Afterthought mine. . . . 148 

Brinsmade, R. B Gold, prices, and war debts. . . . 665 

Ditto. . . .Mr. Ingalls and Walkerian economics. . . . 627 

Ditto Mining and smelting near Monterrey, 

Mexico 741 

Briquetting magnetite concentrate. . .F. H. Mason. ... 54 

British Columbia mineral production during 1919. . . . 930 

Brodie, W. M. .Coquima: the shell-rock of Florida. . . . 193 

Brown coal in Australia 270 

Brown, Gilmour E. . .Mining engineering in the Orient 703 

Brunton compass, use of 773 

Bully Hill metallurgy Herbert Lang. . . . 400 

Mine Herbert Lang. ... 265 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan M. & C. Co. operation of 

Sweeney mill R. S. Handy. . . . 289 

Bunting, Charles The Premier gold mine. . . . 670 

Bureau of Mines Edwin Higgins. . . . 913 

Burma mine Editorial. . . . 767 

Burro Mountain, Diesel engines at. . . .C. Legrand. . . . 369 

Butler, B. S Production of copper. . . . 129 

Butte & Superior Mining Co., company report. . . .174, 943 

Accounting to Minerals Separation 939 

Electric hoisting equipment. . .Oliver E. Jager. ... 18 


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<- Goafereace, the Talae oi . . . . J. T. Oweas C33 

CatrWag ■agawate ore -W. C- Phalea 29* Consolidated Coppenaiaes Co.. empany report 943 

Calculator for xaiae Talaaaoa. . .Ross B. Hox&aaa Hi Coastraetioa of grapHe charts, sev boot. .J. B. Reddle C57 

Calif omia Metal & Mineral Prodaeers Assoaaooa Coma-act Miaiac at Saaa Ooari: i.irm 

Editorial C95 7.. ffeasaD aad J. P. Mitchell-Roberts US 

aiag dariag ISIS ConTOatraaal syaibois for suae anas. J. H. Marina 397 

DT Cbrjr. obitaary 3s i. 4*9 Copper coaceatrataOB at Moaataia Copper Co 

eda Miaiag Co. report tor 191S Lloyd C. Tts 331 

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CPaladraaiia Alaska lode deposits 529 Percy R. Middfetoa 149 

ra Or? anljh m. a-eldrag auaaal 549 Mefiallargy Hagh K. Pieard 13 

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aoeo . . Editorial. . 7 naper Moaataia dteveaopBaesi . . . C59 

oat Miaes. Iae- costs at J75 Copper Qaeea. eoasBactios af 131 

e Co. forms faamliia branch 1(1 *Si 

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Parke The eagiBeer ia iadastry C35 CordeO. Harry S Mi*e acddeats S«4 

Ditto Jfiaiagoa the Mother Lode S*» 

Ca caaka l ralral a r i B a fh l ri . aew fcook.H. L. WeDs >4S Cortess. C. T Blast-faTaace t. mmlwaa tory 431 

Chicago raeetiag cfA.UHlL£ Zi: rz 

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Caabas agaiast Mexico Editorial 73a Coaraaey. Gay. - -The Cockle Creek sayftrtac axaat 3*3 

Class Joaraatisai Editorial 3S9.59C.CC9 Oeieaaat of Leagaeof Xatioss. test of . 

Ditto ?. B. McDozxzs. 744 Creosote for protectzag Buae-tinber 12« 

filial. Afcraader QamlH a ti n; aaatysfe by dec- Cressoa CoirwllWhited Co^ coaaaaay reaoira $9$ 

trolysis. aev book Ore-reserres . . 932 

Ctartoa. H. E Haager far alaas aad aoas '.Vfts Creek oatpat for October 71S 

fTm-had CBt^i *— "- *^ -*"»g»-c ^''^^ -aasdale. Staart Chloride ynfafflrmrtoa . . . 

Coal aad coke ia war time 474 Crotre process Philip ArgaE 393 

5:::i? :z Zzr.Tf 231 Uirro .-zniar Peast. . . . C34 

Strike Editorial . CCL. SM Dfeto ~ R- Greeaa^mlr 359 

Cobalt labor treaties Editorial 319 Ditto S M_ Ha-wiftoa 325 

Cackle Creek saaettiag pbat Gay Coanaey 3«3 Ditto ; Seith 257.445 

Coghffl. Win H FlotatiOB ia stages Ditto T. Skeires Saaaders C33 

GaDlas. George E tto— Ufa— it; Ciasaiag pracoce at STea- OomeiSa Cup p u Co . 

Cahwhia. aUtiaaai ia W. L. IknBoaHa 395 

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Ca l oaio Miaiag Co- apex case at R. T. Walker 

Colorado Fael i Iroa Co.. eoaaaaay report 311 D 

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ADocei Miaiag Co. placer daaas . 

Batte 4: Saperior SDaiag Co. Deepest ««■.- - 

Calaatet * Heda Miaiag Co. zr z 7 7 77zz ::■:'■: 

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Chief Coas?S£ated Miaiag Co. 943 D weteiuL. W EL. .'- -- T TTTllia nhfllaa J C29 

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El Tiro Lwaag Co. Iaaacead xaiaiag .Editorial 911 

late Royals Copper Co. zz; :•;.• . 

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Saperior Copper Co. ... Diecrick " T Salaries of eag ia oas CC3 

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K. C. Laytasder SS3 Doctor. Wiffiasr E Applied .-tt . itmtr far ateaal 

strikes . .Edxtarial. . . -rri-rs zi~ :•:■-.£. »« 

Vol. 119 



Dougherty. Ellsworth Y Relation of regional 

deformations to ore in pre-Cambrian L'JT 

Drill round, model of Walter s Weeks. . . . sis 

Steel, is yours too long? 260 

Drum controller 782 

Dumoulin. W. L. . . .Crushing practice at Now Cornelia 305 

Dutch Guiana ~n2 

Duty of the Mining Industry. . .George Otis Smith. . . . 7S2 


Easton, Stanly A., the president among the miners. . . . 

T. A. Rickard 435 

Eaton. Lucien Skip-changing device. . . . 433 

Economic theories of Ingalls. . . .R. B. Brinsmade. . . . G27 


A. I. M. & M. E. convention 387 

Air derby 588 

American Association of Engineers 321 

American Mining Congress plan for enlargement. . . 801 

American potash ISO 

Apex suits 911 

Arrival of fleet 321 

Blast-furnace v. reverberatory 428 

British interests in Mexico 356 

Burma mine 7G7 

Carnegie, Andrew 252 

Carranza's Mexico 41 

Claims against Mexico 73 5 

Class journalism 389, 590, 660 

Coal strike 661, 800 

Concerning patents . 108 

Concerning strikes 554 

Conditions in Siberia 497 

Copper of Sinai 4 29 

Cost of living 253 

Daylight Saving Act 7 5 

Decision in favor of Minerals Separation 3 87 

Diesel engine in mining 357 

Discovery of froth-flotation 77 

Discovery at Randsburg, California 356 

Editorial independence 141 

Elm Orlu v. Butte & Superior litigation 284 

Emigration 462 

Engineer as a citizen 4 

Engineers Licensing Bill 1 

Explosives plant at Nitro, West Virginia 427 

Federal Department of Public Works 358 

Federal taxation of mines 552 

Flotation process and its makers 106 

Ford, Henry 180, 251 

Freight-rates on steel 495 

Future outlook for Rand mines 106 

Gay, Edwin F 462 

Gold, prices, and debts 218 

Gold production 910 

Gompers and strikes 802 

Government and cost of living 181 

Greenway, John C 461 

Hampton Uruguay Co 661 

High cost of living 2S5 

Hoover, Herbert 427, 463, 551 

Hoover and public service 553 

Immigration 3 9 

Incorporation of labor unions 766 

Industrial conference failure 624 

Institute meeting at Chicago 497 

Invention of tanks 588 

King Albert's visit to San Francisco 6 23 

Labor troubles at Cobalt . 319 

Ludendorff's story of the War 551 

Mexican outrages 105 

Mexican situation 252 

Mexico again 2S6 

Mexico and proposals 389 

Miami case 7 8 

Mineral lands leasing bill 625 

Minerals Separation v. Nevada Con 496 

Mining speculation -696, 735, 842 

Mother lode activity 3 56 

National resources 912 

Neill, R. K., and the Premier mine 695 

New Evangel 911 

New York World 552 

Organization of the Mexican Corporation 660 

Organization of the National Mining Corporation. . 766 

• Organization of policemen 388 

Patent legislation . -......- • 251 

Kdiiorial. cont. 

Peace Treaty 3 

Perpetuation of mining-company organizations. . . . 495 

Pressmen's strike in New York 626 

Prohibition 41 

Rand gold mining 218 

Romineo Mines Co. prospectus 140 

Salmon River district 734 

Scholarships given by International Nickel Co 623 

Silver 879 

Smith. Frank M 695 

State insurance; an experiment 697 

Steel strike 462, 734 

St. John Del Rey mine 75 

Strikes 496 

Sulman and flotation 840 

Taxation of mines 841 

Threatened coal strike . 625 

To young engineers 55S 

Treaty and the Covenant 252 

Treaty and the Senate 390 

Trial of Kaiser in London 75 

Tule Canyon, Nevada 461 

Use of iniunctions in coal strike 662 

U. S. Geological Survey quarters 320 

von Wiegand, Karl 180 

Wall Street, and speculation 218 

War Minerals Relief 76, 142, 219, 322, 877 

Washington and entangling alliances 355 

What shall we do with the Treaty? 589 

Who said thrift? 880 

Editorial independence . .Editorial. . . . 141 

Elaterite in Utah 434 

Electric hoisting equipment at Butte & Superior mine. 

Oliver E. Jager. ... 18 

Locomotives, controller for 693 

Electrolytic deposition of copper following leaching. . 

Percy R. Middleton. . . . 149 

Precipitation of gold and silver 448 

Electrostatic separation of zinc ores 117 

Elmore), F. E Process patents .... 479 

Elm Orlu case A. L. Rinearson. ... 147 

Elm Orlu v. Butte & Superior litigation. .Editorial. . . . 284 

Ditto Walter W. Lytzen. ... 364 

El Progresso property near Nacozari 652 

El Tiro Leasing Co., company report 943 

Emigration Editorial .... 462 

Emmons, N. H., 2nd Authority and brains. . . . 255 

Employment management J. C. Metger. ... 83 

Engineer as a citizen Editorial. ... 4 

In industry J. Parke Channing. ... 635 

Engineering, descriptive geometry and drawing, new 

book. . . .F. W. Bartlett and T. W. Johnson. ... 874 

Education, new book Ray Palmer Baker. . . . 873 

English speaking peoples C. M. Campbell. . . . 186 

Ditto P. A. Robbins. . . . 362 

European coal stocks 238 

Post-war conditions, address by Herbert Hoover. . . 46 7 

Evans, F. H., obituary 211 

Exploration methods Hugh M. Roberts. ... 55 

Explosives plant at Nitro, West Virginia. .Editorial. . . . 427 

Extraction or recovery E. M. Hamilton. ... 84 


Farnum, Dwight. .Carnotite in Utah and Colorado. . . . 127 

Farrell. M. A Goldfleld School of Mines. . . . 821 

Fay, Albert H Mine accidents .... 677 

Fearn, Hewitt O Salaries of engineers. . . . 804 

Federal Department of Public Works, text of bill to 

create 373 

Ditto Editorial .... 358". 

Federal taxation of mines Editorial. . . . 552 

Ditto L. C. Graton. . . . 531, 567 

Feeder for flotation oil at Anaconda 22 

Fees of mining engineer A. B. Frenzel. . . . 738 

Fellows, C. W State Compensation Insurance. . . . 881> 

Feuchere, Leon Mine sampling. : .:: 271 

Feust, Arthur Crowe vacuum process. . . . 63 4 

Fields & Hall process of handling smelter fume 

Herbert Lang.... 39T 

Fischer, Samuel Reverberatory furnace roofs. ... 634' 

Flotation Hugh K. Picard. . . . ' .9' 

At Afterthought mine A. H. Heller.'. . . 154 

At Suan Concession 

A. R. Weigall and J. F. Mitchell-Roberts. . . . $43 

By Horwood process. . : . .William Motherwell. :' ,'. :7.ftT 


Vol. 119 


Flotation concentrate, leaching of .Anson G. Betts. . . . 184 

Ditto Percy R. Middleton .... 5 

Concentrate, treatment of 43 

Concentration at Shasta Herbert Lang. ... 397 

Decision in case of Sulman & Picard v. Wolf 87 

Discovery of Editorial .... 77 

In stages Will H. Coghill 404 

Ditto Ernest Gayford .... 555 

Ditto Blarney Stevens .... 738 

Litigation Sulman & Picard .... 79 

Litigation at Miami Editorial. ... 78 

Machine, Jones-Belmont 249 

Oil feeder at Anaconda. . .Staff Correspondence. 

On Suan Concession 

A. R. Weigall and J. F. Mitchell-Roberts. . . . 

Process and its makers Editorial. . . . 

Flue-dust and fine ore. smelting of. .W. M. Barker. . . . 

Handling and smelting of W. M. Barker. . . . 

Foote, Arthur B Tariff protection for metals .... 

Ford, Henry Editorial .... 180, 

Forstner, Wm. .Protection of quicksilver industry. . . . 

Foundry practice, new book R. H. Palmer. . . . 

France, ruin and destitution in. .Frank H. Probert .... 
Freeland, W. H.. obituary 



Freight-rates on steel Editorial. 

Freitag, K Ball-mill drives at Rochester Combined 

mill 7 

French, Thos. . . .French process for complex lead-zinc 

ores 434 

Frenzel, A. B Mining Engineers' fees. ... 739 

Froth-flotation, discovery of Editorial. ... 77 

Ditto James Hebbard. . . . 737 

Fuller, Chas. E Applied mechanics, new book. . . . 549 

Fulton Motor Truck Co. 'ground grippers' 875 

Fulton, R. E. .Restriction of motor transportation. . . . 694 
Ditto. .Motor-truck freight and operating costs. 

Fundamental principles of safeguarding 

Sydney J. Williams .... 
Furnace slag, utilizing W. M. Barker. 




Gallard. J. A. L Editorial. . . . 696 

Galloway, Lee Office management, new book. . . . 490 

Garford Motor Truck Co., new ton-and-a-quarter truck 493 

Trucks in North-West 585 

Gary, E. H Editorial 624, 735 

Gateway district of Colorado and Utah, occurrence of 

carnotite Dwight Farnum. ... 127 

Gay, Edwin F Editorial. . . . 462 

Gayford, Ernest Flotation in stages. ... 555 

Gemmell, R. C Engineering features of Utah 

Copper operations 440 

Genesis of quartz in veins George J. Bancroft. . . . 447 

Gerry, C. N Mining in Idaho. ... 446 

Ditto Mining in Montana during 1919. . . . 745 

Gillette, Halbert P Handbook of mechanical and 

electrical cost data, new book 490 

Gleim, E. M Quicksilver industry. . . . 434 

Ditto Tariff on quicksilver. ... 739 

Golden Center of Grass Valley Mining Co., decision by 

Secretary of Interior 26 

Gold, electrolytic precipitation of 448 

Prices and war debts W. de L. Benedict. ... 557 

Dirto R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 665 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 218 

Ditto P. A. Robbins. . . . 665 

Production Editorial. . . . 910 

Status of P. A. Robbins. . . . 144 

Ditto Edward S. Van Dyck .... 359 

Goldfield School of Mines M. A. Farrell. ... 821 

Gompers, Samuel Editorial. . . . 625 

Gompers and strikes Editorial. . . . 802 

Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F., belting order 17S 

Goodwin, H. L Haulage of heavy machinery. . . . 780 

Gosrow, R. C Steel industry'on Pacific Coast. . . . 702 

Government and the cost of living Editorial. ... 181 

Governors and the governing of prime movers, new 

book W. Trinks. . . . 657 

Grabill, C. A Ore-buying in Chile. . . . 327 

Grain elevators, new book Milo S. Ketchum. . . . 583 

Granby Consolidated Co. coal rights 455 

Grant, Louis T A primitive sun-dial. ... 5 

Granulated slag as handled at Anaconda 

Oliver E. Jager. ... 118 

Graphite occurrence and uses 848 

Grass Valley, California, strike settlement 67 


Graton, L. C Federal taxation of mines. . . . 534, 567 

Greenawalt, Wm. E The Crowe process. . . . 359 

Ditto. . . . _ Patents and progress. . . . 708 

Greenway, John C Editorial. . . . 461 

Grunsky, C. E. . . .Public utilities rate fixing, new book 873 

Guild in labor organization P. B. McDonald. ... 330 

Gwin mine F. B. Moors .... 6 

Haines. Chas. H An unusual apex case. ... 262 

Hall, Edgar Smelting zinky lead ores. ... 699 

Hamilton, E. M The Crowe process. . . .325. 465 

Ditto Extraction or recovery. ... 84 

Hamkens. H. . . Steam-engine troubles, new book. . . . 549 

Hampton, Elisha, obituary 314 

Hampton Uruguay Co., activity in Australia. .Editorial 661 

Hancock, E. T Upton-Thornton oil district. ... 676 

Hancock, R. T Concerning a definition. . . . 256 

Ditto Formula for mine ventilation. . . . 224 

Hand-drilling device, a useful 896 

Handy. R. S Treatment of tailing and 

ore in the Sweeny mill 289 

Hanger for plans and maps H. E. Clayton. ... 128 

Hannam, R. W Monkey-proof crusher. . . . 302 

'Hard boiled' protective cap for miners 798 

Hardinge mill operated by water-wheel 74 

Harger, Wilson G., and Bonney, Edmund A 

Highway engineers handbook, new book. . . . 873 

Harron. Rickard & McCone, portable power drag saw. . 317 

Haulage of heavy machinery H. L. Goodwin. . . . 780 

Hayden. Carl Proposed bill to facilitate 

exploration of copper deposits 785 

Health, its relation to work. . .Thomas Darlington. . . . 563 

Heat and heat engines, new book. . . .Andrew Jamieson 65 7 

Treated gearing for mine locomotive 

J. E. Mullen 426 

Heating value of fuels, tests for 259 

Hebbard, James Discovery of froth flotation. ... 737 

Heikes, V. C Mining in Arizona during 1919. .. . 508 

Ditto Mining in Nevada in 1919. . . . 374 

Ditto Mining in Utah. . . . 715 

Helium, general data 306 

Heller. A. H. . .Horwood process at Afterthought mine 151 

Hendrick. E. Opportunities in chemistry, new book. . . . 835 

Higgins. Edwin American Mining Congress. ... 913 

High costs J. Manlet. ... 555 

Costs of living Editorial .... 285 

Highway construction, use of motor trucks in 354 

Engineers' handbook, new book 

Wilson G. Harger and Edmund A. Bonney. ... 873 

Motor train, San Francisco to Los Angeles 585 

Hilltop Metals Mining Co 897 

Hoffman. Ross B. . .Calculator for mine valuation. . . . 925 

Hollinger. Benjamin, obituary 906 

Hoover, a job for R. H. Toll. . . . 557 

And public service Editorial. . . . 553 

Hoover. Herbert. . . .The Treaty and the Covenant. ... 559 

Ditto Editorial. . . .427. 463, 551 

Ditto Address on conditions in Europe. . . . 467 

Hoover, Theodore J Mr. Sulman and flotation. ... 913 

Hore. Reginald E A new goldfield in Ontario. ... 595 

Hornet crushing plant, operation of . . . .Lloyd C. White 63 9 

Horwood process at Afterthought mine. . .A. H. Heller 151 

Process of selective flotation. .Wm. Motherwell. . . . 769 

Hoskin. Arthur J A question of boundaries. . , . 857 

Howell. S. P T.N.T. for blasting. ... 334 

Hunley, J. B Tariff on quicksilver. . . . 739 

Huntington-Heberlein process at Cockle Creek. M. S. W. 

W. J. Jackson. . . . 203 

Idaho mining during 1919 C. N. Gerry. . . . 446 

Illiteracy and mine accidents Albert H. Fay. ... 678 

Immigration limitation Editorial. ... 39 

Incorporate the unions Editorial. ... 766 

Indian reservations, mining on 59 7 

'Index number' wage Robert S. Lewis. . . . 665 

Individualism v. nationalization. .P. B. McDonald. . . . 819 

Induction coils in theory and practice, new book 

F. E. Austin. ... 731 

Industrial conference, failure of Editorial. ... 624 

Electro-metallurgy, new book. .Eric K. Rideal. ... 657 

Ingalls and Walkerian economics. R. B. Brinsmade. ... 627 

Ditto P. B. McDonald. . . . 884 

Ingersoll-Rand Co.. new portable air-compressor 837 

Injunctions in connection with coal strike. . Editorial 662 

Institute meeting at Chicago Editorial. . . . 497 

Vol. 119 



Institution of Mining & Metallurgy Editorial. . . . 842 

International exposition of mining industries JIB 

International Motor Co., care of trucks 353 

Intervention in Mexico Blarney Stevens. . . . 288 

Ireland, minerals in ;>9S 

Iron and steel, new book. .Erik Oberg and F. D. Jones 731 

Isle Royale Copper Co.. company report 174 

Jackson. W. J. . . .Roasting by H.-H. process at Cockle 

Creek 203 

Jacobs, Fred B. . . .Abrasions and abrasive wheels, new- 
book 212 

Jager, Oliver E Anaconda company's farm for 

employees 159 

Ditto Blast-furnace v. reverberatory . ... 79 

Ditto. . .Electric hoisting at Butte & Superior mine 18 

Ditto. .Life of reverberatory roofs at Anaconda. ... 85 

Ditto Message from South America. ... 499 

Ditto Method of handling granulated slag at 

Anaconda llg 

Ditto. . .Skip-changing device at Stewart mine. . . . 187 

Ditto Treating flotation concentrate. ... 43 

Jaraieson, Andrew. . .Heat and heat engines, new book 657 

Janney, Frank G Description of power plant and 

foundry at Utah Copper plant 472 

Jones, A. H Flotation machine. . . . 249 

Jones-Belmont flotation machine 249 

Jones, Franklin D., and Erik Oberg Iron and 

steel, new book 731 

Jones process of manganese ores 96 

Jones, Wesley L., Federal Department of Public Works 

Editorial. ... 358 

Johnson Gear Works Co., large gear-milling 216 

Johnson, Theodore W Engineering, descriptive 

geometry, and drawing, new hook 874 

Johnston, William A. . . .Applied mechanics, new book 549 

Jorgensen, L. R. .Water rights for power purposes. . . . 163 

Julihn, C. E.Neighborliness as an industrial factor. ... 299 


Kaiser, trial of, in London Editorial. ... 75 

Keith, N. S The Crowe process. . . . 257, 325, 465 

Kennecott copper leaching 44 

Kennedy, George A Editorial. . . . 733 

Ketchum, Milo S Walls, bins and grain elevators, 

new book 583 

Kirkland lake area, geological features 

Ellsworth Y. Dougherty. ... 228 

Knudson, Mrs. Carl. . . .Looting of San Nicolas Co. . . . 419 

Kolchak's defeat Editorial. ... 799 

Korea, technical operations on the Suan Concession . . 
A. R. Weigall and J. F. Mitchell-Roberts .... 

509, 599, 805, 843, 915 

Kottcamp, J. P. .Strength of materials, new book. . . . 873 

La Fleur Mountain Copper Co., occurrence of platinum S29 

Labor and capital Blarney Stevens. ... 501 

Conditions in Australia Wm. Motherwell.... 591 

Controversy in Alaska 535 

Economic education of. Edw. A. Bradford. . . . 713 

Unions, incorporation of Editorial. ... 766 

Unrest J. Parke Channing. ... 637 

Lake Superior copper district development 645 

Lane, Franklin K Editorial .... 912 

Lang, Herbert Metallurgical journey to Shasta, 

California 47, 265, 397 

Laylander, K. C Concentration of platinum in 

placer mining 883 

Leaching copper at Kennecott 44 












.A system of physical chemistry. 

Of flotation concentrate Anson G. Betts. 

Ditto Percy R. Middleton .... 

Lead metallurgy Hugh K. Picard. . . . 

Ores containing zinc, smelting of. .Edgar Hore. . . . 

Smelting at Cockle Creek Guy Courtney. . . . 

Smelting at Monterrey, Mexico 

R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 

Zinc sulphide ores, treatment by new Elmore 


League of Nations and the Treaty Editorial .... 

Covenant, revised text of 

Leasing bill for mineral lands Editorial .... 

Lecture demonstrations in physical chemistry, new 

book Henry S. Van Klooster. . . . 

Legrande, C. .Diesel engines in mine power plants. . . . 
Lewis, Robert S Index number wage .... 

Lewis. Win. C. McC 

new book . 

Licensing bill, engineers Editorial .... 

Lidgett, Albert Petroleum, new book. . . . 

Life of reverberatory roofs at Anaconda 

Oliver E. Jager. . . . 

Limitation of immigration Editorial. . . . 

Lindgren. Waldemar Mineral deposits. . . . 

Liquid fuels for internal-combustion engines, new book 

Harold Moore. . . . 

'Literary Digest' shows enterprise Editorial. . . . 

Litigation over patents Wm. E. Greenawalt. . . . 

Utah Apex v. Utah Consolidated 

Livingston, D. C Tungsten uses and minerals. . . . 

Loring. W. J War minerals relief. . . . 

Low-grade orebodies, sampling of. . . .A. R. Pierce. . . . 

Lubricated plug-valve, description of 

Ludendorff's story of the War Editorial. . . . 

Lynton, Edward D Salaries of engineers. . . . 

Lytzen, Walter W Elm Orlu v. Butte & Superior 












Machinery, haulage of H. L. Goodwin. . . . 780 

Selling prices since 1913 A. S. Breakey. . .'. 475 

Mackenzie river basin F. H. Mason. . . . 476 

Maclaren, J. Malcolm .. Operations on Suan Concession 510 

Magnesite in Washington 57 

Industry in United States W. C. Phalen. . . . 295 

Magnetism, examples in, new book. . .F. E. Austin. . . . 731 

Malay States, mining engineering in 

Gilmour E. Brown. ... 703 

Malcher, L. M Data on oxy-acetylene welding. ... 53 

Manganese in Brazil 924 

Ore production of 642 

Ores, treatment by Jones process 9 6 

Production in first quarter of 1919 294 

Manlet. J High costs. ... 555 

Manning, Van. H Petroleum industry. . . . 278 

Ditto. . . .Present problems of mining industry. ... 816 

Maps, conventional symbols for mine. J. H. Marion. . . . 397 

Marchant Calculating Machine Co. rebuilding after fire 944 

Marion, J. H. Conventional symbols for mine maps. ... 397 

Mason. C. W Patent controversies. . . . 144 

Mason. F. H. . .Briquetting magnetite concentrate. ... 54 

Ditto Mackenzie river basin. ... 476 

Ditto Steel on Pacific Coast. . . . 803 

Mathewson, E. P. . .Blast-furnace v. reverberatory. . . . 323 

Maurer, E. R Principles of reinforced concrete 

construction, new book 873 

McClelland, George E State insurance. ... 772 

McDonald, P. B Class journalism. . . . 740 

Ditto Comment on Picards address. . . . 184 

Ditto Guild in labor organization. ... 330 

Ditto Ingalls and Walkerian economics. ... 884 

Ditto Individualism v. nationalization. ... 819 

Ditto War minerals relief scandal. ... 501 

McDougall roasters, feeding of 58 

Mechanical and electrical cost data, new book 

Halbert P. Gillette and Richard T. Dana. . . . 490 

'Mercury' War minerals relief. . . . 882 

Message from South America Oliver E. Jager. . . . 499 

Metal workers handy book, new book 

Wm. T. Brannt.... 212 

Metals of the rare earths, new book. .J. F. Spencer. . . . 490 

Metallurgical journey to Shasta, California 

Herbert Lang 47, 265, 397 

Ditto G. Cleveland Taylor. . . . 359 

Metger, J. C Employment management. ... 83 

Mexican Corporation, organization of .. .Editorial. .. . 660 

Mexican outrages Editorial. ... 105 

Problem Blarney Stevens. . . 288 

Situation Editorial. ... 252 

Mexico Editorial .... 765 

Again Editorial. ... 286 

And Carranza Editorial .... 41 

And proposals Editorial. ... 388 

British interests in Editorial. . . . 356 

Claims against Editorial. ... 735 

Damage done to American-owned property 471 

Stable Government for Blarney Stevens. ... 640 

Miami case Editorial .... 78 

Flotation litigation at Editorial. ... 78 

Michigan copper production 788 

Miekle, Kenneth Austin, obituary ' 690 

Middleton, Percy R. . .Electrolytic deposition of copper 149 

Ditto Leaching of flotation concentrate .... 5 


Vol. 119 

Mill-tests v. hand-sampling. . .H. R. Sleeman. . . . 143, 701 

Milling on Suan Concession. Korea 

A. R. Weigall and J. F. Mitchell-Roberts. ... S05 

Mine accidents Harry S. Cordell. ... 804 

Accidents, English speaking v. non-English speak- 
ing Albert H. Fay. . . . 677 

Dividends, United States and Canada 35 

Mapping Douglas Waterman. ... 8S5 

Maps, conventional symbols lor. .J. H. Marion. ... 397 

Ditto Lester C. Uren. . . . 231 

Sampling Leon Feuchere. ... 271 

New Elmore process. 

description 479 

Surveying, short cuts in.. Douglas Waterman 749, SS5 

Taxation Special Correspondence. ... 525 

Taxation by Federal government. .L. C. Graton. ... 531 

Timbers, creosote coatings on 126 

Valuation, calculator for. . . .Ross B. Hoffman. . . . 925 

Valuation, formulas for R. T. Hancock. ... 224 

Valuation, methods of L. C. Graton. . . . 567 

Workers protective league at Grass Valley 3 75 

Mineral deposits, new book. .Waldemar Lindgren.... 212 

Exploration in Alaska 786 

Industry, new book G. A. Roush. ... 731 

Minerals Separation, decision in favor of .Editorial. ... 387 

Discovery of froth-flotation Editorial. ... 77 

Miami case Editorial .... 78 

V. mining industry George L. Nye. . . . S49 

V. Nevada Consolidated 870 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 496 

Mines Development Association in Colorado 164 

Mining at Braden Edwin S. Berry. . . . 593 

Department of A. E. F. University 260 

Engineering in the Orient. .Gilmour E. Brown. ... 703 
Industry, present problems. .Van. H. Manning. ... 816 

Speculation Editorial 696, 735, 842 

Minister of Mines for Ontario 792 

Mitchell, F. H War minerals relief. . . . 771 

Mitchell-Roberts, J. F. and F. A. Weigall. . . .Technical 

operations on the Suan Concession 

509, 599, 805, 843, 915 

Moctezuma Copper power-plant 578 

Model making, new book Raymond F. Yates. ... 583 

Moffatt, J. W., obituary 906 

Molybdenite, flotation of Blarney Stevens. . . . 738 

Molybdenum and molybdenum steel. . . .W. E. Simpson 894 

Monkey-proof crusher 302 

Montana mining during 1919 C. N. Gerry. ... 745 

Monterrey, Mexico, mining and smelting at 

R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 741 
Moore, Harold. . . .Liquid fuels for internal combustion- 
engines, new book 583 

Moors, F. B Gwin mine .... 6 

Mother Lode activity Editorial. . . . 356 

Mining on Harry S. Cordell. . . . 500 

Motherwell, Wm.Horwood process of selective flotation 769 

Ditto Labor conditions in Australia. ... 591 

Motor-trucks, care of 353 

Line, systematization of . . . .E. A. Williams, Jr. . . . 693 

New Garford type . . . . 493 

Operating costs R. E. Fulton. ... 584 

Mount Morgan Gold Mining Co., electrolytic deposition 

of copper Percy R. Middleton. . . . 149 

Mountain Copper Co., company report 23 

Description of concentrator at. .Lloyd C. White. ... 331 

Moyer, J. A Steam turbines, new book. ... 657 

Munroe, C. E T.N.T. for blasting. . . . 334 

Murphy, J. Kane. .Step-bearing for Wedge furnace. ... 192 
Murray, J. C The Survey of Cornwall. ... 339 


Nacozari Consolidated Co., company report 904 

Organization 617 

National Board on Engineering and Industrial Research 478 

National Mining Corporation, organization of 

Editorial. . . . 766 

National resources Editorial. ... 912 

National Zinc Separating Co., description of plant 345 

Nationality and effect on mine accidents. . . .A. H. Fay 677 

Neighborliness as an industrial factor. C. E. Julihn. . . . 299 

Neiil, R. K., and the Premier mine Editorial. . . . 695 

Nevada coal field in Alaska 148 

Mining in 1919 V. C. Heikes. . . . 374 

Nevada Consolidated answer to Minerals Separation.. 8 70 

Company report 280 

New Cornelia Copper Co., crushing practice at 

W. L. Dumoulin. . . . 305 

Exploration at Hugh M. Roberts. ... 56 

Plans for 643 

Evangel Editorial ... . 911 

New Mexico 136, 280, 684 

Newell, F. H., Afcierican Association of Engineers. . . . 

Editorial. ... 321 

Nipissing mine, cost of silver production 52 

Nitrates, production in Chile 272 

Nuttall, R. D., Company Heat-treated gearing. . . . 426 

Nye, Geo. L. . .Minerals Separation v. Mining Industry 849 


Oberg, Erik, and Frankling D. Jones Iron and 

steel, new book 731 

Office management, new book Lee Galloway. . . . 490 

Oil land valuation 17 

Shale industry, discussion of .Arthur L. Pearse. ... 109 

Oldfield, Frank W., obituary 350 

Oliver Filter Co., new catalogue 317 

Ontario production record 6 5 

Opportunities in chemistry Elwood Hendrick. . . . 835 

'Opportunity': Anaconda company's farm for em- 
ployees Oliver E. Jager. ... 159 

Ore buying in Chile C. A. Grabill . . . . 327 

Unioader, automatic, description of 175 

Oregon, mining in 403 

Oronite enamel paint, uses of "53 

Roof paints and uses 585 

Osceola Consolidated Mining Co., company report 174 

Owens, J. T The value of conference. . . . 633 

Oxweld Acetylene Co. welding process described. ..... 425 

Oxy-acetylene welding L. M. Malcher. ... 53 

Welding manual, new book. . . .Lorn Campbell. ... 549 

Welding of large pump 425 

Pagan, W. D Price of gold. . . . 772 

Palladium in Alaska lode deposits. D. G. Campbell. ... 520 

Palmer, R. H Foundry practice, new book. ... 873 

Parable of shipwrecked mariners 301 

Patent appellate tribunal. . . .Wm. E. Greenawalt. . . . 709 

Controversies C. W. Mason. ... 144 

Legislation Editorial. ... 251 

Patents Editorial. . . . 108 

And progress Wm. E. Greenawalt. . . . 708 

Patterson, Theodore, murdered at Zacatecas, Mexico. . 208 

Peace Treaty Editorial .... 3 

Pearse, Arthur L Oil-shale industry. ... 109 

Peddle, John B. . . .Construction of graphic charts. ... 657 

Perkins, Walter G. .Blast-furnace v. reverberatory . ... 79 

Perpetuation of mining-company organizations 

Editorial. ... 495 

Persia, mineral wealth of 779 

Petroleum, new book Albert Lidgett. ... 583 

Phalen, W. C Magnesite industry in U. S. . . . 29 5 

Physical chemistry, a system of, new book 490 

Of the metals, new book. . . .Rudolph Schenck. ... 835 

Picard, H. F. K., flotation development. .Editorial. ... 106 

Ditto. . .Presidential address, Institution of Mining 

& Metallurgy 9 

Ditto The Crowe process. ... 257 

Pickering, J. C. . . .Cost keeping at small mines 86 

Pierce, A. R Sampling large low-grade 

orebodies 396, 558 

Pittman, Key Status of silver. ... 432 

Placer mining in Sonora 672 

Platinum at Grand Canyon John M. Boutwell. ... 14S 

Concentration in hydraulic mining 

K. C. Laylander 884 

In Colombia 716 

Supply from Colombia 90 

Policemen's strike at Boston Editorial. ... 3S8 

Portable air-compressor 837 

Power drag saw 317 

Porter. Chas. A. . . .The minerand protective tariff. ... 391 

Potash, American Editorial. . . . 180 

In Alsace-Lorraine 680, 804 

In United States Herbert H. Roe. . . . 195 

Power plant of Utah Copper Co. .Frank G. Janney. ... 472 

Practical mathematics for home study, new book 657 

Premier gold mine Chas. Bunting. ... 670 

Ditto Editorial .... 695 

President among the miners T. A. Rickard. . . . 435 

Press-men's strike in New York Editorial. ... 626 

Price, G. W Bedding ores at Cananea. ... 668. 

Price of gold W. D. Pagan.- .-. . 772 

Vol. lilt 



Prichard Creek, Idaho, reminiscences. .A. Aulbach. . . . 891 

Prinios Exploration Co.. flotation. Will II. Coghlll. ... 401 

Prober!. Frank H. .Ruin and destitution In France. . . . 115 

Production in New Mexico, 1918 226 

Of Colorado mines in 191S 235 

Of copper, 1913 to 19 IS B. S. Butler. . . . 129 

Of copper in Michigan 457, 612 

Of gold and silver in United States 858 

Of gold in Australia 264 

Of minerals in United States in 191S 530 

Records for Ontario 65 

Prohibition Editorial. ... 41 

Prospecting on Suan Concession 

A. R. Weigall and J. F. Mitchell-Roberts. . . . 599 

Protective tariff, the miner and. . .Chas. A. Porter. . . . 391 
Public Utilities Commission of Utah orders resumption 

of ore hauling 828 

Utility rate fixing, new book. . . .C. E. Grunsky. . . . S73 

Purington, Chester W. .Siberian mines and mining. . . . 335 

Saltchuek Mining Co., palladium at. 

. D, 

O, < ampbell 520 

Quantitative analysis by electrolysis. Alex. Classen. 

Quebec 20S, ! 

Question of boundaries Arthur J. Hoskin. 

Quicksilver industry E. M. Gleim. 

Ditto F. F. Sharpless . 

Production of 

Protection of Wm. Forstner. 

Tariff on E. M. Gleim . 

Ditto J. B. Hunley . 


Radium minerals, occurrence of 

Rand Divide Mining Co Editorial. 

Rand gold mining Editorial . 

Mines, future outlook of Editorial. 

Raymond, Dr., reminiscences of . . . .T. A. Rickard. 
Reavis, Charles F., Federal Department of Public 

Works Editorial . . 

Redwood Mfr. Co., pipe installation near Butte. . . . 

Reinforced concrete construction, principles of 

F. E. Turneaure and E. R. Maurer, new book. . 
Relation of regional deformations to ore in the p: 

Cambrian Ellsworth Y. Dougherty. . 

Reminiscences of Dr. Raymond T. A. Rickard. . 

Restriction of motor transportation. .R. E. Fulton. . 

Reverberatory as compared with blast-furnace 

Walter G. Perkins. . 

Furnace data at Calumet & Arizona 

Furnace roofs Samuel Fischer . . 

Roofs, life at Anaconda Oliver E. Jager. . 

V. blast-furnace in copper smelting 

E. P. Mathewson. . 
Rickard, T. A. . . .Reminiscences of Dr. Raymond. . 

Ditto Slovenliness in technical writing. . 

Ditto Technical writing: style. . 

Ditto The President among the miners. . 

Rideal, Eric K Industrial electro-metallurgy.. 

Rinearson, A. L Elm Orlu-Black Rock case. . 

Roasting at Afterthought mine A. H. Heller. . 

By H.-H. process at Cockle Creek, N. S. W 

W. J. Jackson . . 
Robbins, P. A English-speaking peoples. . 

Ditto Gold prices and war debts. . 

Ditto Status of gold . . 

Roberts, Hugh M. .Methods of mineral exploration. . 

Rochester Combined mill K. Freitag. . 

Roe, Herbert H American potash. . 

Rohn, Oscar Slag as structural material . . 

Romance in mining Editorial . . 

Rominco Mines Co., prospectus of Editorial. . 

Rousch, G. A. . . .The mineral industry, new book. . 

Russia — Mines and mining in Siberia 

Chester W. Purington. . 
Russian mine consolidation Editorial . . 


Safeguarding, fundamental principles of 

Sydney J. Williams 

St. John Del Rey mine Editorial 

St. Joseph Lead Co., company report 

Salaries of engineers W. F. Dietrich 

Ditto Hewitt O. Fearn 

Ditto Edward D. Lynton 

Sales of motor trucks due to car shortage 

Salmon River district ■ Editorial 














Baiting, detection of Morton Webber. . . . 673 

Sampling large low-grade orebodles. .A. R. Pierce 396, 

Santa Gertrudis, company report 30 

Saunders, T. Skewes Crowe vacuum process. . . . 6:;3 

Saying and doing p. B. McDonald. . . . 184 

Schenck, Rudolph. . .Physical chemistry of the metals, 

now book 835 

Scholarships by International Nickel Co. Editorial. .. . 623 

Searls, Fred. Jr Elm Orlu-Black Rock case. . . . 147 

Sharpless, F. F Quicksilver industry. . . . 259 

Shasta. California, metallurgy at. . .Herbert Lang. ... 47 

Shattuck Arizona Copper Co., company report 943 

Short cuts in mine surveying. .D. Waterman 749, 773, 885 

Siberia, conditions in Editorial. . . . 497 

Siberian mines and mining. .Chester W. Purington. . . . 335 

Silver Editorial.... 879 

Stalus of Edwin D. Wolfe. . . . 225 

Ditto Key Pittman. ... 432 

Simpson, W. E. . . .Molybdenum and molybdenum steel 894 

Sinai, copper of Editorial. ... 428 

Skip-changing device Lucien Eaton. . . . 433 

Device at Steward mine Oliver E. Jager. ... 187 

Slag, method of handling at Anaconda. O. E. Jager. . . . 118 

Structural material, at Butte 

Staff Correspondence. . . . 236 

Utilization of W. M. Barker. . . . 465 

Sleeman, H. R. . . .Mill-tests v. hand-sampling. . . .143, 701 

Smelter fume problem at Kennett. . .Herbert Lang. ... 397 

Treatment charges at Trail, B. C 134 

Smelting flue-dust and fine ore. . . . .W. M. Barker. . . . 226 

Iron ores Dwight E. Woodbridge. . . . 913 

Zinky lead ores Edgar Hall. . . . 699 ■ 

Smith, Frank M Editorial. . . . 695 

Smith, George Otis. . .The duty of the mining industry 782 

Ditto The strategy of minerals, new book. . . . 874 

Smith, Reuben E., obituary 728 

Smoker at A. I. M. & M. E. Chicago meeting 

Special Correspondence. . . . 523 

Smuggler Union Mining Co., fire at property 7 54 

South America, disagreeable features of 

'Mining Engineer'. ... 361 

Spencer, J. F. . . .Metals of rare earths, new book. . . . 490 

Spurr, J. E., war minerals relief Editorial. . . . 322 

Ditto War minerals relief scandal. ... 323 

Square Deal Mining Co., apex suit. . .R. T. Walker. . . . 263 

Stadia surveys, methods of. . . .Douglas Waterman. ... 774 

Stage flotation Will H. Coghill. . . . 404 

Ditto Ernest Gayford. . . . 555 

Stair-tread, safe design of 90 

Sta'e compensation insurance C. W. Fellows. . . . 881 

Insurance Geo. E. McClelland .... 772 

Insurance: an experiment Editorial. ... 697 

State Mines Development Association in Colorado 97 

Status of gold P. A. Robbins. ... 144 

Ditto Edward S. Van Dyck. . . . 359 

Of silver Key Pittman. . . . 432 

Ditto Edwin D. Wolfe. . . . 225 

Staunton, W. F Concerning strikes. . . . 700 

Steam engine troubles, new book. . . .H. Hamkens. ... 549 

Turbines, new book J. A. Moyer. ... 657 

Steel industry on Pacific Coast R. C. Gosrow. . . . 702 

On Pacific Coast F. H. Mason. . . . 803 

462, 734 

Strike Editorial . 

Step-bearing for Wedge furnace at Anaconda 

Staff Correspondence. . . . 
Stevens, Blarney Capital and labor. . . . 

Ditto Chloride volatilization. . . . 45, 

Ditto Flotation in stages .... 

Ditto Mexican problem .... 

Ditto A stable government for Mexico. . . . 

Steward mine, skip-changing device . . . O. E. Jager .... 
Strategy of minerals, new book. . .Geo. Otis Smith. . . . 
Strength of materials, new book. . .J. P. Kottcamp. . . . 

Strike at Tonopah Editorial .... 

Strikes Editorial .... 

And Mr. Gompers Editorial .... 

Concerning W. F. Staunton. . . . 

Suan Concession, technical operations on 

A. R. Weigall and J. F. Mitchell-Roberts. . . . 
509, 599, 805, 843 
Sullivan Machinery Co., Is your steel too long? 250 

'Wafer' compressor valves 74 

Sulman, H. L. Editorial. . . . 106 

And flotation Editorial. . . . 840 

Ditto Theodore J. Hoover. ... 913 




Vol. 119 


Sulman & Picard v. Wolf Decision o£ Court. ... 87 

Sulphide Corporation smelting plant at Cockle Creek. . 

Guy Courtney. . . . 303 

Sulphuric acid, Germany's supply of 86 

Sure deal, a primitive Louis T. Grant. ... 5 

Superior Copper Co., company report 174 

'Survey of Cornwall', a review J. C. Murray. . . . 339 

Surveying instruments, adjustment of. . . D. Waterman 752 

Suspension of assessment work, joint resolution 278 

Sweeny mill at Kellogg, treatment at.R. S. Handy. . . . 289 

Style in technical writing T. A. Rickard. . . . 401 

Tailing disposal at Utah Copper mills 

R. C. Gemmell. . . . 

Treatment at Sweeny mill R. S. Handy. . . . 

Tanks and their invention Editorial .... 

Tariff protection for metals Arthur B. Poote. . . . 

On quicksilver E. M. Gleim .... 

Ditto J. B. Hunley. . . . 

Taxation of mines Editorial. . . . 

Taylor, G. Cleveland . . Metallurgical journey to Shasta 

Technical operations on the Suan Concession, Korea. . . 

A. R. Weigall and J. P. Mitchell-Roberts .... 

509, 599, 805, 843, 

Writing Clarence K. Colvin .... 

Writing: slovenliness T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Writing: style T. A. Rickard .... 

Techno-chemical receipt book, new book 

Wra. T. Brannt and Wm. H. Wahl. . . . 

Tellurides, first discovery in Colorado 

W. C. Wynkoop .... 
Tennessee Copper & Chemical Cor., company report. . . 

Thomson, Herbert G., obituary 

Three R mine, sale of 

Tin mining in Malaya during 1918 

Production in Malay States 

Production in New South Wales 

Production in Tasmania 

T.N.T. for blasting. C. E. Munroe and S. P. Howell. . . . 

To young engineers Editorial. . . . 

Toll. R. H Editorial .... 

Ditto A job for Hoover .... 

Tomboy mine, murders at 

Tonnage lost by submarine attack Editorial. . . . 

Tonopah, strike at Editorial. . . . 

Tovote, William, obituary 

Trail smelter, treatment charges at 

Trailers for auto-trucks, tax free 

Traylor gyratory, description of 

Treaty and the Covenant Editorial .... 

Ditto Herbert Hoover. . . . 

And the Senate Editorial .... 

What shall we do with it? Editorial. . . . 

Trinks, W Governors and the governing of prime 

movers, new book 

Tube-mill operations at Suan mill 

A. R. Weigall and J. F. Mitchell-Roberts. . . . 

Tule Canyon, Nevada Editorial. . . . 

Tungsten ores, treatment at Suan mill 

A. R. Weigall and J. F. Mitchell-Roberts. . . . 

In Peru 

In Portugal 

Refining by Fansteel Co 

Uses and minerals of D. C. Livingston. . . . 

Turneaure, F. E Principles of reinforced concrete 

construction, new book 

Turner, P. M. .. .Condensed chemical dictionary, new 


Underground surveying Douglas Waterman. . . . 

Underhill, Henry B., Jr., obituary 422, 

Unions for policemen Editorial. . . . 

United Eastern Mining Co., company report 58, 

United Verde Copper Co , 

United Verde Extension Copper Co., purchase of claim 

Upper Mississippi zinc district 

Uren, Lester C. . .Conventional symbols for mine maps 
U. S. Geological Survey reduced quarters. Editorial. . . . 
Utah Copper Co., company report 313, 

Dividends to date 

Employees committee 

Engineering features R. C. Gemmell. . . . 

Power plant, foundry, etc. . . .Frank G. Janney. . . . 
Utah mining during 1919 V. C. Heikes. . . . 







55 2 










Valuation of Arizona mines 167 

Van Dyck, Edw. S The status of gold 359 

Van Klooster, Jjtenry S Lecture demonstrations in 

physical chemistry, new book 583 

Ventilation of world's deepest mine 896 

Vindicator company, new orebodies at 64 

Volatilization process with chlorides. .Stuart Croasdale 183 

Ditto Blarney Stevens .... 45 

von Wiegand, Karl Editorial .... 180 


'Wafer' compressor valves, Sullivan Machinery Co. . . . 74 

Wage agreement with Silverton unions 653 

Agreement for Tonopah and Divide miners 761 

Increase for Utah coal miners 862 

Scale at Butte 210 

Scale for miners in Utah 169 

Wahl, Wm. H . Techno-chemical receipt book, new book 657 

Walker, R. T An unusual apex case. . . . 262 

Wall Street and speculation Editorial. . . . 218 

Walls, bins and grain elevators, new book 

Milo S. Ketchum. ... 583 
Wang, Chung Yu . . .Antimony: chemistry, metallurgy, 

and uses, new book 835 

War Industries Board Editorial. ... 142 

War Minerals Relief Editorial. . . .76, 142, 877 

Ditto W. J. Loring. . . . 363 

Ditto F. H. Mitchell 771 

Ditto Dwight E. Woodbridge. . . . 259 

War Minerals Relief Scandal Editorial. . . . 219, 322 

Ditto P. B. McDonald. . . . 501 

Ditto J. E. Spurr. . . . 323 

Wasapika gold area in Ontario. .Reginald E. Hore. . . . 595 

Washington and entangling alliances. . . .Editorial. ... 355 

Mining during 1919 ... 471 

Washington Gold Quartz Mining Co., general description 308 
Washington 'Herald', purchase by Herbert Hoover and 

others Editorial. . . . 839 

Waterman, Douglas Short cuts in mine 

surveying 749, 773, 885 

Webber, Morton Detection of salting. . . . 673 

Ditto Mill-tests v. hand-sampling. . . . 143, 701 

Ditto Sampling low-grade orebodies. ... 396 

Weeks, Walter S A drill-round model. . . . 348 

Weigall, A. R., and J. F. Mitchell Roberts. . .Technical 

operations on the Suan Concession 

509, 599, 805, 843, 915 

Wellman geared bucket, description 550 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. automatic unloader 175 

Description of geared bucket 550 

Wells, H. L. .Chemical calculation tables, new book. . . 549 
Westinghouse equipment at Georgia School of Tech- 
nology 386 

Westinghouse Mfg. Co., home building for employees. . 386 

Westinghouse turbines in Far East 73 2 

What shall we do with the Treaty? Editorial. ... 589 

White, Lloyd C The Hornet crushing plant. ... 639 

Dirto. . .No. 1 concentrator of Mountain Copper Co. 331 

White Pine Copper Co., company report 174 

Who said thrift? Editorial. . . . 880 

Wilkens, Henry A. J., obituary 458, 620 

Williams, E. A., Jr. .Systematize motor-truck lines. . . . 693 

Wilson, Frank L. . .Methods at Afterthought mine. . . . 147 

Wisconsin zinc production for November 864 

Wolfe. Edwin D Status of silver. . . . 225 

Woodbridge, Dwight E Smelting iron ores. . . . 913 

Ditto War Minerals Relief. . . . 259 

'World', New York Editorial. . . . 552 

Wynkoop, W. C How tellurides were first found 

in Colorado 594 

Yale, C. G Mining in California during 1919. .. . 342 

Yates, Raymond F Model making, new book. ... 583 


Zinc district of Upper Mississippi, description 574 

Electrostatic separation of zinc ores 117 

Industry, future in Belgium 3 72 

Lead production in Wisconsin 723 

Metallurgy Hugh K. Picard. ... 10 

Metallurgy at Cuba City, Wisconsin 345 

Metallurgy in Wisconsin 575 

Situation in August 378 

Edited by T. A. RICKARD 

Volume 111) 
Number I 



15 Cents per Cop? 
$4 per Year 

Ask Collins & Webb 

Whatever your needs we can fill 

"Collins & Webb Service" for 
mines is complete, comprehensive, 
efficient and prompt. 

Our stock includes mining, mill- 
ing and metallurgical equipment 
from complete plants to the smallest 

What do you need? 
Ask Collins & Webb 

Here are a few items : 












Two warehouses with direct rail and water connections give 
exceptional facilities for quick shipment 



412 East Third Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 


Entered at the San Francisco post-office 
as second-class matter 

Advertisers' Index, Page 68 
Bayers' Guide, Page 60 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

CABLE ADDRESS Halharding— New York 



Hardinge Mills 


Nevada Consolidated 

The actual running time was 11 months, or to be exact — 

7973% hrs. 

w ithout rclining 

(349.8 tons per day) 

CAST IRON LINING CONSUMPTION— approximating 2 oz. per ton 
" STEEL " " " % oz. " " 

" IRON BALL " " l£lbs. " " 

The above figures are from an analysis of the paper by Mr. George C. Riser, Supt. 
Nevada Consolidated Concentrator, read before a meeting of the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers. 

We will be pleased to send you a copy of the paper upon request. It contains details 
of ! crushing — unbiased — technical and non-commercial. 

Also write for complete data on ball- 
milling practice in other large plants. 



120 Broadway 

First National Bank Bldg 


Newhouse Bldg. 

Salisbury House 





•Inly 5, 191!) 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 









& M c CONE «* 

139-149 Townsend St. 225 So. San Pedro St. 


Phone Kearny 2240 Phone Home 10772— Bell 471 

Cable Address, "AIRDRILL," San Francisco 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

- --n J cW'Tr. .. 

3^ Lrjr 1 Cl^ 


While designed for use in mines, 
many other industries have discovered 
how convenient and practical the LE AD- 
VILLE is. 

It is so adaptable that anything 
within the limits of its capacity, can be 
hoisted, moved or hauled. 

Here it is shown lifting heavy timbers at the 
Nyack yards of the International Shipyards, Inc. 

In Mines, Mills, Factories, Shipyards and 
large building operations, the LEADVILLE has 
proven its value in a wide range of work. 

Compact and light in weight, it can be readily 
transported and quickly installed. Attaches to 
any size drill column or to timbers. 

Uses Compressed Air or Steam. 

Has Reversible Motor and Powerful Brake. 






Model B 

700 lbs. 

190 lbs. 

500 ft. % inch cable. 

Model 5 

1200 lbs. 

360 lbs. 

550 ft. % inch cable. 

■km a t a c ) { 260 feet, % inch rope, or 

Model 6 for I UQ0 lbs 396 , bs 1 m f % mch Qf 

Hemp Rope J | 62Q ^ ^ inch fope 

Let us send you full information concerning the LEADVILLE. 



m®mm % wmurmmF 

MAEsrw&OTmm© mm ^ujipipil^ ©a 

SSSfCE 1361 



July 5, tillit 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



is an essential part of every milling plant 

Thousands of satisfied users testify to the superiority of Ludlow-Saylor 'PERFECT' douhle 
crimped wire cloth for mill screening of all kinds. Its long life under hard usage — its 
lasting rigidity and firmness and the uniformity of product delivered make it the ideal 
screen for any mill. Re-orders are invariably the case once 'PERFECT' screens are used. 

It's the Double Crimp that counts 

The wires are not bent but crimped — they curve gradually and gracefully over and under 
the intersecting wires without any sharp angles. 

Every wire is kept firmly in place — no shifting to cause wear and unevenness. 

All strain is equally distributed, every wire being a flat arch, the crimps forming the 

Every particle of ore passes through as soon as it has attained the required fineness. 
The reject is free from fine particles. 

Let your next replacement be 'PERFECT'. 

Write today for the Ludlow-Saylor 'PERFECT' screen book. 

It contains valuable information for all users of screens — data com- 
piled from many years experience. 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Company 

General Offices and Factory: ST. LOUIS, MO. 

20 East Jackson St., 


Mills Bldg., 

Felt Bldg., 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

July 5, 1!>1!> 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

...ll>HH""""IHll...... ; 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

l t; -:L . 


Do you buy rope by the pound 
or belt by the inch? 

In any shop the prime mover is either a rope or belt drive. 

When a Dodge rope drive can be used, the service is 
more nearly continuous and the upkeep cost lower. 

The belt itself constitutes the larger portion of the cost 
of a belt drive; while in the case of a rope drive the rope 
is the least expensive part of the installation. 

In either case the belt or the rope is the wearing part. 

The economy of buying Blue Strand Manila rope by the 
pound against replacing belt of excessive width is immedi- 
ately apparent — and the rope delivers more nearly 100% 
of the engine power than does the belt. 

Complete freedom from tightening and lacing heavy 
belts with the attendant shutdown to production is another 
big argument in favor of a Dodge rope drive as a prime 

There are other points of superiority shown in our book 
"25 Years of Rope Driving". Send for a copy and see for 
yourself the application of Dodge rope drives to each industry 
according to the particular requirements of that industry. It 
is free to the engi n ee r or master mechanic of any indus- 
trial plant. 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Company /J^. .( 

Distributorof the Products of the Dodge Mfg.Company 
General Offices: Miihawaka, lad. Works: Mishawaka and Oneida, N. Y. 

Dodge Branch Warehouies 

Chicago New York Philadelphia Boston Cincinnati Pittsburgh St. Louis 

Minneapolis Atlanta Newark, N. J. Providence, R. I. Seattle Dallas 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

To overcome the high cost of man 
power by strict economy in the use 
of mechanical power should be the 
aim of all engineers at this time. 




have reached the highest stage of develop- 
ment yet attained in any crushing equip- 
ment in the economical use of mechanical 
power per ton of materi 1 crushed. 

"Bulldog" Gyratories have a shaft that is 
much shorter and 100% stronger than 
standard Gyratory shafts — an eccentric 
that is both ionger and of greater diameter 
than others and a positive forced feed 
lubricating system. 

"Bulldog" Jaw Crushers have the strongest 
and lightest pitman of any Jaw Crusher 
in the world — the only frictionless toggle 
system and a simple and positive method of 

All patented features that make for as great 
and lasting economies in Jaw and Gyratory 
Crushing as the thoroughly tried and 
proven "Fleeting Roll" in Traylor Heavy 
Duty Crushing Rolls has brought about 
in roll crushing, economies so well known 
and so essential that Traylor Crushing 
Rolls have become the world standard. 

Bulletins P J-2 and PJX-1— Jaw Crushers 

Bulletins PG-4 and PGX-1— Gyratory Crush- 

Bulletins P R-2 — Crushing Rolls 

are fully descriptive of Traylor money-saving 
crushing equipment. 

Write the nearest Traylor man for them — now. 

Traylor Engineering & Mfg. Co. 
Allentown, Penna. 

New York, 30 Church St. Chicago, Fisher BIdg. 
1.08 Angeles, Citizens Bank Bids. Spokane, Mohawk Bile 


MINING and Scientific FRESS 

July 5, 1919 




Worthington Wotks 


Blake 8C Knowles Works 

East Cambridge, Mats. 

Dearie Works 

Holyoke, Mats. 

Hazleton Works 

Hazleton, Pa, 

July •">. 1!»l!l 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


when they shaved 
Worthington helped 

SHOES shined and faces shaved" — if any one 
phrase from the orders of the day will be re- 
membered, that is it. 

With the American soldier the morning shave was 
a habit, even under fire, so Worthington's part in 
making razor blades at once assumes a peculiar 

And while Worthington compressors and vacuum 
pumps in South Boston were helping to make razor 
blades, other Worthington equipment was playing 
its part in factories making soap, steel mirrors, 
brushes, and indeed practically everything that went 
into the recruit kit. 

It is significant of Worthington's ability to meet 
emergencies that, although the eight Worthington 
factories were all delivering unprecedented quantities 
of war materials, it was still possible for them to 
supply the wants of those industries essential to 
everyday life. 


Executive Offices: 115 Broadway, New York City 

Branch Offices in 24 Large Cities 





Snow-Holly Works 

'Buffalo. N. Y. 

Laidlaw Works 

Cincinnati. Ohio 

Power 8C Mining Works 

Cudahy, Wis. 

Gas Engine Works 

Cudahy, Wis. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 



You are insured against mine flooding when you pump your 
sumps with Camerons. These pumps require little attention, less 
care and no rest. 

The passage of time has no effect upon Cameron Pumps, and 
you do not have to worry about them. 

Put Camerons to work and your pumping problem is solved. 

In addition to Cameron Direct Acting Pumps, the company 
manufactures an extensive range of Centrifugal Pumps. 

7204 Cameron Steam Pumps. 
7152, 7251, 7150, Cameron Centrifugal Pumps. 

A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works 

11 Broadway, New York 

Offices the World Over 

July .">. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


The Hand That Rocks the Cradle 
Runs the "JACKHAMER" 

The illustration furnishes still another proof of the ease with 
which "Jackhamers" can be operated. Aside from the "Jack- 
hamer's" light weight, it is free from complicated mechanism, 
easy to control and so well proportioned and designed that a 
woman can run it without drain upon her strength. 

"Jackhamers" are portable rock drills which lose £ no time, waste 
no power, cost little to maintain and concentrate their entire 
mechanism upon the business of drilling rock speedily and effi- 

Bulletin 4321, descriptive of dry and wet 
"Jackhamers" will be sent you upon request. 


































MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 


(EitablUhcd 1906) ^M 

J. M. CALLOW, President ^ 


U. S. A. B 

120 Broadway, New York 336 Spark* Street, Ottawa ^= 


Our ore testing laboratory is one of the most completely equipped 
in the world, and is not only equipped with all modern ore treatment 
devices, but is practical in its design and arrangement. 

The present metal market conditions, calling for decreased pro- 
duction, are of course only temporary. These conditions offer special 
incentives for preparing for improvement in ore treatment methods 
in existing plants, and the determining of correct processes for mines 
not yet equipped with treatment plants, so that full advantage may 
be taken when the prosperous times that are ahead for the mining 
fraternity have materialized. 

We shall be glad of the opportunity to consult with you on these 

Our offices and plant are located in our own building near the 
center of the business district. We cordially invite visiting metal- 
lurgists and engineers to call on us when in the city. 

Amongst the many samples we received last month was one ship- 
ment from Australia and one from India. 

Ask for the Fourth Edition of our Ore Testing Bulletin 

July 5, I'M!) 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




pan the gold into the quick or onto the amalgamating plates. 

They save the very coarse and 
the very fine goid, and the 
rusty gold. 

Every inch in the surface of the 
amalgamating plates covering the 
deck moves 40 feet per minute. 
Every particle of pulp requires about 
3 minutes to travel from the amal- 
gam bowl to the tailings launder, 

across the amalgamating surface. H 

The plates of one machine are therefore equivalent to 120 lineal feet of stationary || 

plates, but they are more efficient than any amount of stationary plates, because ee= 

the panning motion keeps the pulp loose and settles all the gold into the amalgam. ^3 

Senn ( 

Concentrators | 

pan the finest as well as the ( 

coarse concentrates onto a ■ 

moving belt that with- | 

draws them from beneath g 

the suspended gangue. §1 

The continuous panning motion of the Senn keeps the barren | 
gangue suspended and loose in a thick pulp. The thick, slow g 
moving pulp avoids mashing away the very fine values. = 

One Senn Concentrator B Takes the Place of Four Ordinary Vanners. | 


Senn Concentrator Company | 

1215 F> First National Bank Building = 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

VV \ T K II I: l li \ A K..M '.' i: I ■ I' i: " I 1 I' 


ropjf wearing In a 


'"-*-■ •" the 

. »f the sheavjj^ 

or 'In: 

A T V. |{ I! I R V \ I! M RHP ROC K 


do nut project, hill 
arc push 

( ,f (lie mix", thus _ water wearing 

than is ordinarilj obtained. 

N'.ilc in the illustration tlial (hi 

the axis of ro| 

he same do no! affect its ttexihilitjj 

initial factor of safely is maintained 

in Waterbury Armored Wire Rop« 

Patent), than in any other construe 

: . : ■■■. i P 

- equipped ivitli VVatcrblirj \nnored Uopi' 

Phi •' ran : intended to take all 
ns to which the ruin' is ordi i 

I he flat wire covering is 
purpose of protecting the 
es from abrasii 

■ strands in retain- 
il' lubrication. 

the lack of in- 

tlie strands them- 

is impossible for 

,vhieh is the fail- 

You couldn't ask for better proof 

Put a Waterbury Armored Rope into service alongside ordi- 
nary bare wire rope, and about the second time the bare rope 
has to be replaced — while the original armored rope is still 
doing duty — you'll realize the difference that protecting flat 
wire armor makes. The harder the service, the quicker the 
economy in a "Waterbury Armored Rope shows. 

Waterbury Armored Rope (Gore Patent) is a wire rope with 
each strand served with flat wire, which protects the strands 
of the rope from abrasion and aids in retaining the internal 
lubrication. (The details of this construction and of other 
kinds of ropes, you'll find in the Waterbury Rope Handbook.* 
It tells all there is to know about rope — illustrations, diagrams, 
tables, statistics and all that.) 

In service where bare rope is usually short-lived, Waterbury 
Armored Rope shows most convincingly the value of this 
patented design and the quality that is in every Waterbury 



CHICAGO— 1315-1321 West Congress St. 
SAN FRANCISCO— 151-161 Main St. 

' DALLAS, TEX.— A. T. Powell & Co. 
NEW ORLEANS— 1018 Maison Blanche Bldg. 

*The Waterbury Rope Handbook 
Is a 220-page cloth bound book of 
convenient size for ready refer- 
ence. It contains comprehensive 
data on rope that will be found 
most valuable by every user, buyer 
or shipper of rope. A copy will be 
sent free upon request. 

■A^gP> ; 

July 5, 1911) 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 









AGA1K- — 

'ff(j'< u ^^ ( (((((pj^rff 





MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

Built to Stand the Vibration 
of Geared Service 

The severity of operating requirements for ball mill 
drives only accentuates the qualities of ruggedness in 
Westinghouse CW Motors, and testifies to the 
characteristic Westinghouse thoroughness in design 
and construction which takes into account every possi- 
bility of actual[service. 

Westinghouse CW Motors 

are simply, but very ruggedly con- 
structed. They will operate con- 
tinously with very little attention 
and they possess that high starting 
torque and high efficiency essential 
to ball mill service. 


East Pittsburgh, Pa. I 


July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Pneumatic Tools 
Electric Drills 

Air Compressors 
Oil, Gas and 
Steam Engines 

Vacuum Pumps 
Rock Drills 


Depend upon that name* 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 


Uniflow Poppet Valve Engines 

BUILT FROM 200 TO 2000 H. P. 

any available Steam Pressure 
p any available Superheat 
any available Vacuum 
any available Back Pressure 

Under any of the above conditions these engines will operate with 
lower steam consumption per horsepower, over wider variations of 
loads, than any steam prime mover thus far developed. 

If considering additional power write or call upon us. 

Nordberg Manufacturing Co. 



July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Wilfley Concentrating Tables at The Rare Metals Ore Co., Rollinsville, Colo. 

Wilfley "Straight-Line" 
It "Gets There" 

The exact character of the riffling on the Wilfley Concentrating 
Table, which produces such uniformly satisfactory results, .can be 
seen in the above illustration. 

The riffles are constructed on a true table throughout, the lowest 
point of which is at the diagonal line, where the riffles come to a 
feather edge. The highest point of the riffled field is at the head of 
the shortest riffle next to the feed box. 

The purpose of riffling the field as illustrated is to give necessary 
holding, conveying and directing force to the material under treat- 
ment, so that the mechanical action of the head motion together with 
the cross flow of wash waters may harness the line of separation 
along the diagonal tips of the riffles. 

Higher extraction has been the reason for the installation of the 
22,000 Wilfleys. now in use. 

Where floor space is limited, Wilfleys can be set close together 
and still be accessible at all points. There are no angles to take up 
valuable room. 

Mechanical refinements from time to time give constantly increas- 
ing capacity, economy and long life to these famous concentrators. 

There is a Wilfley for all kinds of work and all grades of ore. 
Bulletins on request. 

The Mine & Smelter Supply Company 

A Service Station within reach of you 


New York Office: 42 Broadway 

Hi llllllllllllllll I! I Ill ililllliillillilllllillllllilH 111' 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

'iih. Ill"' : MM; 'ili ■- ::M' ::■ !: -i^ Mil: Mllli IMM ; i|!l: :i!ll!: M; 

July 5i 1919 

Tanks Adapted for Mining 

== "National" Settling- or Agitating Tank. 

Our Portland factory is located in 
the heart of the great Douglas fir 
forests where the best of tank woods 
is always on hand. We also make 
tanks from California Redwood. 
Our tanks are manufactured by our 
own process and are guaranteed to 
give the most satisfactory wear. 

We furnish stand- 
ard cyanide plants 
manufactured from 
either flr or redwood 
lumber. Careful at- 
tention given to 
special installations. 
Ask for informa- 

The Iron Dike Mill where ""National" tanks are used in helping to keep up a daily capacity of 150 tons. =-_ 

We make all kinds and sizes of wood tanks. Tanks up to 10,000 gallon capacity are kept in 
stock ready to be shipped by either water or rail on a few hours' notice. "National" tanks 
have been used in all kinds of mines and have stood up well under the hardest kind of service. 
U. S. Government has used carload after carload. You will be pleased with them. Get our 
prices, and specifications. 



IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII I I M .11 ^ iM "l' !M. M; m -j : . -!'■;! i, i- ! , ! . i : , Illlllillllllllilllllli 

July :.. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



ft \^m ' G ■'■ ** i £ * J* m \ 

tjB - -'~ IV^A/^V i^^^^^^ ^^ ^j* 

our new BULLETIN No. 12A explains the 



In addition you will find many., pages of useful in- 
formation on filtration problems in general. Ex- 
perience of the past few years has developed 
many new ideas and innumerable uses for the 
Oliver Filter. 

You should have this Bulletin on your desk 
for ready reference. 

A post card will bring you a copy. 
Write Today for Bulletin 12 A 


501 Market St. 
San Francisco 

299 Madison Ave., 
New York 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 










is the invention of Mr. S. J. Nordstrom, a mechanical engineer, for many years engaged 
in the design, construction and operation of cyanide plants. In the course of this work, 
Mr. Nordstrom was impressed with the obvioiis defects of standard plug cocks and gate 
valves for handling cyanide solutions and slimes. His Lubricated Plug valve was con- 
ceived to remedy these defects. 




The basic principle of the Nordstrom patent 
is the combination in a plug valve of lubri- 
cant conduits and a lubricant chamber at 
the base of the plug so positioned that 
when pressure is applied to the lubrication 
screw this pressure operates to lift the plug 
from its seat and to distribute the lubricant 
over the bearing surfaces. 

The Plug Valve has been in use in the 
mining camps of Mexico — particularly in 
Pachuca and El Oro for over three years. 
In several plants it has been adopted as 
standard equipment to the exclusion not 
only of ordinary plug cocks but of gate 
valves as well, for handling cyanide solu- 
tions, slimes, water and air. 

You'll want to adopt the Nordstrom, too. Send us 
a trial order and use it in place of that troublesome 
valve which always sticks. 

Illustrated catalog sent on request. 





121 Second St, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 


Bedford McNeill 

(either edition) 
Moreing & NeM 
Western Union 

July 5. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



In some of the largest plants in the world Gyratories and Coarse Rolls 
(used as secondary crushers) are being replaced by 


Vertical Disc Crushers 

Large Modern Plants Are Installing Symons Vertical Disc 
Crushers Following Primary Breakers 

1st —They take the same 
size of feed, 

2nd-They crush to y 2 " 
instead of 1 j4 ", 

3rd— One Disc Crusher 
equals 2 No. 5 Gyra- 

4th— They require less 
power to operate, 

5th— They require mini- 
mum floor space. 

Write For Further Details 



1405 ARNOLD ST. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5. 1919 


_J§B^3nBSfiJS/3fi ^^' 

The Jordan Spreader 'eveling waste material excavated in 
stripping operations by OJver Iron Mining Co. 



Eliminafes gang labor 
and is saring thousands 
of dollars /or many pro- 
gressive mine, mill and 
smelter operators. 





The Jordan Spreader displaces 2,500 men at a saving of $7,844 a day. By 
handling 25,000 cu. yards of material a day at a cost of $116, it has proven 
indispensable to numerous mine and smelter operators. 

If you have one hour of work a week for the Jordan — disposal of over- 
burden, tailings, slag, construction of stock piles, railway work, snow 
removal, ditching and numerous other purposes — the Jordan will soon pay 
for itself. 

Jordan Spreaders are built of the very best materials. Many, after 15 years 
of continuous operation, are still on the job and rendering the same efficient 
service as when new. 

Send for details as to 
operation and perfor- 
mance and let us tell 
you just what the Jor- 
dan will do on your 
parlicular work. 






Another Spreader on the Oliver Iron Mining Co. work, the material 
handled is excavated by the largest shovels ever built. 

•li'l.v •"•• WIS MINING and Scientific PRESS 

HMMMMn i Hin iii n i di i Nnn i i ll l lll lll l lMlMllliininuiiiiiiii i n ii M ii n i i iiii i i i i iini iii u ii ni i iiini i i i M i iniiiiuiuMi ii i iii nui i ii ii n ii n i nn m^ 



fee/pre s entative ■gnstaJJation^ 

inn iiiiiiiiiiii tin mil tiiiitnitiiiunui tut nun 

TIPPLE which dumps four twelve- ton 
gondola cars at one time, making one complete 
revolution in 20 seconds. 

Tipple is shown just 
beginning to turn 
over with four loaded 
ore cars. 



.■; ■mini iimMiiinmciiiun nii iii nn i if i um minimii umininn nil I m 1 1 [ I nnn m n iimnn umm mum iminm i nm mmnm mu l l 


miiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini iiiniiiiii niiiiiiiiiiiiin iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 





A Few of the Large 

Users of Marathon 


Phelps Dodge Corporation 

American Smelting & Re- 
fining Co. 

National Lead Co. 

St. Joieph Lead Co. 

Old Dominion Copper Min- 
ing & Smelting Co. 

Burro Mountain Copper Co. 

Detroit Copper Mining Co. 

Banker Hill Mines Co. 

Federal Lead Co. 

St. Lonii Smelting & Refin- 
ing Works 

Doe Ran Lead Co. 

Mitsubishi Co., Japan 

Egyptian Phoipate Co., 

THE MARATHON MILL (Trunnion Type) 

A few reasons for Marathon superiority as reported in a paper presented 
before the American Institute of Mining Engineers by an independent in- 
vestigator of the largest American Mining Companies : 

CRUSHING PRINCIPLE of the Marathon is by line contact absolutely con- 
fining the ore. In the ball mill point contacts prevent any confinement. 

GREATER CRUSHING WEIGHT accounts partly for larger capacity, as 
Marathon round grinding bars weigh fifty per cent more than balls. 

HORSE-POWER OF MARATHON only one-quarter to one-third as much as 
ball mills of same capacity, as rods enable a grinding drum with smaller 
diameter and greater length than the ball mill principle permits. 

PRODUCT FROM THE MARATHON is practically uniform for whatever de- 
sired mesh adjusted, while the ball mill discharge contains much larger over- 
size and an excess of finer than desired. 

CAPACITY OF MARATHON per horse-power exceeded ball mills from two 
to four times in competitive tests. 

WEAR OF GRINDING PARTS is about one-quarter pound or four ounces 
of steel per ton of ore ground. 

Copies of this very complete report by Mr. A. P. Watt, a well known 
Mining Engineer of New York, will be sent free upon request ; also data as 
to competitive grinding results accomplished by some of our other customers. 

A number of the new improved Trunnion type of Marathon Mills have been in con- 
tinuous operation the past two years with great success. 


(Successor to Johnson Engineering Works) 



Foreign Representatives: 

L. J. Healing & Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan 
Reunert & Lentz, Ltd., Johannesburg, 5. A. 

Cable Address: Marathon, Chicago 
All Codes Used 







July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Two-Thirds of the way 
around the World 






io ike 





—are used because of marked superiority of manufacture and 
highest quality of material, resulting in highest efficiency in use. 

Write for Catalogue and 

Quotations on YOUR 





for Durability'' 

"REMCO tor 
Mechanical Perfection' 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 


To meet any condition of capacity or head. 
Self-contained, provided with extra large water- 
cooled thrust bearing, driving shaft being car- 
ried through this bearing, and connected by a 
solid coupling to a motor, so that thrust of 
rotor is also taken up. 

Pump is multi-stage, with solid or split casing 
as preferred. Ball-bearing motor with spatter- 
proof hood. Submit your problems to our 
engineering department. 

Ask for catalogue No. 71. 


ADAMANTSeEMENT welds Fire Brick together 

It should be used in laying up all Fire Bricks. They become as one solid 
mass which expands and contracts as a unit. There can be no loosening 
of the bricks due to the crumbling away of the fire clay under heat. 

General furnace efficiency 
bricks are absolutely tight 
arid there is no chance 
for the infiltration of cold 
air due to loose joints. 

Packed in air-tight containers, and will keep indefinitely without 
hardening. Sold in 100 and 250-lb. cans and 400-lb. drums. 

Large stock on hand — 
immediate shipments. 



Utah Dept. , Salt Lake City New York Office, 50 Church St. 

is increased because the 

Complete Laboratory Equipment. 

Metallurgical Clay Goods, Fumacet, Oil Burners 

Letter from the Baltimore Malle- 
able Iron & Steel Casting Co., 
Baltimore, Md. 


Baltimore, Md.. U. S. A. 

We have tried your Fire 
Brick Cement and it has 
given us excellent results 
on our Melting Furnace; in 
fact, the seam where we 
have cemented bricks to- 
gether lasts longer than the 
brick itself. 

Yours very truly, 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 


- ' m -' 



2—10x10 SULLIVAN BELT 213 FT. 
1—12x10 SULLIVAN BELT 307 FT. 
1— 8x10 SULLIVAN BELT 150 FT. 
1—16x10x16 W. H. 2 BELT 500 FT. 




2—9x10 ALDRICH 400 GAL. 192' HEAD 

1— 6x 8 GOULD 125 GAL. 475' HEAD 





2—5 HP. FULTON 800 LB. AT 200' ELEC- 









All Equipment Thoroughly Overhauled and Tested. 
Guaranteed 95% Efficient. 

In Addition to Grinding Valves, Refitting, Pins, Etc. We Install 


On Principal Points As An Extra Precaution To Insure Efficient Service. 

We Quote From Stock. Immediate Delivery. 





MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 





Advantages Worth Considering: 


















Matter, Prices and Delivery 






General Sales Offices : Frick Building 


Atlanta Boston Chicago Denver Detroit New Orleans New York Salt I.ake City Philadelphia Pittsburgh SL Louis St. Paul 

PACIFIC COAST REPRESBNTATIVF.S : U. S. Steel Products Co. San Francisco Los Angeles Portland Seattle 

EXPORT REPRESENTATIVES : U. S. Steel Products Co. New York City 

July ■">. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




TROUGHS of its 

Goodrich De Luxe Truck 
Tires ride easier; wear 
longer; ran faster with- 
oat damage to tire and 
track; save engine power 
and fuel. 

"LONGLIFE" spells economy in 
every detail of its construction. Once 
properly installed the man in charge 
can feel satisfied there will be no me- 
chanical or labor charges placed against 
the operating cost of "LONGLIFE." 


The City of Goodrich-AKRON, OHIO 
401 Mission Street. San Francisco 


July 5, 1919 



will be found the world over 

In the lowlands, over broken mountainous country, in the heat of 
the desert or the h nperatures of hi^h altitudes, the result 

is the Same — dependability and long lit*. 

DIF1C Wood S 


Back ol them 
ty^v. Kroui start 
»fc »»hiwit is sparwi to pnxi 

I tviiuy for our n«w mining cutofotf. 


TM« fTAMOAttO S)NC| 95 

902 M.rk»« St. 

905 Tnut Jk S*».mi 
Buk BW« . 

Jl S. L»S*fw St. 

CIucmo. 111. 



iiiininni i m ii mi ii n ii mi ii iniiiiiiuimiiiHiiiinian 





PabUSb£d tit i^o Market 8L, San FrancMCO, 

bll Uir Jinny l'ublishiHO CumlMuv 








Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 5, 1919 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 






Even if the terms do not suit everybody, they are 
grateful for it. Difficulties that had to be faced. 
Irritations shown by the members of the Alliance. 
The need for a more generous attitude. The Presi- 
dent's latest utterance. M. & S. P., July 5, 1919. 


A symposium of engineering societies at New York. 
Remarks of P. N. Moore, Calvert Townley, Farley 
Osgood, and J. E. Johnson, Jr., on the responsibili- 
ties of the engineer to the community. Political 
participation. The subservience of the professional 
man to the big corporations. Checks and timidi- 
ties. M. & S. P., July 5, 1919. 



By Louts T. Grant 5 

An illiterate Indian in Mexico was able to tell the 
correct time from a sun-dial used by his family 
for ages. M. & S. P., July 5, 1919. 


By Percy R. Middleton 5 

A reply to E. M. Hamilton, who asked for elucida- 
tion of several point3 in this process. M. & S. P., 
July 5, 1919. 


By F. B. Moors * 

Although closed for a number of years, this gold 
mine in Amador county, California, really contains 
long shoots of ore, and should be re-opened. M. & 
S. P., July 5, 1919. 


By W. H. Shockley « 

The former is from eating tainted meat or fish, 
while the latter is from spoiled canned fruit or 
vegetables. M. & S. P., July 5, 1919. 

which is a pinion, driving a spur gear on the ball- 
mill. End-surge in ball or tube-mills must be con- 
sidered, and trunnions and bearings require special 
attention. M. & S. P., July 5, 1919. 


Presidential Address, By Hugh K. Picard 9 

A brief review of metallurgical progress, especially 
considering tungsten, flotation, zinc, pottery, cop- 
per, gold, lead, electric precipitation, metal in- 
dustries, and economics. M. & S. P., July 5, 1919. 


By Oliver E. Jager 18 

An interesting description of the hoists at the main 
and chippy shafts. The ultimate depth is 5000 ft., 
with a rope-speed of 3000 ft. per minute. The 
Ilgner and Ward-Leonard systems are used for 
balancing and regulating. M. & S. P., July 5, 1919. 


Staff Correspondence 22 

Description of machine used at Anaconda, where 
the total pulp treated is 6780 tons daily. M. & S. 
P., July 5, 1919. 



By K. Freitag 

After trying belts and gears, the drive consisted of 
motor, flexible coupling, chain to counter-shaft on 



An outline of a recent Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines. M. & S. P., July 5, 1919. 



Houghton, Michigan; Gold Hill, Oregon; Keswick, 
California; Lead, South Dakota; Divide, Nevada; 
Grass Valley, California; Anyox, British Columbia. 









St. Joseph Lead Co., Tennessee Copper & Chemical 



A lubricated plug-valve. 

Established May 24. I860, as The Scientific PresB; name chanted October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Frees. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office aa second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertuaola. 

Branch Offices — Chicag-o. 600 Fisher Bdg\: New York, 3614 WoolwortB 
Bder.; London. 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price, 15 centB per copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance; 
United States and Mexico, $4: Canada, $5; other countries in postal union, 
25b. or 36 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

Electric power equipment when properly applied is eliminating shut- 
downs and thereby boosting production in metal 
mines the world over. 

G=E Motors Keep Mills Running 

Mills that require nearly double 
power at starting and run continu- 
ously in moist, gritty air, are being 
driven by G-E motors. 

The splendid operating records 
of these motors in this service are 
used as a basis for repeat orders 
when extensions are planned 

which require dependable, heavy- 
duty motors. 

Scores of G-E motors drive mills 
at leading mining companies 
throughout the country. 

Our engineers will be glad to 
show you why. 

Write our nearest office for bulletins on Electric Power in Metal Mining. 


General Office f% ^^ 


^^ Schenectady, N.Y. 


.lulv 5, I'U'.i 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

/CONGRESS has boon advised that the Alaska En- 
^ gineering Commission expects to complete the Alaska 
Government railroad from Seward to Fairbanks, in 1921. 
The cost is estimated at $50,400,000, or at the rate of 
$73,200 per mile. The mining public will welcome the 
completion of this important project, which will render 
accessible a rich and interesting part of the national 

/~\N T June 28, at the very time when the Treaty of Peace 
^-^ was being signed, 900 Germans who had been in- 
terned during the War were shipped aboard the trans- 
port 'Martha Washington' on their return to Germany. 
They are said to have gone at their own request. Some 
1800 others are due to leave on July 1. It might be well 
to make it July 4, as an item of celebration, for there can 
be no doubt that the departure of these anti-American 
elements is favorable to national solidarity. 

"C'ROM the columns of the 'Financial Times', of 
■*• London, we get the news that Mr. Henry Gardner, 
formerly of Henry R. Merton & Co., Ltd., applied for a 
license to organize a new company of metal-brokers, but 
his application was opposed by the Board of Trade on 
the ground that his company would be "subject directly 
or indirectly in the conduct of its business to enemy in- 
fluence or association," these being the words of the Act 
passed to deal with such cases. He appealed from the 
Board of Trade to the Court of the King's Bench and 
was awarded a favorable judgment, the Court stating 
that no evidence had been found to show "that Mr. 
Gardner intended to come under the influence or in- 
tended to associate with Germans" in his business. In- 
deed, the testimony all served to prove that, as the Public 
Trustee stated, "he was a thoroughly loyal and patriotic 
Englishman." Since this favorable judgment was given, 
Mr. Gardner, who is a Scot, has announced the forma- 
tion of a metal-dealers company in association with other 
non-German former members of the Merton firm, and we 
wish him and them every success. 

T7NGINEERS Licensing Bills have been before the 
*-* State legislatures of Colorado and California. In 
the Rocky Mountain State the bill was passed by the 
Legislature and signed by the Governor before the min- 
ing engineers heard about it. Nothing could be done to 
prevent the enactment, but the Governor was persuaded 
to appoint a Board of Examiners that would interpret 

the Act in a reasonable manner. The Board consists of 
Messrs. H. I. Reid, H. S. Sands, Frank E. Shepard, 
Robert J. Grant, and, ex officio, the State Engineer. We 
are informed that engineers from outside the State com- 
ing to Colorado to examine mines will suffer no incon- 
venience, whether they have a license or not, as the Board 
is in favor of using the soft pedal until such time as the 
next legislature shall have had an opportunity either to 
repeal or to revise the law. In California the mining 
engineers, in co-operation with other branches of the 
profession, introduced a Licensing Bill because the archi- 
tects had attempted by legislative action to compel the 
employment of a licensed architect for the erection of 
any structure, thereby putting the engineer out of busi- 
ness except as the employee of an architect in the erection 
of mill-buildings, head-frames, power-stations, and the 
like, even down to the humble woodshed in a man's back- 
yard. In order to circumvent this scheme all the engi- 
neers united in self-defence and introduced an Engineers 
Licensing Bill placing themselves on a parity with the 
other professions. This had the desired result, for both 
bills were withdrawn, the architects finding themselves 
euchred. Apparently this matter is settled definitively 
in California. ._— ^._. 

IN this issue we print the entire text of the presidential 
address delivered by Mr. Hugh K. Picard before the 
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy in London. It is 
well worthy of the large amount of space given it, as our 
readers will discover for themselves. Mr. Picard is a 
metallurgical engineer associated chiefly with the devel- 
opment of the flotation process, being the junior member 
of the firm of Sulman & Picard, whose name is attached 
to many patents, more particularly the one that has been 
the subject of so much litigation in this country. We 
like to think that if Mr. Picard had had the only say in 
the matter, the Minerals Separation company, with 
which his firm is so closely identified, would have adopted 
a less truculent policy. It is inconceivable that a tech- 
nician capable of an outlook so scientific and philosophic, 
as that embodied in the presidential address, could have 
advocated the steps taken by the Minerals Separation 
company, in this country, to gag the profession. 
Whether we are right in our friendly surmise or not, the 
presidential address remains as a scholarly review be- 
speaking an intellectually generous mind and an ac- 
complished metallurgist. What Mr. Picard says about 
the progress of the flotation process is highly interesting ; 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

so are his remarks on the roasting of zinc ores and wet 
methods of extraction. He has kept in touch with Amer- 
ican practice and is enabled thereby to present a com- 
prehensive review of his subject. His references to the 
Delplace furnace, to the Cottrell and Halin processes, 
and to the Crowe method are to the point. We like what 
he says about the status of gold mining and the urgency 
f jr some measure of relief. In regard to secrecy in the 
art of metallurgy, and the paucity of information avail- 
able concerning British methods, we venture to say — 
not without a smile — that Mr. Picard is throwing stones 
■ — and we approve of the throwing — from a domicile that 
looks to us very much like a conservatory. How much 
have lie and his friends disclosed concerning the metal- 
lurgical methods in which they are especially versed? 
Evidently his admirable views on this matter are of an 
academic character and intended for non-domestic appli- 
cation. It is fair to note that he seems to be aware of the 
irony of his position, for he makes incidental mention of 
promised "contributions to the more scientific aspects 
of flotation." Hurry up, Sir! Something of this kind 
was said five years ago by some of your friends. "Art is 
long and life is fleeting." We note with considerable 
satisfaction that the advice given by Mr. Ingalls in a 
recent presidential address has greatly impressed his 
fellow-president in London, so we hope that even our 
less influential suggestions may impinge favorably upon 
Mr. Picard 's eminently receptive mind. We thank him 
for the courageous note with which the address ends; 
that is the spirit in which the War was won, and it is the 
spirit in which all good work is accomplished. 

A PROPOS of our editorial on ' The Engineer as a 
■*"*• Citizen' appearing on another page, we note that at 
the recent meeting of the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers a report was submitted by the Committee on Devel- 
opment in the course of which sundry interesting recom- 
mendations were made. Among these was one embodying 
the local affiliation of the branches of the national tech- 
nical societies and the local technical societies. In some 
degree this is being done already in San Francisco and 
Denver, for example, where joint meetings of members 
of all the technical societies are called on special occa- 
sions, as when a paper or address of special interest is to 
be presented. Next comes the suggestion to form a State 
Council composed of representatives from the local affilia- 
tions. This also has been done in California. For ex- 
ample, all the branches of engineering were represented 
in the steps taken to prevent the passage of an engineers 
licensing bill by the State legislature. We note also that 
"a short code of ethics of broad scope, general character, 
and positive rather than negative injunction, be pre- 
pared." That will be useful and interesting. It is 
highly desirable that the professional morale be main- 
tained and the ideals of the profession be encouraged at 
a time when so many professional men are tempted to 
engage in questionable business for the sake of making 
money easily. A standard form of licensing bill is 
recommended to be used in the framing of legislation. 

If we must have a licensing law it will be well to have it 
uniform all over the country. The Committee finds that 
"the present practice with regard to expert testimony 
and arbitration is not satisfactory," an expression of 
opinion with* which most of us will agree, and it suggests 
the co-operation of a committee from the four founder 
societies with a committee of the American Bar Associa- 
tion in order to develop a better practice. Yes, indeed; 
it is high time that technical witnesses, now special advo- 
cates, were engaged by the Court itself, not by the liti- 
gants, although the cost of engaging them might still fall 
upon the latter, equally. Another recommendation looks 
to the co-ordination of the Government's industrial activ- 
ities under the direction of a Federal Department of 
Public Works. In this respect we are behind European 
practice; we load our Cabinet officers and Federal de- 
partments with an extraordinary medley of responsibil- 
ities; for example, the departments of War and of the 
Interior. The result is both extravagance and inefficiency 
in many directions, but not in all. We note, in conclu- 
sion, that, in accordance with similar action taken by the 
societies of mining, mechanical, and electrical engineers, 
it was decided to form a joint conference committee for 
the purpose of putting these ideas into effect. 

"TiUFJNG a mining dispute recently decided in On- 
*-* tario, two interesting points were presented for ad- 
judication by the Mining Commissioner, Mr. T. E. God- 
son. The first involved the legality of using old stakes 
for making a re-location. It appears that the ground 
had been staked many times previously and that the 
disputed location, of Mr. J. A. Knox, was made at night 
in order to obtain priority. The Commissioner said that 
he saw no distinction "between the re-marking of a post 
formerly used and the adoption, by the staker, of posts 
used by other holders, but upon abandoned claims. ' ' The 
old posts had ceased to have any legal value "and their 
usefulness passed with abandonment or forfeiture. The 
posts would no longer be the property of the holder of 
the forfeited interest or cancelled claim, and remained 
only as the mute testimony of a disappointed licensee." 
However, he considered the re-marking of such aban- 
doned posts "a dangerous practice" and it behooved all 
licensees "to stake their claims so that possibility of 
attack upon the ground of defective staking is not left 
open." Another legal point arose out of the fact that 
the re-locating was done on a Sunday. It was claimed 
that the staking by Mr. Knox was abortive because it 
was contrary to an Act of Upper Canada "to prevent 
the profanation of the Lord's day" and an Act of the 
Dominion making it unlawful "for any person on the 
Lord's day ... to sell or offer for sale or purchase 
any goods . . . or to carry on or transact any business 
. . . or to employ any other person to do on that day 
any work, business, or labor." The Commissioner de- 
cided that the prospector is not "a workman or laborer" 
in the sense of the first enactment and, as to the second, 
Mr. Knox made his discovery "without work or labor." 
The discovery had been made already. A locator in 

July 5. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Ontario must comply with the Mining Act of that Prov- 
ince: he must perform his assessment work under that 
law ; neither Sunday nor holidays are excluded ; each 
day counts equally in the respective periods allowed for 
his assessment work. The ground hecame open for loca- 
tion after October 12, which was a Saturday. "The 
property was undoubtedly Crown lands." said the Com- 
missioner, "and open for staking, and there was no 
prohibition in the license from the Crown restraining or 
prohibiting such an act on Sunday." He went further 
in his ruling, he considered the calling of the prospector 
and the consideration due to him by society. "A pros- 
pector," said he, "who separates himself from the com 
forts and protection of society, blazes a trail into un- 
known mineral zones and discovers mineral of value, is 
serving not only himself but the public at large, and no 
unnecessary restraint should be placed upon his activi- 
ties." He could understand a prospector being forget- 
ful of the day of the week ; he could appreciate the neces- 
sity for haste when the grubstake was running low and 
the prospector was far from a source of supplies. We 
can understand these considerations also, and we regard 
the ruling as both sensible and humane. The Commis- 
sioner, however, does not encourage Sunday work, if 
avoidable. He said : "I confess a desire to abstain from 
finding that to stake a mining claim on Sunday creates 
an invalidity through the operation of the Lord's Day 
Act, and yet I wish to be understood that Sunday should 
be observed as a day of rest and calm when the mind can 
be dissociated from worldly tasks. Nature, however, has 
its own quieting influence and provides 'books in the 
running brooks, sermons in stones, and good in every- 
thing'." Yes, indeed; the prospector can, and often 
does, worship in the great cathedral, whose dome is the 
blue sky, whose aisles are of the forest, where the pines 
bend their heads in prayer and the winds of heaven 
make music for the listening ear. 


It was the idea of peace rather than the terms of the 
treaty itself that gave joy to the world on June 28. The 
guns that boomed and the bells that pealed on Saturday 
last echoed the thankfulness of mankind that the long 
and cruel war was at an end legally. To most of us the 
event was a sad anti-climax, for seven months of grow- 
ing impatience and disillusionment had elapsed since the 
joyous moment when in the darkness of a November night 
we had celebrated gratefully and enthusiastically the end 
of the fighting and the signing of the Armistice. Little 
then did we realize the difficulties and delays inseparable 
from the completion of the necessary negotiations; little 
did we comprehend the complexity of the international 
problems created by the disintegration of Europe. We 
realize and comprehend all that now, and it should in- 
crease, rather than decrease, our appreciation of the 
labors performed at Paris. We regret the absence of the 
Chinese delegates at the last ceremony and we feel some 
sympathy with General Smuts in his protest against the 

Shantung settlement, of which President Wilson's 

enemies will make the most, but any fair-minded man will 
recognize the practical impossibility of adjusting a thou- 
sand and one conflicting claims without giving offence to 
one or more of the nations concerned. Most of all we 
regret the growing irritations expressed by the Allies 
and their Associate after the finish of their victorious 
campaign against German brutality. United against the 
foe in the height of conflict, they have failed to keep their 
tempers or to maintain their comradeship since the crisis 
has passed. One has boasted too much, another has been 
jealous, a third has been too grasping, a fourth has 
adopted a pose of selfish detachment — we do not describe 
any member of the group, but we instance the pose as- 
sumed by various ones in turn — until the splendid soli- 
darity of the fighting days has given place to dissension 
on the very eve of the final settlement. If the world is to 
benefit from the peace we must change our mood and de- 
termine to work together generously, not only for the 
establishment of the League of Nations and the continued 
development of the idea expressed by the Covenant, but 
we must try earnestly to evoke a larger measure of in- 
ternational charity. We Americans are too provincial, 
almost as provincial as some of the others ; much of the 
petty spirit shown today, even by the returning soldiers, 
is the result of that provincialism ; we must take care lest 
the labor-unions develop a false internationalism — one 
based on class feeling — before we acquire one founded on 
a better basis. For the internationalism of the prole- 
tariat, which aims to destroy national spirit, we have no 
use whatever, believing that the best cosmopolite is he 
who loves his own country above and beyond all others ; 
and the highest type of such patriotism is shown not by 
the ignorant or the unimaginative man but by him who 
knowing, respecting, and even loving other countries and 
other peoples, still loves his own country as a man loves 
his own mother. The treaty records the punishment of 
Germany and the fulfilment of the purpose that brought 
26 nations into alliance against the unscrupulous effort 
to dominate first Europe and then the world. It is a 
warning to international piracy and to militarist ambi- 
tion. We may see other wars in the days to come, but 
it is safe to predict that wars of conquest such as those 
of Frederick the Great, Napoleon I, and William II will 
never be allowed again to make headway. The League 
of Nations is imperfect necessarily, and it may not suc- 
ceed in all its good intentions, but it is reasonable to 
expect that it will serve to check any further attempts 
at world domination. We think the President justified 
in speaking of the Treaty of Peace as "a charter for a 
new order of affairs in the world." Certainly it does 
"associate the free governments of the world of affairs in 
a permanent league in which they are pledged to use 
their united power to maintain peace by maintaining 
right and justice." It will not be smooth sailing; there 
will be squalls; but we have a chart now to help us in 
steering through darkness and storm, and if the ship's 
company will only try to restrain their natural impetu- 
osity we may hope to reach smooth waters and keep on 
the course of human progress toward the distant haven 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

of a peaceful way of living. So we welcome the signing 
of the Treaty thankfully, and on this consummation of 
the national effort, and of the Allied effort, we rise in 
deep respect and profound gratitude to salute the heroic 
dead by whose valor our purpose has been achieved. 

The Engineer as a Citizen 

This was the subject of a symposium held recently in 
the Engineering Societies Building, at New York, under 
the auspices of the local sections of the four founder 
societies of engineers and of other technical organiza- 
tions. Mr. Gano Dunn, an eloquent speaker, was chair- 
man of the meeting. Mr. Philip N. Moore, who needs 
no introduction to our readers, took as his text 'The 
Responsibility of the Engineer' and started by saying 
that the engineer has awakened to the fact that he is 
"not politically potent," because he rarely serves po- 
litically nor has he usually developed the political sense. 
This is due in part to his migratory habits, themselves 
the consequence of short-lived engagements and dis- 
continuous work over a field not limited either by county 
or State, nor even by national boundaries. Failing to 
make local ties or to assume local responsibilities, he has 
little sense of civic duty except spasmodically in times of 
crisis, such as in the War, when he rose to the occasion 
in an exemplary manner. Another adverse factor is 
found in loyalty to, or in discipline enforced by, big 
corporations, many of which have interests adverse to 
the public and therefore expect their engineers to keep 
out of politics. We agree with Mr. Moore, whom we 
are paraphrasing; it is noteworthy, for example, that 
the technical men employed by the big smelting con- 
solidations show no more than a formal interest in the 
vexed questions of the hour. The talking is left largely 
to the heads of the organizations and they usually have 
little to say except when their pocket nerve is touched. 
Their juniors, the progressive technicians, are bound, by 
rule or etiquette, we do not know which, to a discreet 
silence. We venture to say that our profession has lost 
something of its character during the last two decades 
by reason of the fact that the big corporate mining and 
smelting enterprises have aggrandized themselves ex- 
ceedingly and have tied the most capable members of 
the profession to themselves, making them a part of a 
business organization in which liberty of political action 
is difficult, if not altogether impracticable. The number 
of independent consulting engineers is small and most 
of them are not independent from choice. Again, the 
tradition that engineering societies must hold themselves 
aloof from political affairs — a view held strongly, for 
example, by Dr. Raymond — has discouraged participa- 
tion in civic duties and in discussions upon public ques- 
tions. On top of these cheeks and timidities the engineer 
is inarticulate publicly, because, with rare exceptions, he 
does not cultivate the ability either to write or to speak 
effectively, particularly the latter, which is essential to 
the exercise of influence upon one's fellows. That this 
entails a great loss to the community no thoughtful citi- 

zen will deny, for the mental training and the varied 
experience of the engineering class, in the doing of 
things and in the directing of men, represent an asset 
of inestimable value to the commonwealth if applied to 
municipal, St^rte, or national affairs. At a time when 
loose thinking is as dangerous as loose dynamite, at a 
time when a hysteria of political sentimentality is under- 
mining the very foundations of representative govern- 
ment, it is more than regrettable — it is pathetic — that 
the engineer should not bring his disciplined mind to 
the service of society. During the War the need for 
joint action by the engineering societies became recog- 
nized, the result being the creation of the Engineering 
Council, which, since May 1917, has been able to express 
the best engineering opinion of the country on matters 
of administration and legislation at Washington. At 
the close of the War the Engineering Council appointed 
the National Service Committee, of which Mr. M. C. 
Leighton is chairman, to keep an eye on legislative 
measures affecting engineers and on matters of public 
welfare connected with engineering. This is a step in 
the right direction. Mr. Calvert Townley, of the Elec- 
trical Engineers, raised the question whether it would 
be possible for the engineers to be " a technical organiza- 
tion and a political party at the same time. ' ' Obviously 
"a united body of technical men" might, by political 
passion, become disintegrated unless guided sagaciously. 
The time may come when the technical institute as such 
will be distinguished from, and supplemented by, the 
larger organization intended to promote professional 
solidarity and co-operation. The movement toward a 
union of the existing societies and the evident tendency 
to form one national engineering organization is in large 
measure a result of war conditions and of the national 
spirit evoked during that stirring period. To the en- 
gineer as a citizen in a republic such a consolidation 
would give a political power he never had before, but it 
might tend to relegate purely technical subjects, now 
the principal topics at the periodic meetings, to a sec- 
ondary place. Even that prospect should not appal, for 
a place will be found for technology at special meetings, 
and if we sacrifice something to good citizenship we shall 
be better engineers. We are inclined to agree with 
Messrs. Farley Osgood and J. E. Johnson, Jr., both of 
whom took part in the symposium, that the education of 
the modern engineer is so specialized that he misses the 
generous training of the humanities ; he has no time for 
the study of his own language or of the classics, for his- 
tory or philosophy, because he wants to give his time to 
the special studies that prepare him for the winning of 
a livelihood or the gaining of a fortune. He emerges a 
specialist, rather than a well educated man. In conse- 
quence, his mental scope is so narrow as to make him 
politically impotent. After all, there lies the trouble. 
As bends the twig so grows the tree. We sacrifice cul- 
ture to bread and butter. We make an efficient specialist 
at the expense of an effective citizen. When we recog- 
nize that a good citizen is more valuable than any 'ologist, 
we may begin to produce him in larger numbers. 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

D I 3 

A Primitive Sun-Dial 

The Editor: 

Sir — On a recent professional trip through the moun- 
tains of northern Sinaloa in Mexico I came across the 
following curio at the home of one of the Indians. This 
man could neither read nor write and was of the typical 
type of Indian who inhabits that part of the country. 
He was by profession a wood-cutter, and I was much 

surprised to find in his little yard a sun-dial, which I 
photographed. It consisted of a post set on an incline, 
from the top of which was nailed a bottom of what had 
once been a lard pail, and in the centre of this a long 
wire-nail was driven. "Well-defined scratches on the 
circumference of the tin disc in connection with the 
shadow made by the nail indicated the time of day. 
You, will note the shadow caused by the nail. The 
picture was taken at about a quarter past four by 
Mexican Federal time, and it was not so very far out 
when the proper corrections were applied. 

I questioned the Indian whence he got his knowledge, 
and he stated that the method of determining the in- 
clination of the post and the marking of the disc had 
been known in his family for "ages," as he expressed 
it. I tried to get him to describe this method of doing 
it, but I was no wiser at the end of his discourse than 
when he commenced. The fact remains that here is 
your sun-dial and it gets results, which, from an en- 
gineering standpoint, was interesting. 

Louis T. Grant. 
San Francisco, June 11. 

The Leaching of Flotation Concentrate 

The Editor: 

Sir — In reply to Mr. E. M. Hamilton's letter in your 
issue of June 21 on the above subject, I have pleasure 
in answering his questions in the order given. 

(1) The tests at the Edwards metallurgical works 
were conducted with the object of determining the best 
methods of treatment. While percolation gave satisfac- 
tory results, the time required for the operation makes 
it advisable to use the Dorr system of counter-current 
decantation in a plant treating more than a few tons 
per day. 

(2) I have proved by experiments that over 90% of 
the acid-soluble copper can be dissolved in a few seconds 
by adding hot calcine, as discharged from the furnace 
to the lixiviant. Therefore dissolving-tanks are not re- 
quired preliminary to the Dorr counter-current system. 
This opinion is confirmed by Lawrence Addicks in the 
Transactions of the A. I. M. E., Vol. LII, 1915. 

(3) I refer to the danger of incomplete washing of 
the pulp between copper extraction and cyanide treat- 
ment for gold and silver. I thought the fact that the 
final washing out of gold and silver can be successfully 
performed was sufficiently well known to prevent any 
misunderstanding when I referred to incomplete wash- 

(4) If roasting is conducted under the most favorable 
conditions for copper extraction, the silver in the calcines 
will be in the form of the sulphate and metallic silver. 
In confirmation of this statement I quote 'Experimental 
Leaching at Anaconda', Transactions of the A. I. M. E., 
Vol. XLIX, 1914. 

(5) The chlorination of residues from copper-leach- 
ing was successfully performed on a large scale at Mount 
Morgan, Queensland; by means of a solution of chlorine 
in water, the operation being conducted in large open 
tanks. I propose a 'modification of this process. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

(6) The ores on which the experimental work was 
conducted did not contain sufficient silver to warrant 
extraction by a separate process, but a few experiments 
were conducted on the residue from chlorination and the 
greater part of the silver was found to be in the form of 
the chloride. 

(7) The working-costs given for gold and silver ex- 
traction apply to chlorination followed by water and 
'hypo' treatment. In the ease of the gold both the ex- 
traction and costs were compiled from figures obtained 
in working-scale tests, but the figures for silver were 

The extraction of the silver is the only step in the 
process that has not been thoroughly demonstrated, but 
in view of the results obtained at Anaconda by an ox- 
idizing roast followed by an acid-brine leach, I cannot 
see that this is an unsurmountable difficulty. 

I would like to point out that the experiments out- 
lined in my article were conducted on concentrates from 
a number of Australian mines and not exclusively on 
Mount Lyell mill-products. 

Percy R. Middleton. 

Salt Lake City, June 24. 

The Gwin Mine 

The Editor: 

Sir — I wish to correct an erroneous news-item that 
appeared in the June 14 issue of your valuable paper, 
relating to the Gwin mine. Evidently your correspond- 
ent did not know the facts concerning this great 

The surface plant of the Gwin Mine Development Co. 
was sold more than a year ago, when machinery of all 
kinds was in great demand and brought war-time prices. 
The company deemed it good business to dispose of it, as 
much of it would have to be replaced with modern elec- 
trical equipment because it was worked out, as stated; 
it was a question of power conditions that closed the 
mine. Of this I will not go into details other than to say 
that it was most unfortunate for all concerned. 

As to the conditions of the mine, the engineer's last 
report showed that the mine had developed more ore, and 
of a better grade, and looked more promising than it had 
for many years previous to closing down. There is de- 
veloped in the bottom of the mine, ore-shoots of a com- 
bined length of over 450 ft. that show an average assay- 
value of more than $10 per ton, and there are other 
hundreds of feet of ore that give assay-values up to $5 
per ton. These splendid orebodies are practically intact, 
as the mine when closed had not been placed in condition 
to extract this ore. In addition to these newly developed 
orebodies in the bottom of the mine, there is known to be 
a very large tonnage of ore available in the upper levels 
of the south shaft of the mine. Two-thirds of the mine 
has not been prospected and very little cross-cutting has 
been done. The contact with the greenstone was never 
reached on either the east or west side. All of the ore 
encountered was found in the slate. The Gwin mine has 
been as rich in places as any mine on the Mother Lode, 

and has had as long chimneys of payable ore as any. 
One chimney was over 1600 ft. in length of continuous 
pay-ore averaging from 4 to 8 ft. thick. In other places 
the ore was over 20 ft. thick for many hundreds of 

About a million tons of ore was mined and milled by 
the present company. In addition to paying liberal divi- 
dends, the original cost of the mine, the cost of hundreds 
of acres of added territory purchased by the company, 
and the entire cost of the plant was paid for out of the 
profits of the mine. The Gwin has produced about 
$5,500,000 in gold. The stock has been closely held and 
was never placed on the market. The mine owes not one 
cent to any investor, and it is safe to predict that when 
this splendid mine re-opens, as it will some day, it will 

give a good account of itself. ■■■•»« 

& & F. B. Moors. 

San Francisco, June 21. 

Ptomaine, or Botulism 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of June 14 you mention the death 
of 12 out of 36 guests at an Alaskan dinner and state the 
cause as ptomaine poisoning. It would be of great inter- 
est to know details of the food eaten and its condition. 
The danger from ptomaine poison is well known and is 
usually ascribed to spoiled meat or fish. It is not so well 
known that spoiled canned fruit or vegetables may be 
equally deadly. Botulism is the disease brought on by 
such spoiled canned fruit or vegetables ; it occurs within 
a few hours or may be delayed as much as nine days. It 
is stated that this disease caused the Alaska deaths and 
not ptomaine. Great muscular fatigue, eyes affected 
even to blindness, diarrhoea, and nausea are among the 
symptoms. On the Pacific Coast ten cases were reported 
in the six months ended May 1918, and in all 19 cases 
have been recorded; death took place in two-thirds of 
these cases. In November 1913 out of 12 persons who ate 
string-bean salad at Stanford one died. At Fallbrook. 
five died after eating canned apricots. A woman and 40 
chickens died at Hillsboro, Oregon, after eating canned 
corn. In Darmstadt, Germany, 11 died out of 21 per- 
sons who had eaten bean-salad. A peculiarity of the 
disease is that the mere tasting of canned food has 
caused death ; a Miss B. of Ontario, Oregon, tasted a jar 
of canned string-beans and concluded that they were not 
" exactly right. " She died in 52 hours. 

The disease is due to toxins generated by the bacillus 
botulinus. Boiling the food from 15 to 30 minutes de- 
stroys the toxin and renders it harmless. The disease 
although rare is worth bearing in mind and whenever 
there is any doubt as to the goodness of canned food it 
should be boiled for 30 minutes. 


Palo Alto, June 16. 

Note : An intensive study of botulism is now in 
progress at the laboratory of experimental medicine at 
Stanford by Mrs. G. S. Burke, to whom I am indebted 
for the above information. 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Ball and Tube^Mill Drives at the Rochester 

Combined Mill 


The grinding elements in the Rochester Combined 
Mines Co.'s mill at Rochester, Nevada, are arranged in 
two units, each composed of one 6 ft. by 4 ft. 6 in. ball- 
mill and one 7 by 12-ft. tube-mill. 

The ball-mills are fed from two cylindrical bins by 
apron-feeders that discharge into the centre-fed scoop- 
feeders mounted on the feed-trunnions. The size of the 
ore particles fed to the ball-mills is 1^ in. All the mills 
are of the overflow type employing no screens in the 
discharge end, but the trunnions are equipped with re- 
verse-spiral liners. The ball-mills use forged-steel balls 
as a grinding medium, and the new balls fed through the 
central feed-opening are 5 in. The pebble-mills use flint, 
which is fed through the centre opening in the scoop in 
the same way as the balls. The ball-mill discharges its 
product to a duplex Dorr classifier operating in closed 
circuit with the pebble-mill, the pulp being ground so 
that 80% will pass a 200-mesh screen. 

The feature of the equipment is the main-drive ar- 
rangement. Many designs of ball and tube mill-drives 
have been put into operation, and every known method 
of transmission has been employed, but nearly all have 
developed serious faults after a few months of continu- 
ous operation. From the early application of the long- 
belt drives to the later short-centre or Lenix drives, many 
variations of belt-drives have been applied. Of all belt- 
drives the long-centre straight drive has proved the best, 
but it requires considerable floor-space and is an ob- 
struction where closed-circuit grinding is employed. All 
belt-drives involving a friction-clutch to reduce the start- 
ing torque introduce an accessory that is weak mechan- 
ically, as the strain on the clutch is extremely heavy 
when starting the mill from rest, even if rocking the mill 
is attempted. 

"With the introduction of closed-circuit grinding it was 
necessary to develop a short-centre drive. The first tried 

was a double-gear reduction, using a friction-clutch and 
constant-speed motor. Later, a chain-belt was used in 
place of the first-gear reduction, and finally, a single- 
gear reduction by means of herringbone gears. All these 
drives were objectionable either in the methods of appli- 
cation or under-rating the excessive strain on them ; but 
the main trouble was that due consideration was not 
given to the end-surge which occurs in all ball and tube- 
mills, no matter how well they may be balanced. The 
bearings cannot be set close to the trunnion-collars, as 
clearance must be allowed for contraction and expansion 


L-f "••Pinion. 

^—75 Horse-poner 

Spur Gear. 

of the mill-barrels. This is particularly the case with 
the longer tube-mills, in which the grinding temperature 
varies. In shorter mills, where it is possible to set a new 
mill with only slight clearance, the wear and tear of daily 
use will soon be noticeable. 

It can be seen readily that this end-surge will seriously 
affect direct or single reduction gearing. The speed of 
the driving-shaft prevents it from following the jerky 
surge of the mill, and therefore causes excessive side 
wear on the driving-sprockets. In order to overcome the 
objectionable features embodied in the drives mentioned 
it was decided to eliminate them in order as they oc^ 
curred. That this was accomplished has been demon- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

strated by the continued successful operation of the mills 
during the past year. 

In the illustration it will be noted that the general 
design is identical for both ball and tube-mills. In 
order to secure interchangeability of parts, it was de- 
cided to build both mills as nearly alike as was possible, 
although the diameters were different. All trunnions 
and trunnion-bearings were made 24 in. diam. by 24 in. 
long, giving an extra large bearing-area and also pro- 
■\iding large trunnion-openings. The trunnion-liners 
were made interchangeable as well as the feeders and 
discharge-spouts. This idea of interchangeability of 
parts was carried through to the motors and the entire 
drive arrangement. The motors were built on the same 
frame, thereby making all bearing-shells interchange- 
able. The switchboard and control apparatus were made 
identical with the exception, of course, of the grid-re- 

The selection of motors to take full advantage of the 
desirable features of the drive was carefully investigated 
and it was determined finally to use motors of the West- 
inghouse CW type. These are phase-wound motors de- 
signed especially for good starting characteristics and 
high running efficiency with windings carefully braced 
to resist the vibrations incident to tube and ball mill- 
drive. A further advantage was that the Westinghouse 
company could supply motors of 75 and 100 hp. for the 
ball and tube mill-drives, respectively, built on the same 
frame so that all mechanical parts would be interchange- 
able. The ball-mills are driven by 75 hp. 585 r.p.m. 440 
volt, three-phase, 60-cycle type CW motors and the tube- 
mills by 100 hp. motors of the same characteristics. Each 
motor is provided with a control panel of the "Westing- 
house type RF, style No. 245,374, equipped with suitable 
starting resistance. These RF panels are supplied with 
an ammeter, a primary circuit-breaker with overload 
trip and under-voltage release, as well as a drum-con- 
troller behind the board with a hand-wheel mounted on 
the face of the panel. The ammeters enable the operator 
to know at all times just what his mills are doing, and he 
is accordingly able to adjust his ball charge to get the 
best results. The RF control-panel has a special feature 
in that the operating mechanism of the motor starting- 
controller is interlocked mechanically with the primary 
circuit-breaker so that if the circuit-breaker has once 
tripped it cannot be closed again until the controller has 
been returned to the 'off' position. 

On each motor-shaft is mounted a 24-in. Nordberg 
flexible coupling connecting the motor to a short shaft 
that carries the driving-sprocket for the chain-drive. 
This shaft is of the same diameter as the motor-shaft and 
is mounted in two rigid pedestal bearings supplied with 
ring-oiling removable bearing-sleeves interchangeable 
with the motor-bearings. These pedestals were furnished 
by the Westinghouse company. A heavy cast-iron sole- 
plate forms the base for the above bearings as well as 
for the main counter-shaft bearings, and as all bearings 
are provided with means for lateral adjustment, it forms 
a rigid base on which it is possible to maintain perfect 
alignment for the chain-belts. 

The driving sprockets and chains for the ball-mills are 
as follows : 

75 hp., 48-in. centres, reduction 585 to 160 r.p.m. 

Driver-sprocket 21 tooth, 9$ in. face, 10.02 in. diam., 
hardened steel 

Driven sprocket 77 tooth, 9J face, 37.03 in. diameter. 

Chain, Morse type, 14.5 ft. long and 9 in. wide, 1.5 in. 

The driving-sprockets and chains for the tube-mills 
are as follows: 

100 hp., 50 in. centres, reduction 585 to 138.5 r.p.m. 

Driver-sprocket 21 tooth, 12£ in. face, 10.02 in. diam., 
hardened steel. 

Driven-sprocket 89 tooth, 12£ in. face, 42.75 in. di- 

Chain, Morse type, 15.75 ft. long and 12 in. wide, 1.5 
in. pitch. 

Both of the above drives are enclosed in a galvanized 
iron case provided with hand-hole and oil-drip rings. 

The main countershafts for the ball and tube-mills are 
5^ in. diam. mounted in heavy mill-type ring-oiling 
bearings. The two bearings next to the main pinion are 
mounted on a heavy cast-iron sole-plate which is tied to 
the main trunnion-bearing at the discharge end of the 
mills, ensuring perfect alignment of the main drive. 
The other end of the shaft, on which is mounted the 
driven sprocket, is carried in heavy ring-oiling bearings, 
similar to those on main-drive end, and mounted on the 
sole-plate, which also supports the bearings carrying the 
motor-shaft extension. 

The main drives for the ball-mills are as follows: 

Driving pinion cut cast-steel, 15 teeth, 3£ in. pitch, 14 
in. face. 

Driven gear close-grained cut semi-steel, 100 teeth, 4 
in. pitch, 14 in. face. 

Main drives for tube-mills are as follows : 

Driving pinion cut cast-steel, 16 teeth, 4 in. pitch, 14 
in. face. 

Driven gear close-grained cut semi-steel, 100 teeth, 4 
in. pitch, 14 in. face. 

Both main-driving gears are made in halves and bolted 
to the end flanges of the mills in such a way that they 
can be easily removed or turned around, so that both 
faces of the teeth can be used. The speed of the 6-ft. 
ball-mills is 24 r.p.m. and of the 7-ft. tube-mills. 22 r.p.m. 

This drive arrangement with all bearings mounted on 
interconnected sole-plates ensures perfect alignment of 
all the shafts. The employment of cut spur-gears, chain- 
drives, flexible couplings, and slip-ring motors is con- 
sidered by the designers to be superior to any other 
drive arrangement for ball and tube-mills. The chains 
are relieved of all excessive strains and run perfectly, 
without the customary jerk so familiar in the old type of 
drives. Any undue strain or surge of the mills that is 
not absorbed by the cut main spur-gears and is trans- 
mitted to the chain-sprockets, due to slightly worn col- 
lars on the main shaft, does not affect the running of the 
chains : as this motion is not counter-acted by the motor, 
but is absorbed by the flexible Nordberg coupling con- 
necting the motor with the floating motor-extension shaft. 

-Ink 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London 


Introduction. In addressing you tonight I propose 
to follow the course taken by my predecessors in giving 
a brief survey of recent metallurgical progress, in so far 
as such has come within the purview of my particular 
work, concluding with some remarks of a more general 
character on matters affecting our industry. In normal 
times it would be a simpler task to follow and record such 
developments, but the "War has imposed entirely new 
conditions which increase the difficulty of a review, such 
as secrecy (in order to prevent leakage of information to 
the Enemy), urgency (wherein economics have been 
thrown to the winds in the materialization of a desired 
military result), an entire re-grouping of the factors of 
chemical and metallurgical supply and demand, and, 
finally, the promise of revolutionary changes in regard 
to labor. 

As to the first of these it is to be hoped that, as the 
necessity for secrecy no longer exists, many of the great 
advances in technical and metallurgical science evolved 
under the stimulus of war may now become known for 
the early benefit of our national industries. 

Further, it is much to be desired that such industries 
as have sprung up in response to our urgent necessities 
{other than those concerned with the production of 
purely war material) will not only be retained by us, but 
will continue to develop to the advantage of the country 
and the nation. Certain of these have been re-created in 
an artificial atmosphere of State support or subsidy ; sev- 
eral, with such assistance, having reached a stage of 
technical efficiency, it appears to be of vital importance 
that further encouragement should be afforded them for 
such periods as will secure their permanence or of their 
requiring a minimum of external support. 

Tungsten. A typical example of this is the tungsten 
industry, about which so much has been made public. 
Even the non-technical reader is now familiar with 
the general facts regarding this metal, while a certain 
amount of information as to its production has also be- 
come known through the technical press. It will be suffi- 
cient for me to refer to Julius L. P. Vogel and A. F. 
MacLaren, whose able work resulted in the production of 
this essential metal — essential not only in war, when its 
supply was a vital necessity to the country, but also in 
time of peace. Its importance is well expressed by the 
• American metallurgist, Colin Fink, who says : "It may 
some day be said that tungsten made democracy pos- 
sible." Through the efforts of these metallurgists and 
their associates we are now independent of foreign sup- 
plies and, moreover, the quality of the British production 
is superior to that previously imported from Gerr any. 

Flotation. In regard to recent metallurgical a jvance 

during the past few years it will probably be conceded 
that the practice of flotation has brought about greater 
progress in metallurgy than any other single invention. 
At the inception of the froth-flotation process in 1905, 
oils, such as oleic acid (then deemed to be insoluble), 
were used. As careful analysis showed the mineral so 
frothed to be intimately associated with the insoluble oil 
employed, the impression was gained that this had uni- 
formly coated the particles which had been floated, and 
that the air-bubbles had become attached to such oiled 
particles. As the amount of oils used was relatively 
minute, say 2 lb. to the ton of ore, while the aggregate 
surface of the particles oiled is enormous, calculation 
showed it to be questionable whether an oil could be 
distributed qua 'oil' in such extreme tenuity and still 
retain its original physical properties. 

With the discovery, some four years later, that other 
and wholly-soluble frothing-agents were found equally 
and sometimes even more efficacious, the conception that 
oil was primarily essential to frothing was necessarily 
modified, and the process became more widely known as 
that of 'froth-flotation'. With later discoveries as to the 
partial solubility of essential oils, of the beneficial effect 
of certain insoluble oils in 'stabilizing' the froths and of 
sub-aeration procedure, the elimination of any need for 
pulp-heating, or in many cases for acidification, together 
with the use of alkaline circuits, etc., modern flotation 
has made remarkable advances. 

Broadly speaking, the essential conditions for effective 
flotation appear to be that the material to be floated must 
be capable of flocculation, while that not to be floated 
must be brought as nearly as possible to the reverse 
state. This is achieved by the addition to the ore-pulp 
of reagents which by adsorption or sorption at the sur- 
faces of the various particles increase such differentia- 
tion. Acids, alkalis, and certain alkaline salts act in the 
direction of wetting the gangue by water more pro- 
foundly, producing a deflocculation effect, whereas the 
adsorption or sorption of a minute amount of an im- 
miscible oil at the mineral surface renders this still less 
capable of being wetted by water, and thus stabilizes a 
mineral-coated bubble in water. 

The water-soluble portion of an oil, or a water-soluble 
substance such as cresol, amyl alcohol, etc., reduces the 
tension of water, and thus permits the latter to form an 
extended froth surface for occupation by the less water- 
wetted floatable mineral. Certain oils may thus pay a 
dual part in flotation. Variations in ore constitution — 
both physical and chemical, in the nature of the water, 
in choice or limitation of reagent, and in local conditions 
generally — are so wide that each one will present a flota- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 191» 

tion problem of its own, requiring individual study. 
Where the factors are so varied flotation must in large 
degree remain an art, as well as a growing science. This 
condition, however, governs applied science generally, 
and metallurgical processes form no exception to the rule. 

I understand that contributions to the more scientific 
aspects of flotation may be expected shortly, which will, 
no doubt, go far to elucidate the fundamental principles 
on which the process is based. 

Since the outbreak of war flotation methods have been 
widely, indeed almost universally, adopted. During this 
period, the greatly extended use of this process in the 
United States is the most notable feature, and it is hardly 
too much to say that concentration practice has been 
revolutionized ; in addition to the increased recoveries of 
mineral due to the ability of this method to deal effect- 
ively with slime, its adoption has led to a general simpli- 
fication of concentration procedure, with a corresponding 
reduction of working cost. 

In modern installations, such as that of the Inspira- 
tion Consolidated Copper Co., at Miami, Arizona, where 
the plant was specially designed for flotation, the cur- 
rent practice is to limit the units to the smallest number 
possible. At this mill the ore, first crushed by disc- 
crushers, is passed to tube-mills, working in closed cir- 
cuits ; the pulp is then immediately sent to flotation units 
with the consequent elimination of all intermediary steps 
in the concentration. The re-treatment of any middling 
products and the enrichment of the primary concentrates 
is also effected by flotation, resulting in a simple flow- 

Froth-flotation has developed the iise of settlers and 
vacuum-filters, which are now indispensable units in 
concentration plants adopting this process. The settlers 
are in some instances employed for the re-utilization of 
plant-water, and in others for the thickening of concen- 
trate prior to vacuum-filtration ; their usual size is from 
30 to 50 ft. in diameter, but in some instances settlers of 
over 200 ft. in diameter are in use. The shallow 'tray' 
settler is also employed where the physical character of 
the ore permits ; these consist of units 3 to 4 ft. in depth 
superimposed on a common shaft to economize space and 
secure increased capacity. 

Similar progress has marked the evolution of the flota- 
tion-units themselves. In the Minerals Separation type, 
for example, the driving gears have in some instances 
run continuously for over three years. These units are 
self-regulating, the supply of reagents being automatic, 
so that in practice it is not uncommon to find one man 
per shift operating units dealing with between 3000 and 
4000 tons of ore per 24 hours. 

Everywhere the tendency is toward the elimination 
of hand-labor; thus, besides oi*e, the concentrate and 
tailing are handled by settlers and belt-conveyors, where- 
as the grouping of all units is designed with the object 
of reducing labor, space, and construction cost to a mini- 
mum. The result has been a reduction in cost which, in 
many instances, has rendered obsolete the best of the 
older gravity concentration systems. 

Some comparative figures as to the advantages of flota- 
tion may be of interest. The total tonnage of ore treated 
by water concentration at the Anaconda plant from 
February 190J, to December 1915. was approximately 
36,000,000 tons, carrying 1,250,000 tons of copper, of 
which the actual recovery was approximately 900,000 
tons. In 1916, flotation was installed, from the results of 
which it is estimated that had it been used during the 
earlier period 175,000 additional tons of copper would 
have been saved, capable of realizing, less cost of treat- 
ment, a further profit of nearly £8,000,000. In 1913, 
when water or gravity concentration had attained per- 
haps its high-water mark of efficiency, the five largest 
disseminated copper mines in the United States pro- 
duced approximately 162.000 tons of copper, but dis- 
carded about 83.000 tons in tailing, the average recovery 
of copper at these mines being about 66% ; had flotation 
been employed it is now demonstrable that their in- 
creased recovery for that year alone would have exceeded 
£3,500,000. In its turn, however, flotation has introduced 
new smelting problems, mainly due to the fineness of the 
material to be handled; the International smelter, at 
Miami, which now represents the latest copper-smelting 
practice in America, has been specially designed to deal 
with this type of concentrate. Hand-labor here has also 
been practically superseded by mechanical appliances; 
specially designed cars handle the concentrate and facil- 
itate loading and unloading, prior to its passage to the 
roasting-plant. The roasters are fired either by oil, or 
coal-dust, the latter having now proved the more eco- 
nomical; the Cottrell process here becomes a necessary 
adjunct, preventing dust losses with practical complete- 
ness. Again, progress in one department of metallurgy 
has imposed conditions which have led to improvement 
in another, thus the cost of smelting the fine concentrate, 
originally so difficult to handle, is now reduced to be- 
tween 5 and 6 shillings [$1.25 to $1.50] per ton of charge. 

Though the theoretical principles underlying flotation 
are still unsolved, progress in this direction is being made 
and it is one of the most remarkable features of this 
process that its use has been so greatly extended while 
its full scientific basis is yet unestablished. Callow, 
whose contribution to the technique of the art deserves 
special mention, calculates that with four different oils, 
three oil-percentages, two pulp-densities, and two changes 
of temperature, the possible commutations are no less 
than 59.284. This gives some idea of the difficulty exper- 
ienced in arriving at the effect of any given change of 
conditions, but in spite of this over 400 flotation plants 
have been installed on the North American continent 

Zinc. Passing to the metallurgy of zinc there has not 
been any marked improvement of first importance in 
smelting during recent years, though general advance in 
matters of detail may be recorded. The problem of the 
mechanical roasting of the ores cannot yet be considered 
as completely solved, especially for the more refractory 
type, such as Broken Hill concentrate, which forms so 
large a proportion of the world's supply of raw material- 

July •">. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Though improvement has I a effected in this direction, 

.is exemplified by the Ridge and Spirlel furnaces, it is 
significant that in the latest zinc works to be erected in 

this country, the management have adopted the hand- 
rabbled Delplace furnace as being the type best suited to 
their requirements. These works, situated at Avon- 
mouth, are being constructed by the National Smelting 
Co.. and are designed for an ultimate output of 50,000 
tons of zinc per annum. These, when completed, with 
extensions of other existing works, should go far toward 
establishing the industry in this country on a much 
sounder basis than existed before the War. No effort is 
being spared to make the Avonmouth works thoroughly 
efficient and up-to-date. The general arrangement is 
well designed, and provision is made for future exten- 
sions. The pottery has a capacity of 45,000 retorts, and 
is arranged for convenient handling in and out; two 
hydraulic pot-presses are to be installed (one of which 
is already erected") , which will supply the retorts for the 
16 retort-furnaces contemplated. These are of modern 
gas-fired type, the retorts being arranged in four rows, 
back-to-back. The air is pre-heated in regenerative 
chambers under the furnaces, and are protected from 
injury due to slag from broken pots by the interposition 
of a layer of chrome-iron ore between the regenerators 
and the retort-chamber. Five gas-producers are pro- 
vided for each pair of furnaces, two being in regular use 
for each furnace, the fifth being a spare one which can 
be turned on to either furnace as may be required. 

Though Delplace furnaces are being installed for 
roasting, the management is erecting one of special de- 
sign, upon the results of which future additions will de- 
pend. The former are of large type, having six muffle- 
hearths each with 18 sections, and should be capable of 
dealing with 20 tons of raw concentrate per day. Spe- 
cial care has been taken in the design to ensure easy 
renewal of the hearth as required. 

The acid plant, of platinum 'contact' type, was origin- 
ally built by the Government, and has been used for the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid from Sicilian sulphur. 
"With the necessary additions for cleaning the roaster 
gases from arsenic, etc., this plant will be available to 
deal with the sulphur di-oxide evolved from the 20 roast- 
ing- furnaces it is proposed to erect. 

In view of the present high cost both of labor and ma- 
aterial and the improved extraction now called for, much 
attention has lately been given to the question of treat- 
ing retort-residues for their metallic contents, both as to 
still contained zinc, and other metals such as lead and 
silver, if present. It has been proposed to blow such 
residues on Wetherill grates, but this yields a mixed 
product of zinc oxide and lead sulphate and affords only 
an incomplete elimination of the silver. Other objections 
are the inferior quality of the product (due to a certain 
amount of fine grit being carried over with the fume), 
while if silver be present the blown fume acquires a 
pinkish tint, rendering it unsuitable for paint purposes ; 
further, the silver, both in the fume and the ultimate 
residues, is lost. In the absence of silver, a market exists 

for the zinc oxide-lead Sulphate product, if free from 

gril and carrying about. 20% of lead; such a mixture 

makes a paint of covering power superior to pure zinc- 
white, besides being cheaper. For ores of a less complex 

oharacter, 'blowing' the residue offers Pair possibilities, 

and it has even been proposed to modify (lie usual dis- 
tilling practice in the direction of only recovering the 
more easily distilled portion of the zinc, calling for the 
employment of a smaller amount of reducing coal and 
leaving a richer zinc-residue for blowing. Such a pro- 
cedure would increase the capacity of the distilling-fur- 
nace and result in longer life of retorts, as they would 
not require to be submitted to the high final tempera- 
ture necessary to drive off the last units of zinc. 

Wet processes for zinc extraction with the subsequent 
recovery of the metal by electrolysis have now become 
firmly established; Ashcroft's pioneer work in this direc- 
tion will be remembered. The conditions necessary for 
success, notably roasting at a low temperature to avoid 
the formation of insoluble ferrite, and the subsequent 
perfect purification of the solution are now well under- 
stood, the latter condition being demanded by the neces- 
sity for keeping the deposited zinc in a passive state to 
prevent re-solution. As a necessary consequence elec- 
trolytic zinc will always be highly pure compared even 
with the re-distilled zinc producible from retorted metal. 
Much discussion has taken place as to the possibility of 
the electrolytic process displacing the older method ; but 
it seems probable that for some years to come both pro- 
cesses will survive, and that local conditions with regard 
to nature of ore, power-cost and facilities, etc., will de- 
termine which method shall be adopted for any particu- 
lar case. It may be said for the electrolytic process that 
it certainly permits the utilization of low-grade and com- 
plex zinc ores which could never be available to the re- 
tort process. As an example, the Consolidated Mining & 
Smelting Co. is treating ores by this method at Trail 
that assay as low as 20%. zinc and carry 14% of lead. 
Further, combination dry-and-wet processes are likely 
to develop wherein the zinc oxide (and lead if present) 
are concentrated as a 'fume' for subsequent treatment 
by solution of the zinc followed by electrolysis. Such 
methods have the advantage of yielding a zinc solution 
requiring the minimum of purification, while leaving 
other metallic contents in a form recoverable by smelt- 

At Anaconda, Laist has proceeded in a reverse "direc- 
tion, by first extracting roasted flotation concentrate 
with acid, electrolyzing the purified solution, and treat- 
ing the residue by volatilization in a reverberatory fur- 
nace, the contained zinc being recovered as oxide. Ac- 
cording to recently published information, Laist no 
longer recovers the zinc by volatilization, confining this 
operation to the saving of the lead, while the zinc passes 
into the slag. How far this is due to more perfect orig- 
inal extraction of the zinc in solution in the previous 
operation is not stated. 

These developments are due in large degree to the 
work of American metallurgists, who have at their dis- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5. 1919' 

posal large supplies of ores of varying character offering 
scope and opportunity for special methods of treatment. 
But in this country also zinc has been regularly pro- 
duced by electrolysis from ores, though on a smaller 
scale; given, however, equal opportunity we may cer- 
tainly claim to possess the necessary technical knowledge 
to compete with foreign producers. 

The War brought about a large demand not only for 
the highly-pure electrolytic zinc of 99.95% grade, but 
also for metal of 99.9% purity obtainable by the re-dis- 
tillation of ordinary brands, and even of 'hard' spelter, 
which contains about 90-92% zinc, the remainder being 
mainly iron. The method chiefly adopted in this country 
was devised by Frieker, who distils the metal in vertical 
closed crucibles provided with connecting pipes leading 
into a brick condensing-chamber common to a number of 
pots, generally eight. The lead and other impurities are 
prevented from passing over with the zinc-vapor by cov- 
ering the surface of the molten metal with a floating filter 
of crushed coke, or similar porous material. By this 
process large quantities of refined metal have been pro- 
duced for cartridge-brass and other purposes. How far 
the demand for high-grade zinc will persist for ordinary 
commercial uses is uncertain. For most alloys contain- 
ing a substantial percentage of zinc, as also for galvaniz- 
ing, ordinary brands of spelter are sufficiently pure ; 
hence consumers are not likely to pay the higher price 
demanded for 'purity' metal.* The latter will therefore 
have to compete with G.O.B., and producers may per- 
haps be forced to accept a price only greater in propor- 
tion to the higher unit of the purer product. 

Zinc Oxide. Before leaving the subject of zinc metal- 
lurgy, reference may be made to the manufacture of zinc 
oxide in this country. Before the "War practically the 
whole of our requirements were met from Continental 
and American sources ; indeed, our secondary products 
were in some cases bought by German firms, exported to 
the Continent for treatment, and the zinc-oxide produce 
again sold to us. War conditions have since brought 
about the establishment of a domestic zinc-oxide industry ; 
and, as in other cases, we now produce this material of 
a quality equal in all respects to that hitherto imported. 
Works capable of producing 50 tons or more per week 
are running regularly, and, given reasonable protection 
against unfair competition, there seems no reason why 
the whole of our requirements should not henceforward 
be met from domestic sources. 

The oxide is manufactured by distillation of hard 
spelter, scrap, etc., with subsequent burning of the vola- 
tilized metal to oxide, which is collected in bag-house 
plant in the usual way. Technical details as to pipe 
arrangements, fan-capacities, etc., have been worked out, 
and the conditions necessary for the production of the 
highest quality product have been"established. No doubt 
there will still be competition from American oxide, pro- 
duced directly from ore, owing to the lower cost of the 

♦The galvanizer •would prefer pure zinc if obtainable at a 
reasonable price, as a more durable product results from 
Its use. 

raw material employed. This oxide, though of inferior 
color, is suitable for many purposes, such as rubber fill- 
ing; moreover, it possesses the advantage of high den- 
sity. Oxide production from ores and residues though 
not yet established in this country is being investigated, 
and there is reason to anticipate that this may eventually 
prove successful. 

In South Wales zinc-dust ('zinc blue') has recently 
been manufactured direct from metallic scrap and a 
product obtained which is far superior to that derived as 
a by-product from the retort process ; the latter usually 
contains about 85% of active zinc, whereas the former 
carries not less than 95%. The demand for high-grade 
zinc-dust in the dyeing industry is large, and, owing to 
its superior reducing value, it should have a good outlet 
in gold-precipitation. 

The prepared fume is screened in a flour-miller's bolt- 
ing machine ; owing to its granular character no difficulty 
is experienced in screening. The product though exces- 
sively fine is uniform in size of particle and free from 
dust ; under the microscope each grain is seen as a bril- 
liant metallic sphere. A word may be said as to the per- 
fection of the bolting machine for screening fine powders ; 
this has been developed to meet the stringent require- 
ments of the corn-milling industry and if better known 
would no doubt find application in screening dry crushed 

A wider general knowledge of the practice of indus- 
tries other than our own would, I believe, lead to the 
discovery of many appliances which could be adapted to 
our special needs. For example, the filter-press was well 
known to the potter before its value was recognized in 
ore treatment. He has, from our point of view, the> 
worst possible type of clayey material to filter and in 
addition contamination by iron rust must be avoided; 
hence he adopts a press with wooden frames. We could 
perhaps reciprocate by introducing to him the vacuum- 
filter and pulp-thickeners. 

Pottery. While on the subject of pottery an inter- 
esting application of gold may be referred to, though 
this perhaps comes rather within the province of chem- 
ical industry than metallurgy. It is not commonly recog- 
nized that the gold decoration of cheap pottery con- 
sumes a large amount of the metal in such a manner that 
it never returns to the market. The gold-line decoration 
on cheap cups and the 'solid' gold handles on cheap 
'ornamental' vases is in fact gold of almost the highest 
degree of fineness employed in the arts. The compound 
as employed consists of an organic salt of gold in an oily 
medium, and as applied does not contain more than about 
6-9% of metal. The desired decoration is painted on 
the otherwise finished ware, which is then heated to 
about 700°C, far below the melting-point of gold. Over 
90% of the compound, consisting of the oils and medium, 
is thus burnt away, leaving the perfectly uniform co- 
herent film of gold with which we are all familiar. The 
metallic components consist essentially of pure gold, but 
modified to the extent of about 1% with other metals, 
which brings about the brilliant metallic film; and it is 

.lulv 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


interesting to remark thai it' absolutely pun' gold be em- 
ployed no such tilni would result, the effect being instead 
a dull earthy pink deposit. This affords another example 
of the influenoea of a small amount of a foreign metal 
on the mass, a feature so frequently met with in almost 
every branch of metallurgy. So coherent is the film, in 
spite of the loss of over 90% of the original compound. 
that it may be used as a satisfactory base for electro- 
deposition thereon of another metal, such as silver, for 
decoration or other purposes. Platinum behaves in a 
similar manner, and it is possible that for certain pur- 
poses porcelain dishes coated with gold or platinum by 
this means may be of service in the laboratory. 

As another illustration of borrowing from other indus- 
tries, the metallurgical furnace-builder may derive much 
assistance from the glass industry and vice versa. Oil- 
firing, now so commonly employed in smelting, is well 
known to the glass-maker, who may have experience in 
its use not generally known to the metallurgist. My 
object in the above remarks is to call attention to the 
advantages which must result from a freer interchange 
of knowledge and experience between our various indus- 
tries. To this end one of our leading societies, the 
Society of Chemical Industry, has in normal times an 
annual program of visits to various works, giving mem- 
bers the opportunity of inspecting operations in which 
they are not directly interested. 

Copper. For developments in the metallurgy of cop- 
per we naturally look to the United States. Thanks to 
the publicity given to progress in the States and to their 
excellent technical publications, we have been made 
familiar with recent advances and it thus becomes un- 
necessary to refer to them in detail. Among such, re- 
verberatory practice (due to the ever-increasing amount 
of flotation concentrate to be smelted) may be men- 
tioned. In this connection the increased throat-area, 
with correspondingly larger burners for oil or coal-dust 
firing resulting in largely increased output per furnace, 
should be noted. The El Paso 130-ft. furnaces burning 
oil have reached a daily capacity of over 960 tons with a 
consumption of 0.61 barrel of oil per ton. Leaching of 
oxidized copper ores by ammonia, so often suggested in 
the past, has come within the domain of practical metal- 
lurgy. For example, it is reported that the Calumet & 
Hecla Mining Co., in a plant treating 2000 tons of tail- 
ing per day, is recovering copper at a total cost of 6.25 
cents per pound, with a loss of only one pound of am- 
monia per ton of ore. Further developments have also 
taken place in acid-leaching plants in connection with 
which A. "W. Halin's process deserves mention. He 
passes the acid solution through a number of ore-charges 
until the solution becomes neutral. It is then delivered 
to a tank containing fresh ore whereby the ferric iron is 
precipitated, whence, after acidification, the solution 
passes to the electrolyzing plant for precipitating the 
copper. The treatment of ore in heaps by leaching, 
following Rio Tinto practice, is also being extended in 

In this country the industry cannot be said to be 

flourishing, though in spite of war conditions, and partly 
because of them, some notable achievements have been 
effected. One instance of overcoming ;i serious difficulty 
may be cited, as showing the adaptability and resource- 
fulness of our metallurgists. In this case the ores to bo 
smelted demanded the addition of pyrite, hitherto im- 
ported from Spain. Owing to the requirements of the 
Government for Spanish pyrite for acid-making this 
source of supply was cut off, threatening the closing 
down of the smelting operations. A new and hitherto 
neglected supply was, however, developed by the man- 
ager (one of our members) from the pyrite seams of the 
Welsh collieries, and it is satisfactory to record that this 
source now meets all the requirements of the works, not 
only for sulphur, but when calcined it is available as h - on 
flux for smelting oxidized ores. The neglect to make use 
of this supply in the past is no doubt due to the reluc- 
tance of colliery proprietors to admit the existence of 
sulphur in their mines, as it might reflect on the quality 
of the coal. However, they now recognize that they have 
in pyrite an asset of value ; moreover, it now pays to 
mine coal-seams rich in pyrite that hitherto have been 
left. The pyrite is recovered by hand-picking on belts. 
In the result the copper-works now secure ample sup- 
plies at a. cost considerably below that previously paid 
for Spanish mineral ; it is strange that this material has 
been overlooked by acid-makers in spite of the great de- 
mand created by the War. 

As producers of copper we can, of course, never expect 
to compete with the United States, but, given a measure 
of State assistance, we ought to be in a position to secure 
for treatment a fair share of ores and matte from our 
own Dominions. For this purpose increased electrolytic 
refining capacity is certainly needed, but until some se- 
curity for the industry be assured there is no inducement 
to capital to embark in such undertakings. The ever- 
growing demands of labor, with consequent increase in 
the price of raw materials, unless checked, must inevit- 
ably tend to drive the industry to countries where easier 
conditions prevail. The recent heavy fall in the price of 
the metal due to over-production, and the withdrawal of 
consumption for war purposes, calls for economy in every 
direction ; it also points to the necessity for State action, 
failing which it is difficult to see how the industry can 

The metallurgy op gold, in so far as it relates to the 
recovery of the metal from its ores, shows general im- 
provement, but nothing of first-rate importance except 
perhaps Crowe's method of precipitating cyanide solution 
under reduced pressure. He shows that the air dissolved 
in the solution, has, owing to the different coefficients of 
absorption, a composition of 35% of oxygen and 65% of 
nitrogen, and consequently is a more active oxidizing 
agent than air of normal composition. He points out 
that in weak cyanide solutions, consequently with a 
minimum of hydrogen being generated, the oxidizing 
action of the dissolved oxygen largely neutralizes the re- 
ducing action and may even overcome it. In normal 
practice this is met by adding lump cyanide at the head 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

of the precipitation box, with consequent increased con- 
sumption of both cyanide and zinc. By the adoption of 
the vacuum process this practice is unnecessary and ex- 
traction may be effected with weaker solutions resulting 
in savings in all departments, including the production 
of a purer bullion. The Portland Gold Mining Co. re- 
ports a saving of $30,000 per year in zinc and cyanide in 
a plant treating 2000 tons of ore per day. It is inter- 
esting to note that G. T. Hansen claims similar advan- 
tages by heating the solutions to 170 C F. before precipi- 

Concentration of gold ores by flotation is making prog- 
ress, but the field for this process is somewhat restricted. 
owing to the general high efficiency of the older methods. 
At Cobalt flotation has replaced gravity concentration, 
although at the Nipissing mine this process has been 
rejected, not on account of its inefficiency, but because of 
the difficulties in subsequent treatment of the concen- 
trates. On complex gold-silver concentrate involving 
further treatment, the advantages of flotation compared 
with ordinary concentration followed by cyanide are not 
so manifest. The value of flotation as a means of in- 
creasing the world's output of gold lies rather in im- 
proved recovery of base metals, such as copper, with 
which gold is so commonly associated. 

With reference to the production of gold, and more 
particularly to the question of a bounty, this is a matter 
for settlement between the economist and the producer. 
It is a subject upon which so many varying opinions 
have been expressed by authorities that it is difficult to 
arrive at any decided conclusion. So far as our own 
direct interests are concerned, a bounty on gold would 
be an obvious benefit, as we have many members engaged 
in this industry, though the objections to this course are 
also weighty. 

A committee of the council of the Institution appointed 
to report on the position of the gold output of the 
British empire made an exhaustive inquiry into the sub- 
ject, and issued their report in March 1918. This shows 
that a reduction of 20% of the Empire's gold production 
is visibly imminent, and this at a time when the need for 
gold is ever more pressing.* There can be no two 
opinions as to the vital importance of not only main- 
taining but also increasing our gold supplies, and with 
the object of effecting this the committee recommend a 
10% bounty on the output of all struggling mines or 
alternatively a bounty of two shillings [48c] per ton of 
ore treated. Proposals on these lines, however, were not 
acceptable to the Government Gold Production Com- 

It seems self-evident that unless relief in some form 
be granted, the production of gold must necessarily fall 

*The accuracy of this forecast is shown by a recent ques- 
tion in the House of Commons in which the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer was asked if he was aware that there bad 
been a drop in the gold production of the British Empire 
of 13! % in the year 1918. compared with 1915, and that 
the world's production showed a drop of 20% in the same 
period. The figures given were not questioned. 

by the stoppage of the lower-grade mines; apart from the 
influence this would have on the general economic posi- 
tion, as to which opinions vary, a serious injury would be 
done to gold mining as an industry. Lord Inchcape's 
committee, nowever, is not disturbed by the prospective 
stoppage of these mines, and does not consider such an 
eventuality to be of any great importance to national in- 
terests, f Although there may be objections or difficulties 
in the granting of a direct bounty it would not appear 
impossible to concede some remission of taxation, and to 
this extent relieve the industry of some of its Tin fair 
burden. We alread} 7 have a precedent for such action ; 
children are considered to constitute a valuable asset to 
the State, and in principle, though to a very slight ex- 
tent, taxation relief is granted to the producer. Why, 
therefore, should not similar action be taken in regard 
to gold? 

Lead. In the metallurgy of lead, also, recent advances 
seem to be in detail rather than in fundamental improve- 
ments. In the stress of recent years there has been small 
opportunity of developing new processes in industries 
that are well established on recognized lines, such efforts 
being rather devoted to specialties called for by the War. 
Mention, however, may be made to progress in hydro- 
metallurgy, as applied to oxidized lead ores. This has 
been limited to brine treatment with or without the addi- 
tion of sulphuric acid to carbonate and sulphate ores. 
This process has been tested in America as well as in 
North Wales, where a small plant was working until the 
difficulties of obtaining supplies caused a temporary 
cessation of operations. In this case the material to be 
treated consisted of an extensive dump of blende and 
lead sulphate slimes. Vanner concentration yields a 
mixed product of no value until further separated. This 
is effected by agitating the concentrates with hot satu- 
rated brine at 70°C, whereby the lead sulphate is com- 
pletely dissolved, with, of course, the equivalent forma- 
tion of sodium sulphate. The presence of this salt in 
growing proportions interferes with the solubility of the 
lead sulphate, and must therefore be removed by the 
addition of the equivalent amount of calcium chloride. 
The lead solution is filtered from the blende-calcium 
sulphate residues, and precipitated with slaked lime, re- 
forming a portion of calcium chloride; about 50% of the 
chloride is regenerated, the balance of the chlorine being 
precipitated with the lead as oxy-ehloride. The blende- 
calcium sulphate residues are then re-treated on a van- 
ner. which effects perfect separation of the easily re- 
moved flocculent sulphate, leaving a saleable blende con- 
centrate. The chief objection to the process lies in the 
chloride present in the lead precipitate involving volatil- 
ization loss in smelting, but this may be overcome by 
precipitating the lead by electrolysis, using soluble iron 

tSince these words were written the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer has stated: 'There is nothing in the report of 
Lord Inchcape's committee to suggest that producers of 
gold are not entitled to obtain for their produce the best 
price available in the most favorable market, and I am now 
considering in what manner this can be secured.' 

July 5. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


anodes. This process is limited in its usefulness by the 
relatively small quantity of material available and by 

its inapplicability to silver or gold contents. It may, 
however, develop in the direction of the treatment of low- 
grade sulphide ores, after a sulphating or ehloridizing 
roast at a temperature low enough to prevent the volatil- 
ization of the lead chloride. 

In the province of general metallurgy the increasing 
use of the Cottrell process deserves special mention. As 
an example of painstaking research in developing a prac- 
tical process from a long-known but unused scientific 
fact it has few equals. We have to go hack to 1870 to 
the work of Dr. Tyndall for the first disclosure of the 
phenomenon on which the process is based. This was 
further examined hy Frankland. Lord Rayleigh, and 
Oliver Lodge : but for the useful application of the 
principles involved, we had to wait for Dr. Cottrell. He 
first applied the method to depositing sulphuric acid 
mist produced in the contact process, and is still being 
used for this purpose. It is satisfactory to report that 
the merits of the invention have been recognized in this 
country, the first plant to be erected here in 1917 being 
at one of the Government acid-plants. It is also in use 
here for the precipitation of fumes from metallurgical 
works, following established practice in America; its 
further extension in this country seems certain. The 
advantages of the process are far-reaching ; not only are 
valuable products recovered, but agriculture in the 
neighborhood of the operations is saved from serious 
damage. "We are glad to congratulate Dr. Cottrell on 
receiving the Perkin medal as a recognition of his valu- 
able services to industry. 

The Metal Industry. In considering the position of 
the metal-producing industry before the War, one can- 
not but be struck with the apathy of the Government in 
regard to a matter of such vital importance to our se- 
curity. It is true that as soon as the seriousness of the 
position was realized, energetic steps were taken to meet 
the situation. That within such a comparatively short 
time the difficulties were overcome is a striking tribute 
to the ability and energy of the technical men in this 
country. Industries were created and developed in a 
period of months which had been the subject of many 
years' growth on the part of foreign producers; not only 
were we able to produce articles equal to those obtained 
from abroad, but in many eases higher standards of 
purity and efficiency were achieved. The production of 
high-grade tungsten already referred to is an example of 
this, while in other directions the manufacture of mag- 
netos and optical glass has reached a state of perfection 
unsurpassed by makers possessing prolonged experience. 

These facts demonstrate that our position in pre-war 
days was in no sense brought about by lack of technical 
knowledge or skill, though it has been usual to refer to 
our inferiority in this direction, as well as to lack of in- 
itiative and energy, as being the true cause. The experi- 
ence of the War shows this view to be unfounded, and 
that given reasonable facilities and the absence of official 
and fiscal discouragement we can, so far as technical 

knowledge is concerned, place ourselves in the front rank 
as producers of all essential materials. This charge hav- 
ing been proved to be baseless, it is clear that in order to 
maintain our position as producers some protective steps 
must be adopted; failing this, there is every reason to 
suppose that our new or revived industries will relapse 
into their pre-war inefficiency. It is reported, for in- 
stance, that efforts are being made to re-introduce foreign 
glass into this country, which if successful (unless 
effected under conditions which will protect our own 
manufacturers) cannot but tend to harm, if not to de- 
stiny, an industry which, under war conditions, has suc- 
ceeded in re-establishing itself. 

I am, of course, referring here only to such industries 
as were either non-existent or were in a struggling state, 
and this condition obtained largely in the production of 
certain essential metals. This possibility has been offi- 
cially recognized, and committees have been formed to 
examine into the problems and make recommendations. 
Lord Balfour of Burleigh's committee on commercial and 
industrial policy after the War has made an exhaustive 
inquiry into the subjects covered by the Terms of Ref- 
erence. A study of the committee's final report reveals 
the complexity of the subject. The departmental com- 
mittee's report on the iron and steel trades ascribes the 
relatively stationary condition of this industry in part 
to deficiency of our iron-ore resources, but primarily to 
greater efficiency of German and American methods. 

A point is made of the individualism of the British 
character which prevents the manufacturer from "pool- 
ing his brains and capital to the greater ultimate ad- 
vantage of the industry." This would appear to be a 
just charge. It is well known that with few exceptions 
large amalgamations are not looked upon with favor in 
this country, where moreover every effort is made to 
maintain secrecy in regard to working processes and oper- 
ations generally. I cannot say from personal knowledge 
how far this applies to the steel trades, but it is very evi- 
dent in other metal-producing industries. I am satisfied 
that nothing but benefit would result from removing the 
restrictions to open discussion which persist in this 
country. We should do well to open our works to the 
visits of technical men interested in the subject, as this 
would inevitably result in the exchange of experience 
and information to mutual advantage. The present at- 
titude is certainly not dictated by the technical man- 
agers, who as a body would welcome such an interchange 
of knowledge, but are excluded from this benefit by the 
action of their employers. 

W. R. Ingalls, in his admirable presidential address 
before the Mining & Metallurgical Society of America 
this year, says on this subject: "One of the cardinal 
principles of American engineering during the last 20 
years has been the exchange of information and the pro- 
motion of publicity about everything — technical proc- 
esses, business relations, corporate affairs. We have seen 
America forge ahead largely owing to the absorption of 
this idea, while Great Britain lagged behind. . . . She 
is wide awake now. ' ' 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

It is to be hoped that the awakening referred to has 
indeed taken place. Apparently this secrecy is not con- 
fined to our own special branch of industry. C. F. Cross, 
in 1916, on the occasion of the presentation to him of the 
medal of the Society of Chemical Industry, said: "He 
was particularly aware of the difficulties which they had 
encountered, especially that of being between the cross- 
fii es of the commercial or financial man whose watchword 
was secrecy and the scientific man whose disinterested- 
ness, perfectly natural and spontaneous, led him always 
to wish to publish in order that he might communicate 
what he had found in his laboratory to his fellow scien- 
tific men. . . . They . . . were always most anxious 
to take counsel with their brother chemists, and give them 
the benefit of anything that had impressed them, just as 
they looked to hear of any new discovery by others at 
the earliest possible moment." 

This condition is reflected in our own Transactions 
(and to a less extent in our technical journals), which 
contain but little information on important undertakings 
in this country. In analyzing the papers published in 
the last ten volumes of our Transactions, I find that 
35.8% deal with mining in foreign countries and our 
dominions and colonies. Foreign, etc., metallurgy sup- 
plies 17.3% ; assaying and analysis 15.0% ; general 
27.7%, whereas British mining in these islands is con- 
fined to a solitary paper, and British metallurgy to six 
papers, or 3.5% of the whole. It is true that some of the 
general papers find application here, but the record can 
only be considered as unsatisfactory in that it fails to 
present in any adequate manner important operations 
which we know are being conducted. I hope these re- 
marks may have some effect in removing the veil of 
secrecy which overshadows our undertakings. 

Reverting to the committee's report, the Departmental 
Committee (iron and steel) favors combination both in 
production and in realization of produce, but is also of 
opinion that protection in some form is required to give 
security to industry. Other departmental committees 
report on similar lines, ten such being in favor of a tariff, 
while three (representing the cotton, jute, and ship- 
building industries) report against. The main com- 
mittee is by no means unanimous on the point, but it 
should not be beyond the capacity of the Government to 
reconcile the conflicting views, and decide on the course 
most advantageous to the country as a whole. It would 
be out of place and indeed superfluous to discuss the 
well-worn arguments for and against tariffs, though it 
would probably be found that the majority of the mem- 
bers have very definite views on the question. 

Though the committee leans toward protection it ex- 
presses the fear that such might result in stereotyping 
inefficient methods, but in my view there is little ground 
to support this. I anticipate, on the other hand, that the 
feeling of security engendered by a suitable degree of 
protection would stimulate producers to adopt modern 
methods involving capital expenditure which under pres- 
ent conditions they decline to risk. 

The committee is strongly of opinion that State con- 

trol will be found detrimental to peace conditions, a con- 
clusion with which most will agree, though recent action 
in regard to both coal mines and railways does not en- 
courage the hope that this opinion will find favor. It is 
also eminently* satisfactory that they agree with the reso- 
lution adopted by the Imperial War Conference as to the 
formation in London of the Imperial Mineral Resources 
Bureau. Much of the foundation work of the bureau has 
been accomplished, and there is good ground for antici- 
pating that the hopes of its promoters will be realized. 

It was my intention to discuss in some detail certain 
aspects of the problem of reconstruction in so far as our 
special interests are affected, but these have been so fully 
and carefully analyzed by W. R. Ingalls, in his address 
already referred to, that little remains to be said. I am 
in no sense detracting from the merits of his remarks, 
when I say that he is addressing those who are already 
converted, but few have the knowledge and ability to 
put the case so succinctly and convincingly. It is earn- 
estly to be hoped that it may come into the hands not 
only of Labor leaders, but of those in control of Govern- 
ment departments having relations with mining and 
metallurgical matters. Naturally he deals mainly with 
American affairs, but his arguments bear with equal 
force on conditions existing here. He makes reference to 
these, but in my view his opinions on our position are 
somewhat too sanguine. He will pardon me for giving 
one or two extracts. He quotes the view of an American 
visitor to this country, who says : 

' ' England is knitting together for work. The directors 
of capital and organized labor were never more together. 
. . . England is studying efficiency and is preparing 
for overseas competition." 

Mr. Ingalls himself says : 

"We have seen how Great Britain practically lost im- 
portant metallurgical industries . . . and we see her- 
now keenly studying and introducing improvements that 
will . . . not unlikely put her ahead of us." 

It will be admitted that there is some tendency in this • 
direction, but the union and progress foreshadowed are 
still far from achievement. No doubt his reference to • 
conditions in Europe are designed primarily to stimulate 
the efforts of his own countrymen. The ever-growing 
concessions of shorter hours at higher pay must be care- 
fully watched in their effect if we are to maintain our 
position against foreign competition. From this point of ' 
view it is almost a matter of satisfaction that similar 
claims are being put forward in America. 

Mr. Ingalls in his masterly address shows the economic 
fallacy underlying such demands as have recently been 
pressed. I take the liberty of making two more quota- 
tions: the first, addressed to the American engineer, has 
equally forceful application to ourselves: 

"First of all, what I see is that the engineer should 
saturate himself with sound economic doctrine. This is 
just as much the basis of his professional work as are the 
sciences of physics and chemistry." 

The second will, I hope, reach the class to whom it' 
aptly applies : 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 


"The social reformer, who does not understand pro- 
duction, is a far loss important person in the promotion 
of human welfare than the engineer who does." 

The principles he lays down as to the general economic 
position apply with perhaps greater force to this coun- 
try, since we are to so large an extent dependent on 
overseas countries for our supply of raw materials. 

It is heyond my capacity to forecast the future of 
metallurgy in this country. Our industry is suffering in 
common with many others from the lack of any clear 
indication of the fiscal policy of the future. The Minister 
of National Service and Reconstruction has certainly 
stated that all raw materials required for national indus- 
tries would be admitted without restriction, but whether 
this applies only to the reconstruction period or is to be 
the final settled policy, seems uncertain. So far as his 
statement goes it indicates that ores, which are essen- 
tially raw materials, will be admitted freely, and to this 
extent the smelting industry would benefit ; but if metal, 
such as spelter, which may he looked upon as raw ma- 
terial from the galvanizer's point of view, is also in- 
cluded in the list we may have a hard task to hold our 
own. In regard to this, however, there is ground for a 
hopeful outlook, as he also intimated that industries 
w T hich it was essential to foster would receive a measure 
of protection in some form. I think it will be admitted 
the production of metal is among such industries. 

Regarding the labor situation, we are, I think, justified 
in anticipating that the Industrial Conference will lead 
to greatly improved relations between Capital and Labor, 
though up to the present some of the more important 
groups have held aloof from the Conference. It is to be 
hoped that legislative effect will be given promptly to 
the proposals and that the National Industrial Council 
will be the means of promoting and maintaining indus- 
trial peace. 

Though the future may be beset with difficulties it is 
not the time to take pessimistic views, but rather to use 
every effort to meet them and to accommodate ourselves 
to the new conditions brought about by the War. Shakes- 
peare puts the following lines into the mouth of King 
Henry V when in a position of difficulty before Agin- 

"... 'tis true we are in great danger; 
The greater therefore should our courage be. 

There is some soul of goodness in things evil 
Would men observingly distil it out." 
It is in this spirit that we must go forward, striving if 
possible to extract the small essence of goodness which 
may, after all, be extractable from the vast slough left 
to the world as a war legacy. 

Oil-Land Valuation 

Gold production of the Lena property in Siberia, 
during 1916-17— the latest figures just to hand— was 
380,273 oz. from 569,513 cu. yd. of gravel. This return 
was well up to normal. As the mines are 5000 miles 
from Petrograd, and 1000 miles from rail, Bolshevism 
did not affect the community in that year. 

A bulletin (iii the 'Decline and I It imate Production 
of oil-Wells, with Notes on the Valuation of Oil Prop- 
erties', by Carl II. Beal, has just been issued by the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines. One of the most vexing problems that 
eon fronts petroleum producers and petroleum engineers 
is the estimation of the total amount of oil that may be 
obtained from the oil-wells and from oil-lauds, and the 
rate at which the future productions may be obtained. 
This is a problem upon which much thought has been 
given and much work been done in the past, but it has 
only been within recent years that it has been brought 
down to a rational engineering basis. The bulletin of 
the Bureau of Mines is a record of the work done by 
many engineers with much information in advance that 
has been developed by the Bureau of Mines. It is obvious 
that an estimate that is reasonably reliable is an ex- 
tremely valuable bit of information to the producer, to 
the prospective buyer, to the pipe-line companies, and to 
refiners depending upon certain sources of supply, and 
for the purpose of determining depletion allowances for 
book-keeping or taxation. In the past this has usually 
been done upon the personal judgment of the producers 
of wide experience, though many of the principles em- 
ployed in this bulletin have been used consciously or un- 
consciously by producers ; as, for example, observing the 
rate at which production falls off. The bulletin is the 
result of a rational and systematic compilation and 
analysis of records whereby essential principles and 
facts are established and the factor of personal experi- 
ence and judgment is almost eliminated. 

The bulletin outlines old and new methods for estimat- 
ing the output of oil-lands and gives numerous curves 
and other data which should be of great assistance to oil 
producers and engineers in determining the probable 
amount of oil that a property might yield. The problem 
of the application of methods of oil-valuation is covered 
and explanations given in the use of methods in comput- 
ing depletion allowances in hook-keeping and in taxation. 
The bulletin should do much toward developing scien- 
tific methods for the buying and selling of properties, 
amortizing capital investment, and in estimating future 
productions of properties in the United States. 

Tin production of Tasmania during the past four 
years was 2256, 2637, 2855, and 4010 tons, respectively. 
This is oxide, carrying 70% metal. The industry em- 
ploys 1260 Australians. The largest producers last year 
were Mt. Bisehoff (lode) with 458 tons, Briseis (allu- 
vial) 321 tons. Pioneer (alluvial) 264 tons, Mt. Bisehoff 
Extended (lode) 155 tons, and Royal George (lode) 112 
tons. From 1880 to 1918, inclusive, the total output of 
the State was 126,846 tons of oxide, valued at £13,236.078 
($63,100,000). _ _____ 

Amorphous graphite to the amount of 6560 short 
tons, valued at $69,455, was sold from mines in Colorado, 
Nevada, and Rhode Island. The output of amorphous 
graphite in 1917 was 8301 short tons, worth $73,481. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5. 1919 

Electric Hoisting Equipment at the Butte & 

Superior Mine 


The present electric hoisting equipment at this com- 
pany's mine at Butte, Montana, has now been in opera- 
tion about two years, steam-hoists having been employed 
prior to this. The installation of the new hoists is so 
closely connected with the history of the mine itself that 
it is of interest to review briefly the course of events. 

The mine is in heavy ground ; faulting is frequent, and 
there is considerable movement of ground. On account 
of these factors the old shaft had got into such bad con- 
dition tint it was decided to sink a new shaft and equip 
it with a new hoist. This brought up the question of the 
'chippy' hoist, which had been run unbalanced, and 
hence with heavy consumption of power. To reduce this 
power consumption it was suggested to run the chippy 
with a counterweight, but on developing the idea it was 
found better to substitute a cage for the counterweight, 
which meant another compartment in the shaft. The 
plan of the proposed new shaft embodying all these fea- 
tures now showed that it was entirely too large for the 
prevailing conditions, so it was decided to sink two shafts 
about 60 ft. apart. These two shafts were arranged to 
assist in the development of the ventilation system (actu- 
ally they are both down-east), and certain safety-first 
ideas, such as connections, fire-doors, and sprays, were 
included in the design. The hoisting equipment was to 
be a permanent feature, not changing with depth, and 
was designed for an ultimate depth of 5000 ft. The de- 
sign called for a rope-speed of 3000 ft. per minute, so that 
about 160 tons per hour could be hoisted. The adoption 
of electricity as the motive power for the new hoists was 
. decided upon only after all the factors of cost, reliability, 
and electric design had been considered. One of the de- 
termining factors was the amount of steam required by 
the milling process. The discussion of the relative merits 
of steam and electric hoisting is outside the scope of the 
present article. Suffice it to say that electric hoists have 
reached a stage of dependability unknown ten years ago, 
while 1he inter-connecting of the various ramifications 
of the Montana Power Co. guarantees a supply of power 
in which interruptions are extremely rare. 

The main shaft has two skip-compartments and one 
small compartment for signals, etc. The 'chippy' shaft 
has three full compartments, two for skips and one for 
pipes and power-lines. The steel head-frame at the main 
shaft is 135 ft. from the ground to the centre of the 
sheaves, which are of 12 ft. diameter. The main hoist is 
set back 400 ft. from the head-frame, the ropes running 
over idlers on two steel towers placed between the shaft 
and the hoist-house. For handling men, four super- 

imposed cages are used in eaeh compartment of the main 
shaft, and two cages in the chippy shaft-compartments, 
making 12 decks in all. This means 120 men lowered at 
eaeh round trip of both hoists, an important factor when 
sending a shift of 600 men into the mine. The skip 
weighs 5 tons, and holds 7 tons of ore ; the cage above it 
weighs 2.5 tons, making a total load of 14.5 tons. The 
rope is of 1.5 in. diameter and weighs 4 lb. per foot. The 
rope at the chippy hoist is of 1| in. diameter. 

Both the Ilgner and Ward-Leonard systems are em- 
bodied in the hoisting equipment, but they are too well- 
known to call for more than brief mention here. The 
heavy fly-wheel on the motor-generator set is the main 
feature of the Ilgner system. When the load on the 
generator becomes heavy, as at starting, the set is slowed 
down by a regulator on the A.C. motor, causing the fly- 
wheel to give up some of its stored energy and put into 
the system power that would otherwise have to be drawn 
from the supply mains. Peak loads, and hence cost of 
power, are thus reduced. On the other hand, if the 
descending load in the shaft speeds up the hoist, the D.C. 
motor becomes a generator and puts power into the 
motor-generator set, thus speeding up the heavy fly- 
wheel. When the speed of the latter is 5% over syn- 
chronous, the induction motor also acts as a generator 
and feeds alternating current back into the power-lines. 
The Ward-Leonard system applies to the regulation of 
the hoist-speed by varying the field strength of the gen- 
erator that supplies power to the hoist motor. 

The diagram shows the arrangement of the main hoist 
as it will appear when complete. While not the largest 
electric hoist in the world, it will be the largest of the 
fly-wheel type. The photographs show the present condi- 
tion of the equipment, in which the motor-generator set 
consists of one A.C. motor, one fly-wheel, and one D.C. 
generator with exciter; the hoist has one D.C. motor. 
When complete, a second fly-wheel and D.C. generator 
will be added to the motor-generator set, and a second 
D.C. motor to the hoist. These additions will be made as 
the shaft approaches its ultimate depth of 5000 ft. The 
main hoist and the chippy hoist are in separate rooms, 
each having its own overhead crane. This is a good 
arrangement, as it means that the lighter machinery of 
the chippy hoist can be handled by a small crane, leaving 
the big crane for the heavily constructed main hoist. The 
motor-generator set for the chippy hoist is in the same 
room as the main hoist. 

The induction motor that drives this set is developing 
about 1400 hp. at present, but when the set is complete it 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

will develop 2000 hp. To give the higher rating, an alter- 
ation will be made in the winding, the present series- 
delta being changed to a parallel-star. The speed is 500 
r.p.m. and the voltage is 2200. A three-phase 60-cycle 
current is taken from the Montana Power Co. at the 
above voltage, two separate lines coming in from their 
main sub-station, about a mile from the mine, so that it 
can be arranged to run the hoisting eequipment on a line 
separate from that supplying the power for the mill. 
Th'.> induction motor has an automatic slip-regulator for 
inserting resistance into the rotor to reduce the speed. 
This regulator operates when the load comes on at start- 
ing and during the acceleration period, thus preventing 
a too heavy demand on the power-line. As the speed of 
the set is reduced, the fly-wheel gives up energy to take 
the peak load. The fly-wheel is a disc of 12 ft. diameter, 
built up of steel plates riveted together, its effective 
weight being 60 tons. At 500 r.p.m. it has a peripheral 
speed of 18,850 ft. per minute. It is mounted on a shaft 
of 18 in. diameter, which runs in two water-cooled bear- 
ings, each 4 ft. long, lubricated by both ring and gravity- 
feed systems. Besides these, oil at a pressure of 1500 lb. 
per square inch can be forced under the shaft for raising 
it off the bearings when it is desired to start the set after 
a stoppage. The fly-wheel is housed in order to reduce 
wind friction. The D.C. generator is a 1500-kw. shunt 
machine with interpole and commutator windings. Its 
field is controlled directly by the hoist-engineer, as will 
be explained later. The maximum voltage is 650. In 
case of shutting down the motor-generator set for any 
reason, there is provided a reverse-switch for putting a 
counter-torque on the motor, resulting in its coming to 
rest in about five minutes, as against 2J hours if left to 
run free. The exciter for the set is a 60-kw. 250-volt 
shunt-machine, whose voltage is kept constant by a Terrill 
regulator. The exciter is for both motor field and gener- 
ator field excitation, and for the control of all the safety- 
devices. In case of accident to this machine, a spare 
exciter (a motor-generator set) is provided. All these 
machines are rated at a continuous operating figure 
allowing for a 40°C. rise in temperature; they are all 
capable, as far as commutation is concerned, of taking a 
momentary over-load of 100%. The weight of the motor- 
generator set (including the fly-wheel) as in use at pres- 
ent is 285,000 lb. "When complete it will weigh about 
500.000 pounds. 

The two drums on the hoist consist of cast-iron spiders 
with shells of rolled-steel plate. The present diameter is 
9 ft., but this will be increased to 12 ft. for the complete 
equipment, when each drum will carry 5000 ft. of 1-J-in. 
rope in two layers. The present speed of hoisting with 
the 9-ft. drums is 2260 ft. per minute. The capacity to 
3000 ft. depth is 216 tons per hour, allowing for an accel- 
eration period of 20 seconds and a retardation period of 
15 seconds. The diameter of the shaft is 16 in., with the 
connecting flange forged solid. Lubrication of all bear- 
ings is by ring and gravity-feed systems. The maximum 
speed is 80 r.p.m. Brakes are applied by weight and re- 
leased by oil-pressure, though there is not so much brak- 

ing necessary with an electric as with a steam hoist, the 
speed of the former being reduced by moving the con- 
troller back, the brake being applied only for the final 
stoppage. Oil at a pressure of 100 lb. per square inch is 
supplied by friplex pumps (installed in duplicate), while 
an accumulator is provided on the line, which would give 
several operations of brake or clutch should the pumps 
go down. The D.C. motor is direct-connected to the 
drum shaft. It has a continuous rating of 2000 hp. but is 
capable of a heavy over-load, as is demonstrated by the 
ammeter when starting, the current being between 4000 
and 5000 amperes. The maximum voltage is 650. The 
weight of the hoist without the motor is 375,000 lb., the 
motor weighing 180,000 pounds. 

The hoist-engineer sits in a closed cabin lighted by 
windows and ventilated by a fan. He has three levers in 
front of him, one being the master-controller, the others 
the brakes for the two drums. Two cranks for operating 
the clutches are placed one on each side of him. Engi- 
neers accustomed to hoisting by steam have no trouble in 
learning to operate an electric hoist; in fact, they prefer 
the latter once they have become familiar with it. The 
master-controller works a series of contactors on the 
switchboard, which cut resistance in or out of the gener- 
ator-field to regulate the speed of the hoist. Since the 
field of the hoist-motor is separately excited, its speed will 
van - directly as the impressed voltage coming from the 
generator. The hoist will run at certain speeds, constant 
for each notch on the controller. The equipment is such 
that by pushing a button the speed is automatically re- 
duced for hoisting men. This control is independent of 
the master-controller, but is seldom used. Welsch safety- 
devices prevent over-speed or over- winding ; they operate 
by shutting off the power and applying the brakes. In 
addition, a limit-switch is being put into the shaft, which 
will be positive in its action. Should the indicator on the 
"Welsch device slip, the over-wound cage will hit the limit- 
switch mounted on the head-frame. To ensure reduction 
of speed at the proper point, there is a cam slow-down 
device that pushes over the master-controller as the cage 
approaches the collar of the shaft. This device operates 
should the engineer not slow down, and will ensure the 
hoist being at a low enough speed for its prompt stoppage 
if the cage should open the limit-switch. Power (if on) 
is cut off, and brakes are applied if power from the gener- 
ator to the hoist-motor fails for any reason ; if power for 
control, or for the motor-field, is lost ; if the motor-gener- 
ator set over-speeds owing to power coming back into the 
circuit. In case any safety-device functions, the con- 
troller must be brought back to the central position before 
brakes can be released. All safety-devices work on the 
closed-circuit principle, so that if a wire breaks, or the 
current goes off the circuit for any reason, the safety- 
devices operate and the hoist stops. All these automatic 
safety-contrivances have been tested in actual work, so 
that every confidence is felt in their reliability; besides 
which every effort has been made to eliminate all possible 
mishaps, such as are usually classified at an inquest as 
"unforeseen". In ease the power-lines coming to the 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


mine go dead, there is sufficient energy in the fly-wheel to 
make several trips in the shaft with men. If the motor- 
generator set goes out of notion altogether, of course, no 
hoisting can be done, the case being comparable to the 
complete failure of the boiler-plant at a steam-hoist. 

The 'chippy' hoist may be regarded as a small edition 
of the main hoist, with one or two minor changes. The 
drum is 8 ft. in diameter by 9 ft. long, and makes 68 
T.p.m., being geared to the motor-shaft by "Wuest herring- 
hone gears. The motor on this hoist is rated at 600 hp. 
with a voltage of 500 and a speed of 450 r.p.m. There is 

oharge of K. K. Renz, chief electrician, whose assistance 
in the preparation of this article I wish to acknowledge. 

Tin production of the Federated Malay States during 
1918, according to the Chamber of Mines, amounted to 
37,370 long tons, a decrease of 2463 tons. The exported 
ore or oxide averages 72% metal. The product is smelted 
at Penang and Singapore. The pre-war rate for reduc- 
tion was 70 cents per picul of 133J lb., but the present 
charge is $1.47. The average price last year was $85.30 
per picul, an increase of $23.72 in 1917. Since the close 

ACM., Alternating Current Motor 
DCG, Direct Current Generator 
D.C.M., Direct Current Motor 
E , Three-wire Exciter 

F. t Fly- wheel 

5.R., 5 lip regulator 
O..C B, Oil Circuit - breaker 
V., Voltmeter 

W, Wattmeter 

■ 2200 V 

■ 3<t> 

■ 60 ~ 

Resistance in 
'generator field 
adjusted by 


a flexible coupling between the motor-shaft and the shaft 
carrying the gear. The rope speed is 1660 ft. per minute. 
All the safety-devices found on the main hoist are in- 
stalled on the chippy. For speed-control a face-plate con- 
troller is used instead of the contactors of the larger ma- 
chine. The motor-generator set consists of an A.C. motor 
of 600 hp. making 720 r.p.m., a fly-wheel weighing 20 
tons (to be increased to 40 tons when the depth is 5000 
ft.), a shunt- wound generator of 500 kw., and a 7i-kw. 

All windings on hoist-motors and generators are in- 
sulated with mica to take care of high temperatures. The 
hoists were made by Nordberg, and the electrical equip- 
ment by Westinghouse. All electrical machinery is in 

of the year it has been necessary, owing to the absence 
of any market for tin, for the Government of the Fed- 
erated Malay States to become a buyer at $67 per picul, 
the price paid by the Government being subsequently 
reduced to $56.78 per picul. The mining community 
contributed toward the revenue of the country in royalty 
alone $7,462,062, which is 13.90% of the gross value of 
the ore recovered. This shows the substantial increase 
of $2,097,840, or 39%, over the revenue derived from 
tin during 1917. — Consular Report. 

The Oroviue Dredging Co.'s boats in Colombia, 
South America, recovered $28,950 from 28,767 eu. yd. 
at Pato, from April 10 to 28. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

•July 5. 1913 

A Feeder for Oil or Acid in a 
Flotation Plant 


The feeder herein described is employed in the con- 
centrator of the Anaconda reduction works. Some men- 
tion of this appliance has already appeared in print, hut 
the present article goes more into detail in describing the 
feeder actually in use today.* 



K- — -si'- — > 

distribution to three standard Minerals Separation ma- 
ehines. with 15 cells and 14 spitzkasten each, and it is 
into the discharge of this elevator that the acid and oil 
are fed, thus obviating any corrosive action on the belt 
or buckets of the elevator. The feeders are placed side 
by side, and discharge into a lead pipe serving both, thus 
mixing the acid and oil on their way to join the pulp. 
Both liquids are sufficiently viscous to give a practically 
continuous thin stream. 

The principal parts of the feeder are a box A, to hold 
the acid or oil ; a bronze disc B, to carry the buckets ; and 
a trough C, into which the buckets discharge. The box 
A is made of light steel plate, and lined with lead £-in. 
thick. The inside dimensions of the box are : length 3 ft. 
3 in. ; width 1 ft. 6 in. ; depth 1 ft. 4 in. A non-corrosive 
oil would, of course, not require a lead lining, and a steel 
disc could be used instead of one of bronze. The box is 
stiffened at the top by a light angle running around three 
sides. On the fourth side, it has a piece of angle to carry 
the bearing. Acid or oil is fed periodically into the box 
to maintain a sufficient level of liquid to fill the buckets. 
The bronze disc B is 3 ft. in diameter by i in. thick. It 
is bolted to a flange on the shaft, and has the lead buckets 
attached tangentially to it. The details of the buckets 
are shown in the sketch. They are of 3/32 in. sheet-lead, 
and have at one side a block of oval section to pass 
through an oval hole in the disc. The buckets are at- 
tached to the disc by driving a tapered pin through a 
|-in. hole in the oval block. Should this hole become 
enlarged, a bolt with a washer may be used instead of 
the pin, the washer jamming against the disc. The 
capacity of each bucket is 330 cubic centimetres. 

As the disc revolves, the buckets dip into the liquid 
contained in the box, elevate it and discharge it into the 
trough C, which empties into the pipe running to the dis- 
charge of the pulp-elevator. As originally designed, the 
speed of the disc could be varied by means of a friction- 
drive ; but at present the drive is made directly by a bevel 
gear on the shaft, and the disc revolves at a constant speed 
of about one revolution per minute. To vary the feed, 
buckets are added or removed from the disc, plenty of 
holes being provided for this purpose. The trough C is 
of lead § in. thick, and is of such form that the buckets 
can discharge into it and afterward pass clear of it. The 
wide end of the trough is supported by a lead bracket D. 
bolted to the edge of the box. The box-lining, trough, 
and buckets are all made up by the lead burners. 


To each section of the concentrator there are two of 
these feeders, one for acid and one for oil. They supply 
the acid and oil for treatment, per 24 hours, of about 
6000 tons of pulp, equivalent to'about 1200 tons of dry 
material consisting of ground Wilfley-table middlings. 
To this is generally added some thickened slime, making 
the total pulp about 6780 tons. This pulp is elevated for 

•Frederick Laist and Albert E. Wiggin. 'Flotation Con- 
centration at Anaconda'. Trans. A. I. M. E., Vol. LV. 

Dredging at the Lenskoie property of the Lena Gold- 
fields company in Siberia has been postponed on account 
of the revolution in Russia. The first dredge was ordered 
in America over three years ago, is fully paid for, and 
awaits shipment at South Milwaukee. Reserves of 
gravel for dredging are estimated at 58,984,000 cu. yd., 
averaging 39 cents per yard recoverable. This is suffi- 
cient for two 17-cu. ft. boats for 16 years, according to 
C. "W. Purington. In November 1917 there were 5379 
men employed at the mines, who averaged only 0.14 cu. 
yd. of gravel per man-day. 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 







The demand for labor in the Copper Country has taken 
a sudden change; men are scarce, and there is work for 
every man here. All mines could use a few more men 
underground than they have at present. Sixty days ago 
the mines were laying oft' men and reducing production 
50%. A total of 2500 men were discharged or quit ; the 
majority were surface employees. Miners were not gen- 
erally let out. Today there is not a mine in the district 
that could not use more trammers and miners. That 
does not portend an increase in output of ore, nor yet an 
increase in copper production; it simply means that 
shortage of cash is not the prime consideration with the 
mines. Bather was the action taken to prevent a too 
long continuance of an over-stocked metal market. The 
miners are at work in newer openings. Every operating 
company in this district is making the most, of this oppor- 
tunity to get its mine in good physical condition. 



The director of the Oregon Bureau of Mines, Henry 
M. Parks, has announced that the Bureau expects to do 
considerable field work in southern Oregon during the 
present season. The auto-truck engineer crew of the 
Bureau left Portland on June 3 for this region, and will 
be operating during the coming few weeks in the Jack- 
sonville district south of Gold Hill. This outfit is an 
auto-truck upon which is mounted a complete sampling, 
crushing, pulverizing, and assaying plant. The power is 
operated by the motor of the truck. There will be four 
or five men in the crew, and they will make detail ex- 
amination of a number of partly developed mines, most 
of which are now idle. Mr. Parks expects to be there 
during the preliminary work. 

During the War, the State Bureau suspended all field 
operations, likewise its publications, but with an appro- 
priation of $50,000 by the recent Legislature, the Bureau 
will resume field work throughout the State and publish 
results. There will be also a systematic investigation of 
oil and gas possibilities. The field work in eastern 
Oregon is being done jointly with the U. S. Geological 
Survey, while the western part of the State is being in- 
vestigated solely by the State department. The Bureau 
has contracted with a well known firm of consulting oil 
geologists to do the work in western Oregon. 

The "War Minerals Relief Commission will probably 

hold a public meeting at Medford early in August to 
hear any further evidence in support of the claims filed 
for relief in southern Oregou and northern California. 

The lessee of the Nellie Wright gold mine, R. M. Wil- 
son, three miles east of Gold Hill, who recently under- 
took to unwater the mine preparatory to resuming oper- 
ations, found that the present electric power-line and 
service were not sufficient to operate the mine and mill. 
The property is less than 4, mile from the main trans- 
mission-line passing down the valley on the Pacific high- 
way, but due to the lapse of this service during the 24- 
hour period, he will be forced to put in an independent 
wire to the sub-station at Gold Ray, a distance of 5 miles, 
at an expense of $1500. 



The Mountain Copper Co. has issued its report for 
1918. The profit from the sale of metals, acid, etc., was 
£88,159 ($420,000). After charging £48,606 ($230,000) 
for depreciation, £6722 ($32,000) for American taxes, 
and £43,750 ($206,000) for debenture interest, there 


was a deficit of £7626 ($36,000). Ores, metals, and 
stores on hand are valued at £155,674 ($744,000) ; cash, 
£81,132 ($380,000) ; investments, £162,021 ($770,000) ; 
and sundry debtors £42,654 ($201,000). Sundry cred- 
itors are owed £67,566 ($320,000). The 6% debentures 
amount to £625,000 ($3,000,000). 

The consulting engineers, Burch, Caetani, and Her- 
shey, reported as follows: 

At Iron Mountain, developments in No. 8 mine were 
uniformly successful, resulting in an increase of reserves 
and average grade. The West vein contains 157.561 
tons of 2.49% ore, plus 88,000 tons probable. Little ex- 
ploration was done in the Complex mine, in which re- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

serves are 93.596 tons of 2.22% ore, plus 33,500 tons 
probable. Miscellaneous ore in these mines is 17,700 
tons of 2.22% ore. The Hornet mine is estimated to con- 
tain 1.320.000 tons. The New Year mine opened better 
than expected. Further drilling is to be done to find 
another 'layer' of ore : and later on, work may be done 
jointly with the Balaklala company. 

The railway is in good physical condition. It is sug- 
gested that an aerial tram be constructed to take its 
place. The railway cannot be abandoned entirely for 
three reasons: (1) it is doubtful whether the Old Mine 
filling can be carried in buckets, it being uneven in size 
and sticky; (2) flotation concentrate is too sticky for 
buckets: and (3) the long timbers for the mine can 
hardly he carried by a tram. However, an aerial tram 
would reduce costs generally. 

The Minnesota mill's capacity was proved to be 500 
Ions per day, instead of 550 as planned; but slight 
changes will remedy this. In order to produce a 15% 
copper concentrate, a tailing loss of 10% is expected. 
The new plant to treat Old Mine filling was completed 
at the end of the year. Preliminary tests showed good 

At the smelter at Martinez, costs rose to a point some- 
what above those of the period that preceded the change 
in mining and smelting methods. Abnormal conditions 
were the cause. The leaching plant worked well. It 
was to be enlarged to treat a larger quantity of calcined 
material from the Hornet mine. There was treated dur- 
ing last year 6023 tons from the Iron Mountain mine. 
20,491 from No. 8. 27.418 from the Hornet. 16.001 of 
concentrates, and 8782 from other mines. The output 
of copper was 3448 long tons, or 7.723.520 pounds. 



ClJSTEB. — The Summit property near Oreville has been 
sold to John R. Bland, and men are getting it in shape 
for production. The copper ore can be graded easily by 
hand-sorting, and this will be doue until such a time as 
the development warrants erection of machinery. It is 
expected that shipments to the smelter will be made 

Deadwood. — Good progress is being made at the tun- 
nel which is being driven to open the old workings of the 
Iron Hill mine in the Carbonate district. The tunnel has 
gained a depth of over 500 ft, and when completed will 
have a length of 1350 ft. Aside from draining and mak- 
ing these workings accessible, it will pass through virgin 
ground that in all probability will show mineral. The 
Iron Hill was the richest silver mine in the Black Hills, 
but has only been developed to a depth of 400 ft. The 
present work is being done by Eastern capital that holds 
options on the property and adjacent ground. 

The Deadwood Lead & Zinc Co. has completed all ar- 
rangements for placing in commission its 10-stamp con- 
centrator in Spruce gulch. A delay in the delivery of 
suitable motors caused an idleness of several months. 
The new equipment is expected shortly and the plant will 

be in operation before July 1. The mine has been de- 
veloped to a point where a continuous output of ore is 

The Cutting Mining Co.. whose pi-operty adjoins the 
Homestake on the west, is continuing development. A 
shaft is being sunk, and has gained a depth of 250 ft. 
This will be continued to 500 ft., to be followed by ex- 
tensive lateral work. A new single-drum hoist and 
Ingersoll-Rand compressor have been installed. Electrie 
power is used. A good grade of gold-silver ore was 
opened in the upper workings, and this is being devel- 
oped with depth. 

Exglewood. — The Custer Peake Copper Co. has com- 
pleted erection and started a concentrator. Wilfley 
tables and Bland screens are used. The Jungle mine, 
which is being worked by the company, shows copper ore 
on several levels, and is said to contain 4% native copper. 
The ore will be dressed and shipped to the smelter. 

HlLL Citv. — The National Tin Co., formerly the Amer- 
ican Tin Co.. has resumed work at the Cowboy and 
Mohawk mines. Ore is being broken in the former, and 
the latter is being developed. It is proposed to sink the 
Cowboy shaft, now 300 ft. deep, to 500 ft. A new 550-ft. 
Norwalk compound compressor has been added to the 
mine equipment. Additions are being made to the con- 
centrator, and seven Wilfley and eight Isbel slime-tables 
have been purchased. In addition to this, a ball-mill for 
re-grinding has also been added. Alexander Roy of New 
York has been placed in charge as general manager. 

Lead. — Sinking of the Ellison shaft of the Homestake 
company has been started. At present this shaft is down 
2090 ft., including a sump 90 ft. It is proposed to sink 
several hundred feet and cut stations every 150 ft., then 
open the levels. The storage for 10.000 tons of coal has 
been completed. An Erie -J-yd. clam-shell bucket-shovel 
is used in loading the coal into ears from the open bin, for 

Trojax. — The Dark Horse and General Grant proper- 
ties have been leased to Manion. Harris, and Stewart and 
regular shipments of ore are being made to the Trojan 
cyanide plant. 




Ore production from the Tonopah Divide mine con- 
tinues at the rate of 60 tons dailv. mill-heads ranging 
from $30 to $35 per ton. This ore. shipped to the Mac- 
Namara mill at Tonopah. is drawn from all parts of the 
mine; from the four main levels and connecting raises. 
On the second level the south-east foot-wall drift is being 
advanced in good ore. It was the shortest of the south- 
east drifts, having advanced 160 ft. from the shaft cross- 
cut. The third level south-east drift was resumed lately 
from a point 350 ft. from the shaft cross-cut and is in 
ore of shipping grade. Two raises from the fourth to 
the third level were recently holed through. The first 
raise. 50 ft. from the shaft cross-cut, broke ore through- 
out averaging $60 per to??; the second. 250 ft. from the 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


cross-cut, was in high-grade ore all the way. the product 
for over 30 it. uear t ho top averaging $286 p<'r ton. 
The fourth level drift to the south-east, resumed after 
the new compressor was started, has beea breaking ore 
of high grade, having entered the rich shoot in which a 
sill 30 by 50 Ft. was opened on the third level. This 
drift lias exposed large masses of quartz, the first found 
in quantity in the mine. The presence of quartz does 
not affect the value of the ore. Two cross-cuts were 
started from the fourth level drift, which is on the 
hanging-wall side of the ore-channel, but neither ex- 
posed the foot-wall at a distance of 30 ft. from the drift. 
Both cross-cuts continued in rich ore. The consulting 
engineer, A. I. D'Arcy, says that the fourth level has 
proved far richer than levels above, and declares that 
the uniformly high value of ore throughout the large 
area developed, rather than bonanza spots and sensa- 
tional assays, establishes the great value of the mine. 
The fifth level cross-cut is being driven to the vein, at 
a depth of 581 ft., and at the present rate of progress, 
about 7 ft. daily, should penetrate the hanging wall 
before the end of June. 

Seams of rich ore were exposed in surface prospecting 
some time ago on the Divide Extension property, 600 ft. 
north of the main shaft. An assessment hole had been 
dug at this point by 'Jimmy' Grimes, a pioneer pros- 
pector and claim-owner of the district, who had aban- 
doned this ground. A shot in the bottom of this hole 
exposed ore stringers and Ed. J. Bevis, the superin- 
tendent, after obtaining the consent of Zeb Kendall, 
president and manager, proceeded to sink a prospect 
shaft here, using a windlass. Rich seams were found in 
the course of sinking, and at a depth of 45 ft. laterals 
were started north-west and south-east. These were de- 
signed for drifts, but as work progressed it was shown 
that they were cross-cutting a wide fracture-zone, with 
a trend that has since been agreed upon as N.22°E. 
Well-defined walls were found 55 ft. apart, with a south- 
east dip, and drifts have been advanced north-east on 
both walls. Both have continued in high-grade ore, the 
foot-wall drift having exposed faces continuously sam- ' 
pling from $150 to $320 per ton, and the hanging-wall 
drifts ranging from $50 to $150 per ton. The ore between 
these drifts is said to average over $25 per ton and the 
waste-dump, taken from the shaft and cross-cuts, is of 
shipping grade. This shaft is being timbered and hoist- 
ing equipment will be working shortly. Surface trench- 
ing has exposed the vein farther north and near the 
Dividend side-line, where high assays are obtained from 
these trenches. The main shaft is 400 ft. deep, and a 
drift will be driven, following the north-west vein, to 
reach the north vein. 

On the Dividend property, trenching has exposed the. 
Extension vein near the joint boundary, where this vein 
is intersected by another with a strike nearly east. At 
the point of junction the latter vein is said to swing to 
the north, uniting with the Extension vein and forming 
a large fractured area that appears to be enriched to a 
high degree. At one point, assays ranging from $50 to 

$150 «ere obtained across V2 it. of tins material, The 

ore throughout this zone is said to contain argent ite and 
stephanite, and good authorities express the belief that 
its source is at considerable depth. The Dividend main 
shaft, 1500 ft. north-west from this point, is down ."iim 
ft., where a station is being cut. On the 300-ft. level ;i 
cross-cut has been driven within an estimated distance 
of 50 ft. from the north-west vein. This cross-cut will 

be continued to the vein, while another will 1 rteaded 

in the same direction on the 500-ft. level. George J. 
Murphy is superintendent. Control of the Dividend 
company is said to have been purchased by nun control- 
ling the Divide Extension, including Herbert G. Hum- 
phrey of Reno, one of the largest wool-growers in the 
country; Zeb Kendall, George Wingfield, and John II. 
Miller. These men control the largest enterprises at 

At a depth of 180 ft., the shaft of the Divide Consoli- 
dated is in the typical ore-bearing material of the district 
— a silicified highly-oxidized rhyolite-breccia — and for 
the last 15 ft. box-samples have ranged from $9 to $48 
per ton. The property has one of the best plants in the 
district, and the shaft is making rapid progress. 
Throughout the Divide district the ground breaks and 
stands well; little or no timber is required and a 6-ft. 
round in lateral work is not unusual. 

In the East Divide workings, the south drift is ad- 
vancing 12 ft. daily with two shifts. The east cross-cut 
on the 400-ft. level penetrated the foot-wall of a vein 93 
ft. from the shaft. This vein is 26 ft. wide, the entire 
mass averaging $7 per ton. The south foot-wall drift 
has progressed over 100 ft. in similar material, and is 
showing seams of rich sulphide. It is being driven to 
reach the point where this vein intersects the main east 
fissure, below the great blow-out east of the shaft. 

The Florence Divide company recently purchased the 
Witt-Brandon-Taylor-Mechling lease on part of the Red 
King claim of the Florence Goldfield property, and ore 
as rich as any ever taken from the bonanza leases on that 
property is being sacked for shipment. The richest, 
assaying $5 per pound, is stored in bank vaults. The 
second-grade ore assays from $500 to $1500 per ton and 
the miners have ready 200 sacks of this material, while 
the third-class product, worth from $75 to $200 per ton, 
will be shipped without sacking or sorting. At one point 
the richest of this ore is nearly 2 ft. wide. It is broken 
with great care, by stripping the bonanza streak. 

On the Brougher Divide, efforts are being made by 
trenching to locate the Extension vein. 

The Gold Zone is extending cross-cuts north-east and 
south-west on the 500-ft. level, having found only nar- 
row seams of ore in exploring the main fissure-zone. 

The Tonopah Hasbrouek is shipping ore at the rate of 
50 tons per week to the MacNamara mill at Tonopah, 
and is blocking a substantial tonnage in work conducted 
from the lower tunnel, and in re-opening the old work- 
ings from a cross-cut at the 200-ft. level of the main 

The Sutherland Divide is developing on the 300 and 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

400-ft. levels from the incline shaft, and has started to 
sink another 200 ft. Seams of rich ore have been found 
on the 300-ft. level. This shaft produced ore for ship- 
ment some 15 years ago, the ground being owned early 
in 1901 by the South Tonopah Mining Co., the first com- 
pany after the Tonopah Mining to be incorporated in the 
Tonopah region. 

Among properties now well equipped and sinking are 
the Victory, Belcher, Mohawk, Consolidated, Smuggler, 
Gold Wedge, Eureka, Farrell, Kernick, Eeno, Belcher 
Extension, High Divide, Annex, Horseshoe, Mammoth, 
Ben Hur, Operator, Gold Reef, Alto, Allied, Crown, 
Bevis, Mecca, Western, Junior, Hull City, Liberty, Calu- 
met, Trilby, Kosetta, Divide City, Florence, East Divide 
Extension, Mizpah, Aztec, Argentine, Apex, Giant, 
Hercules, Anchor, Chariot, Syndicate, Grimes, Emanci- 
pator, Hasbrouck Divide, Hennessy, Jim's, Myra, 
North, Northwest, Old Timer, Pershing, Rand, Revert, 
Silver King, Toggery, Verdi, West, Wilson, and Argonne 
Divide. Several of these have exposed highly mineral- 
ized fracture-zones, similar to those in which pay-ore has 
been found. Surface prospecting is being conducted on 
a number of properties, with the object of finding the 
best sites for sinking. 



Events connected with the strike during the past week 
*re chronicled as follows : 

A number of men have left the district for Nevada 
centres. These were principally single men, who in most 
mining centres move about a good deal. 

The deputy State Labor Commissioner, John S. Blair, 
has been endeavoring to effect a settlement. Suggestions 
from both sides were exchanged. A compromise proposed 
by the operators on June 24 was rejected by the men, 
who are holding out for the extra 50 cents a day with- 
out any concessions. The proposal was: 

"First: We will abolish the bonus system. 

Second: We will establish a free market at no cost to 
the purchaser or seller. This will eliminate the middle- 
man and his profits. The free market will be able to 
supply goods to the consumer at the lowest cost, over- 
coming expensive book-keeping, delivery, and service 
costs. The free market will handle boots, dry goods, 
meats, groceries, and in fact, goods of every description. 

Third: We ask that hereafter should any grievance 
arise that these be taken up with the management and 
discussed fully, and in a proper manner before any 
drastic action is taken. 

Fourth : We propose a percentage wage increase along 
the lines suggested by some members of your committee, 
as follows: At the end of a year from date we will pay 
10% of the total wages earned by every man who has 
worked for us continuously throughout the year. 

Fifth : As a proof of our sincere desire to aid you we 
will pay on next pay-day one-half of the wages lost by 
our employees, provided that you return to your former 
work promptly after the settlement of this matter." 

In the M. & S. P. of June 21, it was stated that the 
North Star Mines Co. was to pay a dividend of 40 cents 
per share on June 28. The Grass Valley 'Union' of the 
24th contained the following: 

A. B. Foote,*superintendent of the North Star mine, gave 
out the following signed statement yesterday concerning the 
dividend of 40 cents per share stated by the 'Mining and 
Scientific Press' as about to be paid by the North Star Mines 

The article appearing in the 'Mining and Scientific Press', 
referring to the dividend declared by the North Star Mines 
Co., is misleading, and in the light of certain statements 
made by the management, requires explanation. The divi- 
dend declared a year ago was paid out of the reserve fund, 
and the one declared payable the 28th of this month is to 
be paid out of the same fund. Neither of them could have 
been paid out of the profits of the past year, since there was 
no profit. 

The company has kept a large reserve fund to carry it 
over periods like the present, and also because it carries no 
insurance. Some of the stockholders are dependent upon 
the income from their stock, and to help them it is necessary 
to distribute some of this reserve fund. 

Arthur B. Foote, 


During 1918, the North Star company made an oper- 
ating profit of $57,668, but after allowing for depletion 
and depreciation, on the same basis as in previous years, 
the past year ended with a deficit of $221,735. The bal- 
ance at the end of 1918 was $950,648. 

On the 25th the men organized with a full complement 
of officers. J. B. Bennetts was elected president and 
Fred Osborne recording secretary. About 1000 signed 
the roll. Future meetings are to be in secret. The special 
committee of 12 heretofore selected is to be retained as a 
standing committee to resume negotiations at any time. 

The strike came to a close soon after midnight on June 
29 when the men voted unanimously to accept the com- 
promise proposal of the operators. 

The compromise provides for a wage increase of 10%, 
the sum to be paid as a bonus at the end of the year, the 
interest of workers of shorter periods than a year to be 
safeguarded. The men are to receive half-pay for the 
time lost during the strike. 

A decision of much interest to mining men has re- 
cently been rendered by the Secretary of the Interior in 
the matter of the application of Golden Center of Grass 
Valley Mining Co. for a patent for a lode mining claim 
situated within the City of Grass Valley, Nevada county, 
California : 

The company, on October 2, 1917. filed in the United 
States Land Office at Sacramento, an application for its 
lode claim situated in Grass Valley, claiming same under 
a lode location made in the year 1878 or 1879. The legal 
subdivision of land upon which the claim was situated 
appeared to be patented without any reservations, to the 
Trustees of the City of Grass Valley, under the townsite 
law upon a final entry made of said land by the townsite 
authorities under date of June 18, 1869. 

The company filed with its application for patent, an 
application for a hearing, asking that it be allowed to 
prove that the land it claimed as a lode claim was at the 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 


date of the townsite entry a known mine, or that it was 
at that time being held as a mining claim which posses- 
sion was recognized by local authority. 

The local Land Office at Sacramento refused the appli- 
cant company a hearing. This was based on the ground 
that the records of the Department of the Interior dis- 
closed the fact that when the authorities of the townsite 
of Grass Valley were seeking to make the townsite entry. 
;i hearing was ordered and heard before the local officers 
at Sacramento, as to the character of the land applied 
for by the townsite authorities. Based on evidence taken 
at this hearing, the Commissioner of the Land Office by 
a dicision rendered on July 3. 1871. held that the land 
applied for by the townsite authorities was more valuable 
for agricultural and townsite purposes than for min- 
erals. This decision was followed by a patent to the 
townsite authorities of the legal subdivision covering the 
mining claim of the applicant company, and the decision 
and patent barred the applicant company from asserting 
further claim to the lode claim for which patent applica- 
tion was made. 

The Golden Center company appealed from the deci- 
sion of the local office to the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office, who affirmed the decision of the local officers 
holding the townsite patent to be conclusive against the 
mineral claimant. The mineral claimant appealed to the 
Secretary of the Interior, who, in a decision recently 
handed down, reversed that of the local officers and the 
Commissioner, and holding that the decision of July 3, 
1871, was not binding on the Golden Center or Grass 
Valley Co., and that it was entitled to a hearing as asked 

In this decision, the Secretary states that the evidence 
in the case before the Commissioner taken at the hearing 
had. prior to July 3, 1871, disclosed the fact that evidence 
as to the character of the actual land now claimed by the 
Golden Center company was adduced, but held, never- 
theless, that the decision was not binding upon the appli- 
cant company. The Secretary defined the law thus: the 
Department, in order to acquire jurisdiction to determine 
the question as to whether or not a known mine, or known 
mining possession, existed at date of townsite entry, 
must have a mineral application for land within the 
townsite pending accompanied by an application for a 
hearing to determine the question as to whether there 
"was a known mine, or known mining possession, in ex- 
istence at the date of the townsite entry. In accordance 
with the said decision of the Secretary in said case, the 
local office ordered a hearing for the purpose of per- 
mitting the Golden Center company to introduce evidence 
for the purpose of showing whether or not the mine 
•claimed by it in the said townsite of Grass Valley was a 
known mine or known mining possession on June 18, 
1869, the date of said townsite entry. 

This hearing was recently heard, the City of Grass 
Valley, appearing in opposition thereto, and the ease 
-will probably be determined by the local officers at Sacra- 
mento in the near future. 

So far as your correspondent knows this is the first 

case of its kind to be taken into the Land Depart it. 

affecting a townsite patent in central California; all 
others have gone the way of the local courts. A. R. 
Tabor of Sacramento is the first attorney to follow the 
procedure described above and a successful termination 
in his favor will result in considerable townsite litigation. 



The Taylor Mining Co. has been incorporated with a 
capital of $1,500,000, and has taken over the Dolly 
Varden mine, at Alice Arm, thus ending a legal squabble 
that has moored this valuable property for a considerable 
period. Briefly, the dispute was between the Dolly 
Varden Mines Co. and the Taylor Engineering Co., the 
latter having constructed a railway along the Kilsault 
river to connect the mines with tide-water at Alice Arm, 
which the mining company was unable to pay for. After 
a protracted fight, fraught with legal technicalities, the 
two companies placed the matter in the hands of a legis- 
lative committee, which gave the Dolly Varden company 
10 days in which to pay off the wage claims, amounting 
to $134,600, and 30 days, after a full accounting had been 
taken, to pay off the engineering company's debt of 
$462,500. In the event of failure on the part of the min- 
ing company, the committee gave the engineering com- 
pany leave to pay the wages and take over the property, 
paying $200,000 in floating charges and indemnifying 
the shareholders of the mining company out of profits 
from the mine. The Dolly Varden company admitted 
the Taylor company's claim, but defaulted on payment, 
so the Taylor Mining Co., a subsidiary of the Taylor 
Engineering Co., was formed, and has paid the wage 
claim and taken over the property. It is gratifying to 
notice that the staff of the new company, which already 
has proceeded to the mine, is composed mainly of re- 
turned soldier-miners. [Their names are given in the 
personals of the 'Press' of July 5.] 

The Granby Consolidated company started its new by- 
product coke ovens at Anyox during the visit of the 
president, "W. H. Nichols, who has just returned from the 
property. The ovens were designed during the War 
with the view to saving, among other by-products, toluene 
and benzol for munitions, and it is claimed they are the 
only ovens of the kind on the Pacific Coast. The tar will 
not be treated at Anyox, but will be shipped to Van- 
couver, where re-distillation products will be saved and 
manufactured. Coal is being supplied to the ovens from 
the Granby company's newly-developed areas at Cassidy 
siding, near Nanaimo. Owing to the strike at Crow's 
Nest Pass, the Granby company's Grand Forks smelter 
is nearly out of coke, and it is feared may have to close. 
Considering the longshoremen's strike, it is doubtful if 
the Anyox ovens will be able to save the situation. The 
Vancouver authorities seem to have the strike well in 
hand ; while it is causing inconvenience, it is not causing 
any serious hardship. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5. 1919 

Black blasting powder is now quoted in California as 
follows, from June 24: 

Carload lots (minimum 800 kegs), $1.70 per keg; 100- 
keg lots, $2; 10-keg lots, $2.10; and under, $2.25 per keg. 
This is a general reduction of 20 cents per keg. 

In Technical Paper 223 of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, just 
issued, mine-owners will find a good deal of interest in 'Cost 
Keeping for Small Metal Mines', by J. C. Pickering. In- 
cluded in the 43 pages are specimen charts and tabulated 
reports, these and the methods being modifications of prac- 
tice at mines with which the writer has been connected. 
Accounting is not discussed, as it is not within the scope of 
the discussion. 


The Alaskan Engineering Commission has reported to 
Congress that the Government railroad will be completed in 
1921, at a total cost of $50,436,971, or about $73,200 per 
mile. L. J. McPherson. engineer in charge, said that this 
cost compared favorably with American continental con- 
struction costs. It is proposed to employ between 500 and 
6000 men this summer. 

The President has signed a proclamation by which 307,- 
800 acres of land are eliminated from the Chugach na- 
tional forest. The land consists of two separate tracts, one 
known as the Ship Creek area near Anchorage, containing 
about 109,300 acres; the other is a strip of national forest 
land three miles wide between the Fox and Kasilof rivers, 
amounting to 198,500 acres. Much of the eliminated land 
is reported by the Forest Service examiners to have agri- 
cultural possibilities. This is the second large elimination 
from Alaskan national forests made as a result of the land 
classification work done by the Forest Service. In 1915, 
the Chugach forest was reduced by nearly 6,000,000 acres. 
The present elimination brings the forest down to approxi- 
mately 5,500,000 acres, with a stand of between 7 and S 
billion board feet of timber, much of which is valuable for 
airplane stock and paper-pulp. 


Clifton. — The Arizona Copper Co. has purchased the en- 
tire holdings of the Shannon Copper Co. The latter's hold- 
ings in the Clifton district approximated 1000 acres of 
mining land, together with a smelter and concentrator. A 
number of the claims of the Shannon company were con- 
tiguous to the Arizona property, and part of that now ac- 
quired was sold to the Shannon company by the Arizona 
company a few years ago. Extensive tests are being carried 
out at No. 6 concentrator at Clifton on the low-grade ores 
of the Shannon. This work is meeting with success. The 
Shannon smelter is to be scrapped. 

Jerome. — At a recent meeting of directors of the Verde 
Squaw Copper Co. it was decided. to resume operations. It 
is believed that the first operations will be confined to 

Tucson. — The War Minerals Relief Commission has com- 
pleted three days of interviewing claimants. Arizona's 
claims are practically all for manganese and tungsten. The 
Commission, during its stay here, made its headquarters at 
the office of the Arizona State Bureau of Mines, University 
of Arizona. 


Hieckenridge. — The three dredges of the Tonopah Placers 
Co., one of the Powder River Gold Dredging Co., and one of 
the French Gulch Dredging Co., are digging a total of 
16,000 cu. yd. of gravel daily. 

Denver. — The new Commissioner of Mines, H. F. Lunt, 
with James Duce, oil inspector, and James Dalrymple, coal 
mine inspector, have gone to the 'western slope' to inspect 
the State's oil-shale beds and report on the probable cost of 
developing the local industry. The data collected will be 
published in a bulletin to be issued by the Bureau of Mines. 
Besides obtaining information regarding the commercial pos- 
sibilities of the shale, the Commission will make a study of 
the safest and most efficient methods for mining it. At the 
same time as this investigation, three field parties, under 
direction of R. D. George, State Geologist, are to make an 
oil and shale survey. These parties will be in charge of the 
assistant geologist, R. C. Coffin, and Mr. George. 

The fifteenth biennial report of the State Bureau of Mines 
for 1917 and 1918, in charge of Fred Carroll, commissioner 
recently resigned, has been issued. The book contains 206 
pages, covering all matters pertaining to mining in Colorado. 
The four district inspectors are T. R. Henahen for Denver, 
M. J. McCarthy for Cripple Creek, R. J. Murray for Lead- 
ville, and Robert Innes for Durango. J. T. Duce is chief 
clerk at Boulder. The Bureau costs $34,800 per annum. 
The accident record for 1917 was 5 6 killed and 713 se- 
riously injured, and for 1918, 47 and 628, respectively; in 
1916 the figures were 69 and 74 2. The principal events in 
the various districts are briefly discussed, while the rarer 
ores are given a fair amount of space. Some new maps 
would have improved the different reports. Arthur J. 
Hoskin covers oil-shale; and C. W. Henderson, of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, the 42 pages of statistics. Since 1858, 
Colorado has produced metals valued at $1,405,484,255, gold 
accounting for 44%, silver 34%. lead 12%, copper 2.5%, 
and zinc 7.5 %. 

hi the case of the City Bank & Trust Co. (closed), its 
cashier (R. A. Brown), and the president of the Colorado 
Pitchblende Co. (J. S. Barnhill), the cashier surrendered on 
June 26. He said that he had been to Rico. He was charged 
with grand larceny of a check for $20,000, pleaded not 
guilty, and was released on a $1000 bond. The bank's books 
show a shortage of $140,000. There is nothing to report 
regarding affairs at Boulder. 

Gateway. — Paradox Valley shows increasing activity as 
the season progresses. A shortage of miners still handicaps 
operations. The weather is favorable for good roads. A 
survey is now under way for a road from Gateway to the 
valley, opening an outlet to Grand Junction, and making a 
short route to the East, over a standard-gauge line, with 
lower freight rates. There is no doubt but that the road 
will be built, as interests along the route are making a 
strong petition for it. As an example of the great trans- 
portation expense borne by local operators, the Radium 
Luminous Material Co.'s problem is typical: The workings 
are 58 miles from the Rio Grande Southern railroad, a nar- 
row-gauge line; 31 days are required for a trip with 6-horse 
teams. Upon delivery at rail there is a haul of several miles 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 


over narrow-gauge linos to Alamosa, where there is a trans- 
fer i" the standard-gauge road. The ore is shipped to the 
redaction plant of the company ;it Orange, New Jersey, 
Some nt the ores of this part are Bent oul by way ol Rldg- 
way and Montrose; but In either event there is a transfer 
from narrow to standard-gauge. 

The Standard Chemical Co. has leased part of a local coal 
mine to furnish its reduction plant with a regular and 
cheaper supply. A cut-off on the road to the workings will 
shorten the round-trip haul by 15 miles. 

The Colorado Vanadium Co. is planning the construction 
of a large mill at Fall creek to treat the output from its ex- 
tensive holdings at Bear creek, and along the San Miguel. 
The company has leased the Summers mill at Sawpit and 
will remodel to treat vanadium ore temporarily. 

Ijeadville. — The Mt. Champion gold mine is to resume 
operations at an early date. 

The Bohn and Northern mines continue to produce man- 
ganese, but their contracts expire soon, yet it is expected 
that they will be renewed. 

Rico. — There is said to be a shortage of miners in this 
district. A clearing-house has been decided upon, and a 
bulletin board at tt j 'Item' office will contain the names of 
the companies watting men. 

Silvcrton. — The Sunnyside M. & M. Co. has decided to 
commence building operations immediately. The boarding 
and bunk-houses will be at Midway, at the upper workings, 
and are to provide accommodations for 150 men. The new 
structures will be of steel and corrugated iron construction. 
A new compressor plant will also be built. During the next 
four months, the principal operations will be sinking the 
Washington shaft to the Terry tunnel, a distance of 600 ft. 
Milling operations 'are to be resumed in the near future. 

Telhiride. — Production from this district is not heavy, as 
many men are engaged on development, and getting out 
ore for shipment at a later date. A shortage of miners con- 
tinues, notwithstanding the fact that the wage-scale is high. 

All production from the Black Bear property of the Smug- 
gler Union has ceased, and men are sinking the main shaft 
to a depth of 800 ft., preliminary to opening larger areas 
of stoping ground. 

The Smuggler Union is enlarging all boarding and bunk- 
houses in anticipation of a greatly increased force of men. 
A new structure will be an apartment house to accommodate 

The Old Smuggler mill is now under lease to a company 
that is working over the mill waste. As there is an accumu- 
lation of 25 years, and as there is reported to be good value 
in this product, it is probable that the leasees.will make a 
good profit. 

The Tomboy Gold Mines Co. reports satisfactory progress 
at the new flotation plant. 


Kellogs. — The Bunker Hill & Sullivan company's saw- 
mill and immense stock of lumber here have been burned. 
Although in danger for a while, the new concentrating plant 
was not damaged. The loss was estimated at $200,000. 

Kellogg. — The formation of a mining company which 
expects to spend about $40,000 in development near here 
within the next few weeks, is announced by E. O. Conner, 
one of the incorporators. The organization will be known 
as the Great Dunker Mining & Milling Company. 

Wallace. — Black Bear has had a change in directorate. 
Work, suspended since 1915, will be resumed. A good deal 
of lead-silver-zinc ore is said to be available. 

Baxter Springs. — Production of this field last week was 
1776 tons of blende and 136 tons of lead, valued at $82,730. 
The output is well maintained. 

Missol Itl 

•Poplin. .Many miners in the Trl-State zinc-lead i 

have gone to liaivest erops, and will be away ;i I i' 0] 

more, leaving the mines slioii i.t nun The stock nt blende 

nn hand is estimate,! at between 15, and 25,000 

Production is 8000 tons per week and sales about ll.i 



Unite. — The East Butte smelter expects to receive Inn 
tons of ore dally from the Colorado mine of ihe Davis-Daly 
company, when work is resumed there. Davis-Daly at pres- 
ent is shipping 100 tons daily. 

Butte & Superior is soon to start deepening its No. 2 shall 
from the 2050-ft. level. 

Anaconda pays $1 per share, equal to $2, 3 3 1.2 an, on 
August 25. 

The safety departments of mining companies in this dis- 
trict held a big field day on July 4, similar to that of last 
year. The first-aid demonstration was the feature of the 
day. The program also included drilling contests, running, 
boxing, two brass bands, and free refreshments to all per- 
sons. John L. Boardman was chairman of the arrangements 

Helena. — On June 21 another meeting was held here to 
complete organization of the Montana Mining Association, 
which aims to promote development of the mining industry 
o° the State. Membership of the committee is: on member- 
ship, Sam D. Goza, Helena; publicity, Charles D. Greenfield, 
Helena; finance, George L. Ramsey, Helena; smelting and" 
ore dressing, Charles E. Fryberger, Helena; labor, Senator 
Page of Granite county; legislative, W. J. McCormick, Mis- 
soula; Government bulletins and geologieal surveys, L. S. 
Ropes, Helena; transportation and roads, Paul Pratt of 
Lincoln county; and grievances, Alexander Leggat of Butte. 


Rochester. — The Nonpareil Mining Co. has been formed to 
operate the Nonpareil claims on the west side of Lincoln 
hill. L. T. McAtee of San Francisco, is president, and M. 
Helliere of Rene is secretary. The ground adjoins the 
Lincoln Hill group, and has produced $30,000 in gold. 

Tonopah. — Some of the yields for May were as follows: 
Belmont — 8916 tons for 100,051 oz. of silver and 1036 oz. 
of gold, with $56,407 profit. Extension — 8866 tons for 
108,876 oz. of silver and 1019 oz. of gold, with $56,458 

On July 4 there was held here a jack-hammer drilling con- 
test, also competitions between shovelers. 


Picher. — Production of this district last week was 4S58 
tons of blende and 854 tons of lead,. valued at $257,276. 
The Picher mines yielded 1100 tons of blende and the Bil- 
harz 501 tons. 


Terlingna. — The Louisiana-Texas Quicksilver Co., com- 
posed of Louisiana people, has acquired 8960 acres of land 
in this district. Development will begin at an early date, 
partly by core-drilling. A 100-ton retorting plant is pro- 
posed. E. A. Waldron of El Paso put through the deal. 


Bingham. — The Montana-Bingham resumed operations on 
June 1, after a shut-down of four months. Lessees during 
this period shipped some high-grade lead and copper ose. 

ftureka. — The East Tintic district is busy. There are 15 
new shafts being sunk, and an equal number contemplated. 
The Copper Leaf is down 1200 ft. J. W. Taylor is in charge. 
— The Iron King has just put in an electric hoist for its- 
1200-ft. shaft. N. W. Roberts is superintendent. — The Big 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

Hill group of the Jeaae Knight interests are being prepared 
for development in charge of H. W. Trenholm. 

Xlntic. — The Eureka Bullion company, managed by J. M. 
Bestlemeyer, has opened rich ore on its S00-£t. level. At a 
point 630 ft. in, 2 ft. of 8-oz. silver and 4% lead ore was cut. 
A cross-cut was then driven 80 ft. back from the face, find- 
ing 4 ft. of ore assaying from 9 to 20% lead, 23 to 71 oz. 
silver, and $2 to $2.40 gold per ton. Carbonates and sul- 
phides have practically united at this depth. In other mines 
of this district, these ores are found in different zones. 


Leadpoint. — The Electric Point Mining Co. is to erect a 
power-plant, and has let a contract for excavating. 

Loon Lake. — The Loon Lake Copper Co.'s new 7 5-ton 
concentrating plant is in operation, in charge of W. L. Zieg- 
ler, who has installed flotation machines of his own design. 
Included in the expenditure of $50,000 is a 6-drill com- 
pressor, 50-hp. engine for hoist, 200-hp. engine in the mill, 
two 4 by 4-ft. ball-mills, two drag classifiers, thickener, two 
5-cell flotation machines, and a 4-ft. filter. Dump ore, car- 
rying 2.5% copper and J oz. of silver, has given a 92% re- 
covery. Ore-reserves are estimated by C. J. Stone at 28,000 
tons. Thirty-five men are employed. 

Republic. — The Lone Pine-Surprise has opened the ore- 
body at 650 ft. depth for a length of 50 ft. It averages 6 ft. 
across, of good value in gold. Shipments are made to the 
smelter at Tacoma. C. P. Robbins is manager. 

British Columbia 

Britannia. — The Howe Sound Co. pays 5 cents per share 
on July 15. This. amounts to $99,207. 

Hedley. — The Hedley Gold Mining Co. paid 10 cents per 
share on June 30. This is equal to $12,000, making $24,000 
for 1919 and $2,436,000 to date. 

Sandon. — The tramway for the Wonderful mine, near 
this place, is complete. It is about a half-mile long, and 
has one span of over 1000 ft. without a tower, one of the 
longest spans of the Ainsworth-Slocan district. 

Construction of an aerial tram from the Sovereign mine 
to Sandon is in progress, the work being in charge of Irwin 
White. The Sovereign is one of the Cunningham properties, 
and its ore will be treated at the Alamo concentrator. It is 
reported that the Alamo mill is almost ready for operation. 
Completion of the pockets and the elevating plant for the 
handling of ores from the Sovereign and Wonderful mines 
will put the concentrator in shape for work. 

Trail. — Consolidated Mining & Smelting paid a dividend 
of 2*% on July 2. This is No. 33, the regular quarterly, 
and is equal to $261,936, and makes $785,808 for 1919. 

Cobalt. — Nipissing vein 109 has been one of the most 
important developments in this field for a long time. For 
130 ft. the shoot was 2 in. wide, averaging 3000 oz. of 
silver per ton. In a circular, dated May 24, the company 
stated that it had acquired on favorable terms an important 
interest in approximately 1000 acres of undeveloped land 
about four miles south of the Petrolia oil and gas field, 20 
miles south-east of the Burkburnett oil-pool, and almost 
due north of the Ranger oilfield of Texas. As soon as pos- 
sible, and probably within 30 days, the drilling of a well 
will be started. The results of tHe operation will be given 
shareholders without delay. 

Kirkland Lake. — Mine managers and the Union were to 
meet here on the 19th to discuss the strike. The Lake 
Shore, Tough-Oakes, Wright-Hargraves, Teck-Hughes, El- 
liott-Kirkland, Kirklaud Lake Gold, and others are all 
closed. The meeting between mine-owners and workers on 
June 21 was fruitless. 

Porcupine. — The Hollinger paid a dividend of 1%, $246,- 
000, on June 17. This is the third for the current year, 
and makes $10,162,000 to date. 


Business men who recently participated in a trade ex- 
cursion into Mexico [from San Antonio, Texas] are not in- 
clined to favor the immediate investment of capital in that 
country. Banking facilities were found to be unsound; 
transportation was suffering severely from the lack of roll- 
ing stock; and manufacturing, smelting, and mining indus- 
tries were operating on part time. A visit was made to 
Tampieo, where the oilfields were shown to be unsettled. 
The excursionists were everywhere given a courteous and 
cordial reception. Crops seemed to be good, and it was re- 
ported to members of the party that they were better than 
they had been for several years past. These statements are 
taken from a report made to the National Association for the 
Protection of American Rights in Mexico (head office in New 
York), by a member of this trade excursion who writes that 
"the conditions in Mexico are still far from normal, but 
sufficient improvement has been noted during the last few 
months to warrant an effort toward establishing more active 
commercial relations. The majority of the excursionists, 
however, are not inclined to favor the immediate investment 
of capital in Mexico. They believe a better plan is to culti- 
vate closer social relations with the Mexicans, study their 
needs and customs, and lay the foundation for the business 
which they feel certain will come from Mexico." 

Baja California 

Santa Rosalia. — The Boleo Copper Co., controlled in 
France, has curtailed its mining and smelting operations on 
account of the copper market. It recently laid off several 
hundred of its 3 800 employees and closed some departments 
at the works. This company has carried on extensive opera- 
tions in Lower California for many years. The mines are 
extensive. Being remote from the remainder of Mexico and 
the United States, little public information has been avail- 
able. It is known, however, that there has been no inter- 
ruption to operations during the years of revolution in 
Mexico and the war in Europe. The smelter output is 
shipped in the company's own vessels direct to France. 
Santa Rosalia has no railroad outlet. The town is prac- 
tically owned by Boleo Copper Co., and is said to be modern 
and well kept. This company is noted for the high wages 
which it pays, the scale ranging from $2.50 to $9 per day, 
United States currency. At various times the different revo- 
lutionary factions tried to foment trouble among employees, 
but on account of the high wages and general contentment 
all efforts of this kind proved futile. 


Pachuca. — Santa Gertrudis, during the first quarter of 
1919, treated 98,012 tons of ore, yielding bullion valued at 
$1,100,000, of which $345,000 was profit. The mill worked 
at 95.1% of capacity. Exploration covered 1854 ft., of 
which 66 5 ft. was in pay-ore. In the west end of the mine, 
parallel 1120, at 75 ft. above the 5th level, an ore-shoot has 
been opened for a length of 109 ft., averaging 2.47 dwt. 
gold and 23.2 oz. silver, for a width of 4.7 ft.; a raise put 
up at parallel 1128 to a height of 56 ft., averaged 3.93 dwt. 
gold and 31.6 oz. silver, for a width of 4.4 ft. At the mill 
the steel crusher-bin extension was partly erected; founda- 
tions for the mill-bin extension and for the Hardinge ball- 
mill were built. The vacuum filter-plant for clarifying solu- 
tion was nearly completed. Four additional Dorr type agi- 
tating tanks were partly erected. Another Merrill slime 
filter was received and installed, making a total of eight 
presses, this completing this extension. 

In El Bordo mine there was 2024 ft. of work done. 408 

•Inly 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


ft. being in pay-ore. The more important results were: 

Average assay 
Length. Width. Gold. Siher. 

Vein Level ft. ft. ,i„ t . oz. 

No. 1 166 24.9 3.3 4 21 72.5 

No. 1 165 9.8 6.9 1.64 17.8 

No. 1 500 68.1 5.1 4.42 51.8 

No. 1 500 47.9 6.0 3.54 44.4 

No. 1 500 27.9 4.1 3.15 35.5 

Main 525 32.4 6.2 4.77 56.8 

The first three are drifts, the others are raises. 

fonstruction of the aerial tram to the Santa Gertrudis 
mill is progressing satisfactorily, and. depending upon de- 
liveries of tramway equipment, shipments of which are com- 
ing forward fairly regularly, should be completed in August. 

Hostotipaquillo. — The Amparo Mining & Milling Co. is 



Chihuabua°°[ u i a i; g I 

Parral \ 

\ r 


l Torreon 

Pacific Ocean 


o \ D " r *s9° r - ,1 / 

Scale of Miles 



treating 11,000 tons of ore per month in the cyanide plant. 
Apparatus is being installed to bring the capacity up to 
15,000 tons. The Amparo has a better grade of silver ore 
on the lower levels than in the upper levels. 

Cinco Minas is treating 17,000 tons of ore per month by 
cyanidation. They recently installed two No. 86 Marcy 

El Favor Mining Co. has rebuilt 15 of its stamps, and 
expects to have the entire mill in operation by August. The 
stamp-department was destroyed by fire by bandits in 1917. 
They are now treating 50 tons per day. 

Espada Mines, located near El Favor, has its cyanide 
plant completed. Motors arrived in April, and they will 
soon be operating. 


Culiacan. — There is a great deal of activity in the Sinaloa 
region, due to the high price of silver. Most of the ores in 
this district are either lead-zinc-silver or copper-silver ores, 
although there is considerable copper-gold. Practically all 
of these ores are good for flotation. 

Cia. Minera Jesus Maria y Anexas, of San Jose de Gracia, 
is running at half capacity on gold ore. Flotation of dump 
tailing and current plate tailing has proved to be successful, 
and the company is installing additional K & K machines 
to bring the flotation unit up to 100 tons per 24 hours. 


Note. The Editor invite* member* of the profession to send particular! 
of their work and appointments. The Information Is Interesting- to our 

Fred, Hollmann is at Los Angeles. 

William W. Mein is at Lake Tahoe. 

A. Chester Beatty has returned from London to New York. 

L. s. Austin has gone to Salt Lake City, from Los Angeles. 

Arthur Lakes, Major in the U. S. Army, left France on 
June 17. 

Edgar Rirkard has left Washington and become a resident 
of New York. 

K. A. Beuuchamp has gone to Lark, Utah, and will be 
away two weeks. 

Oscar Lactunund is examining the United Copper mine, 
near Chewelah, Washington. 

Welton J. Crook is examining mines in British Columbia. 
He will be away for a month. 

J. T. Siummin has been appointed manager of the Arizona 
Hercules Copper Co.'s milling plant at Hercules, Arizona. 

Charles W. Stimpson, of Salt Lake City, attended the 
Bohemian jinks and proceeded from San Francisco to New 

G. C. Evans, metallurgist with the Oriental Consolidated 
in Korea for nine years, has been on a vacation in Australia, 
and returned late in May. 

P. B. McDonald, formerly on the editorial staff of the 
M. & S. P., has been appointed Assistant Professor of Eng- 
lish in the School of Engineering in New York University. 

Van fl. Manning, Director of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, 
received the honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering from 
the University of Pittsburgh at the Commencement on 
June 21. 

J. E. Spurr has resigned as Executive of War Minerals 
Investigations, Bureau of Mines, to take effect July 1. The 
War Minerals Investigations work will be terminated on 
that date. 

Richard Hamilton, general manager of the Great Boulder 
Proprietary mine at Kalgoorlie, which has produced gold 
worth £11,171,490 and paid £5,466,175 in dividends, has 
been re-elected president of the Chamber of Mines of West- 
ern Australia for the 22nd consecutive year. 

The new staff at the Dolly Varden silver mine, Alice Arm 
district, British Columbia, now operated by the Taylor Min- 
ing Co., is Major D. E. Young, from the Provincial Forestry 
Commission, general manager; Major Angus W. Davis, of 
the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. at Trail, mine 
superintendent; R. B. McGinnis of San Francisco, assistant; 
H. B. Browning, formerly office manager for the Canadian 
Collieries Limited, chief accountant and storekeeper. 

The following distinguished mining engineers were in 
San Francisco last week on the occasion of a meeting of the 
Arizonan Chapter of the American Mining Congress: Louis 
S. Cates, manager for the Ray Consolidated Copper Co.; 
Norman Carmichael, manager for the Arizona Copper Co.; 
W. B. Gohring, superintendent of mines for the Calumet & 
Arizona Mining Co.; George Kingdon, superintendent for 
the United Verde Extension Mining Co.; A. T. Thompson, of 
the Phelps Dodge Corporation; F. W. Maclennan, manager 
for the Miami Copper Co.; Julius Krutschmitt, of the Amer- 
ican Smelting & Refining Co.; W. G. McBride, of the Old 
Dominion Copper Co.; J. A. Burgess, manager for the United 
Eastern Mining Co.; B. Britton Gottsberger, of the Miami 
Copper Co.; and L. O. Howard, superintendent for the In- 
ternational Smelting Company. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 5. 191* 



San Francisco. Jul;- 1 

Aluminum-dust, cents per pound 50 — 60 

Antimony, cents per pound 8.50 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound 19.25 

Lead. pig. cents per pound 5.65 — 6.65 

Platinum, pure, per ounce S105 

Platinum. 10% iridium, per ounce Silo 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb $95 

Spelter, cents per pound 8.50 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 9 — la 

Platinum held by the Government, amounting: to 19.000 oz.. is to be 
sold at S105 per ounce. It is said that this quantity is only ahout 40', 
of that held. Jewelers have been rather short of the metal lately. 


(By wire from New York) 

July 1. — Copper is moderately active. Lead is quiet but firm. Spelter 
is quiet though steady. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations, in cents per ounce of silver 
999 fine. From April 23. 1918. the United States government paid SI 
per ounce for all silver purchased by it, fixing a maximum of SI. 01 ^ on 
August 15. 1918, and will continue to pay $1 until the quantity specified 
under the Act is purchased, probably extending over several years. On 
May 5. 1919. all restrictions on the metal were removed, resulting in 
fluctuations. During the restricted period, the British government fixed the 
maximum price five times, the last being on March 25. 1919, on account of 
the low rate of sterling exchange, but removed all restrictions on May 10. 
The equivalent of dollar silver 11000 fine) in British currency is 40.65 
pence per ounce (925 fine), calculated at the normal rate of exchange. 



New York 

25 110.12 

26 109.50 

27 108.75 

28 108.50 

29 Sunday 

30 108.25 

1 107.87 






Average week ending 

20 110.33 

27 106.44 

3 108.90 

10 109.43 

17 111.98 

24 111.52 

1 108.83 




. .77.54 

Men 74.13 

Apr 72.51 

May 74.61 

June 76.44 


Monthly averages 



July 78.92 

Aug 85.40 

Sept 100.73 

Oct 87.38 

Nov 85.97 

Dec 85.97 


The Finance Member of the India Council, when introducing the financial 
statement for 1919-20. made the following remarks regarding currency: 
"In April 1918 the position was stabilized by our purchase of American 
silver. The reserves from which we were subsequently to draw had been 
held at the rate of SI per ounce, and that rate determined the price at 
which silver was sold to us, while our agreement with the United States 
government bound us not to buy any silver at a higher price while the 
Pittman Act remained in force." 

Statistics relating to Indian trade, showing what proportion was transacted 
with the United States, are shown below (export figures include re-exports) : 
American American 

proportion. Average proportion, 

'/o 1909-10-1913-14 % 

Imports 3 897,231.000 8 

Exports 7 149.411.000 13 

Net balance between India and 
United States in favor of 

India (about I 7.500.000 

The total of Sl.1.000.000 ($62,000.0001 required by Ihe United States 
for payment for poods purchased from India during 1917-'18. indicates one 
of the reasons why the lormer assisted the Indian government to provide 
Ihe supply of silver rupees necessary. 

The slock of silver in Shanghai consisted of about 30.400.000 oz. in 
syeee and 16.300.000 dollars on May 17. — Weekly (June 5) report of 
Samuel Montagu & Co.. London. 

The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 7o pounds: 




3 95.00 

10 B2.00 

June 17 95.00 

24 95 on 

July 1 95.00 

Monthly averages 





Apr 114.50 

May 104.00 

June 85.50 



July 102.00 

Aua» 115.00 

S(-|il 112.00 

Oct 102.00 

Nov 102.50 

Dec 117.42 


1918 1919 1917 1918 1919 

128.06 103.75 

118.00 90.00 

112.00 72.80 

115.00 73.12 

110.00 84.80 

112.00 94.40 
The New York quotation for quicksilver is S95. 

According to figures compiled by F. L. Ransome. of the U. S. Geological 
Survey. 5960 flasks of Quicksilver was produced in the United States from 
January 1 to March 31. inclusive. 1919. Returns from 23 productive 
min^s trave a total of 5924 Basks, and it is estimated that 36 flasks was 
obtained from two or three small mines in California and Oregon whose 
operators were not heard from. Of the total output, 4023 flasks is 
credited to California. 1698 t» Texas. 193 to Oregon, and 46 to Nevada. 
No production was reported from Idaho or Arizona. The metal reported 

on hand at the mines or in transit to market at the end of the quarter 
amounted to 4419 flasks. As was expected, the output during the first 
quarter of 1919 was considerably less than that during the first quarter of 
1918. which was 8764 flasks. The decrease was 2804 flasks. Unsold 
stocks at the end of the firs! Quarter of 1918 amounted to 2S00 flasks. 
or 1619 flasks less than at the end of the first quarter of 1919. The 
average monthly price of quicksilver in San Francisco, as quoted in the 
'Mining and Scientific Press.' lor January was S103.75. for February Slip, 
and for March S72.80. 

The falling-off in production is the result of a combination of causes, 
chief among which were a lessened demand for the metal and a consequent 
downward trend of prices, the continued high cost of labor and supplies, 
and the curtailment of underground exploration and development during 
the War. when energy was directed rhiefly to immediate production. The 
price of quicksilver compared with the prices that prevailed before the 
War was still high at the end of thr quarter, but not high enough to offset 
the gemral increase in the tenor of the ore immediately availaole and the 
high cost of minmg and treatment. 

On June 25. Representative Lufkin of Massachusetts introduced a bill 
in the House imposing a duty of 3") cents per pound on quicksilver. The 
bill carries the same duty per pound of mercury content on ores or com- 
pounds of mereurv or manufactured compounds. The bill was referred to 
the Committee of Ways and Means. 


Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 


25 1S':."> 

26 18.25 

"7 18.37 

28 18.37 

29 Sunday 

30 18.50 

1 18.511 


Average week ending 

20 16.24 

27 16.46 

3 16.37 

10 16.81 

17 17.58 

24 17.S9 

1 18.37 



Meh '.'. 36^00 

Apr 33.16 

May 31.69 

June 32.57 


Monthly averages 



July 29.67 

Aug 27.42 

Sept 25.11 

Oct 23.50 

Nov 23.50 

Dec 23.50 



Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 



29 Sunday 



5.40 1 
;, 40 


Average week ending 



.-> :o 


Jan 7.64 

Feb 9.10 

Mch 10 07 

Apr 9.38 

May 10.29 

June 11.74 


Monthly averages 

1917 1918 

5.60 I July 10.93 8.03 

5.13 Aug 10.75 8.05 

5.24 Sept 9.07 8.05 

5.05 Oct 6.97 8.05 

5.04 Nov 6.38 8.05 

.".:)■: Dec 6.49 6.90 

Lead ore at Joplin last week averaged $60 per ton. basis sir 
the same price as in the previous week. The Tri-State region sold 


Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery, 
in cents per pound: 




2o . 




Average week ending 



10.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. ...... . 

7 02 


Jan 9.75 

Feb 10.45 

Meh 10.78 

Apr 10.20 

May 9.41 

June 9.63 

Zinc ore at Joplin last 
This is an increase of $1. 


Monthly averages 


1918 1019 

Prices in New York. 

7.44 July 

6.71 Aug 8.58 S.87 

6.53 Sept 8.33 9.58 .... 

6.49 Oct 8.32 9.11 

6.43 Nov 7.76 8.75 .... 

6.91 Dec 7.84 8.49 

reek averaged $42 per ton. basis 60 metal 
The Tri-State region sold 7706 tons ol blende. 
in cents per pound : 

Monthly averages 


Jan 44.10 

Feb 51.47 

Mch 54.27 

Apr 55.63 

May 63.21 

June 61.93 

85 no 



July 62.60 

Aug 62.53 

Sept 61.54 

Oct 62.24 

Nov 74.18 

Dec 85.00 



7s s-j 



All restrictions are off tin. and prices for Q9v f metal are 68 cents and 

for pure metal 
por pound. 

70 cents. Straits tin. delivery from importation, is 52 cents 

.lulv .".. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, June 25. 

The markets are all strong ami firm but generally dull. 
except zinc. The price tendency in most of them is un- 

Antimony is quiet and unchanged. 

Copper demand is light but quotations are nominally 

Lead demand is only moderate, but prices are firmer. 

Tin market in the United State is now free, but prices for 
Straits have eased off. 

Zinc is decidedly higher on heavy buying. 


Virgin, 98 to 99% pure, is unchanged at 33c, New York, 
in wholesale lots for early delivery. 


The market is quiet, with Asiatic grades obtainable at 
8.25 to 8.50c, New York, duty paid, for wholesale lots for 
early delivery. 


The market is dull and not particularly active, but quota- 
tions are firm and higher, though nominal. This appears 
more or less paradoxical, but it is the real condition. Pro- 
ducers, large ones in particular, are expecting higher prices 
as a result of the signing of peace. These may not come at 
once, but already they are higher. Sellers are disinclined to 
sell ahead in view of the outlook and are firm in their ideas 
of values, even marking them up every day or two. The 
past week was rather quiet with quotations firm, but with 
the turn of the week they have advanced until today electro- 
lytic copper is quoted and has been sold at 18.25., New York, 
for July delivery, with future positions nominally about }c 
higher. Lake copper is strong and hard to obtain for July 
delivery; the nominal quotation is 18.50c, New York. The 
strikes in the brass territories have interfered some with de- 
mand, but the general tone of the market is optimistic and 
strong. One large producer states that there has been only 
one thing that has prevented the market from going to 25c, 
that being the large stocks which he thinks have been con- 
siderably reduced. An important factor as to the future is 
the belief that a resumption of full, or nearly full, producing 
capacity would now be impossible because of labor. This is 
another argument for higher prices as well as the looked-for 
export demand as a result of peace. 

The outside market is again back to that of the A. S. & R. 
Co., at 5.15c, St. Louis, or 5.40c, New York. The market 
is quiet but firm. A little business has been done, and all 
the cheaper lots have again probably been absorbed. Some 
sellers report the outside market at 5.45c, New York, with 
sales made and expect an early advance by the A. S. & R. 
Co. The better tone to copper and zinc has affected this 


Orders are coming in faster than they are being completed 
and the consequent accumulative bookings is tangible evi- 
dence of the continued improvement. Recognition is being 
accorded the old law of supply and demand. Output of steel 
is now at about 60% of ingot capacity, and the probability 
is that the June output will be fully 10% more than that of 
May. British steel prices continue to advance; rails are 
now quoted there at $73.60 against $45 here, and wages 
have increased 12J% and mill operatives now demand the 
6-hour day. Germany has already commenced taking steel 
orders in neutral countries under British prices — "at figures 

British makers cannot touch." Structural steel ord( 

tinue lo grow, and the Bast is nearly abreast with the West 

in this line. 

At last the tin market is an open one, so tar as the ter- 
ritory of the United States is concerned. On .Monday. June 
23, George Armsby, chief in charge of tin, announced that 
all the allocated metal had been disposed of and that all re- 
strictions on trading between consumers, dealers, jobbers, and 
smelters were immediately discontinued, and that licenses 
for the purchase of tin are no longer required. John Hughes, 
chairman of the sub-committee on tin, also announced on 
Monday that the American Iron and Steel Institute would 
continue to function until import restrictions were all re- 
moved, and also would act as an intermediary when desired 
as between those who have large stocks of tin to sell and 
those who desire to buy. The whole position is rapidly 
clearing up, and a world-wide open market may be in force 
very soon. Some insist that the actual signing of peace as- 
sures such a market, despite any attempt at control, and that 
tin stored in Canada may be imported from there. The 
actual market is quiet. There has been some buying for 
July shipment from the Straits at 51 to 52c, and import 
licenses have been granted for this. The inactivity has been 
a disappointment to the trade, however, in view of the better 
situation as to control. As to the market within the United 
States, Straits tin in consumers' hands has already sold as 
low as 70c, New York, which is now quoted as the market 
for spot delivery. That the high-priced metal should sell 
under the allocated price is not a surprise to some, who 
argue that consumers can afford to part with this metal at 
70c or less and buy tin for future shipment at 51 to 52c 
and gain financially by the transaction. American pure tin 
is quoted on a parity with Straits at 70c, New York, and 
Banca for future shipment at about $c. under Straits. 

Manganese: Little business is heard of in high-grade ore. 
It is reported that about 40 carloads of low-grade ore, car- 
rying 20 to 27% Mn, was recently sold to an Eastern steel 
company, the price involved not being revealed nor the use 
to which it is to be put. 

Manganese-Iron Alloys: About 3000 tons of standard 
American ferro was sold during the past week at $110, de- 
livered, but the quotation is again back to $125. It seems 
that one or two Philadelphia producers became frighteued 
into the belief that British makers were about to take these 
orders, and so notified their American competitors of their 
lower prices and gathered in the orders. A change de- 
veloped yesterday, and producers are generally again quot- 
ing $125, delivered, on the 600 or 800 tons now remaining 
before the market. There is an inquiry for 500 tons of 
spiegel, but the market is quiet at $28 to $30. furnace. 

Molybdenum: Inquiry is reported as heavier, but it has 
not resulted in much business. Quotations are nominal at 
75 to 85c per pound of MoS. in regular concentrates. 

Tungsten: The question of a tariff on ores has been a 
prominent topic recently, but nothing definite has material- 
ized. The market is quiet and normal at prevailing prices 
of $7 to $10 per unit. There has been no testing of the 
ferro-tungsten market. Tungsten companies will find much 
of interest in the Hearings before the Committee on Ways 
and Means — House of Representatives — on H. R. 4437, a bill 
to provide revenue for the Government and to promote the 
production of tungsten ores and manufacture thereof in the 
United States. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

Book Reviews 

Mine and Quarry Tools. Simplified system of sharpening 
and tempering. By E. W. Liljegran. Pp. 16. Vest-pocket 
size. May be obtained by writing to the author at Medford, 
Oregon. Price, $1. 

Some useful hints will be found in this little booklet, the 
result of experience at mines. The subject is important, as 
the quantity of ore and rock broken depends largely on the 
manner in which the steel has been treated in the black- 

Prospecting for Minerals. A practical handbook for pros- 
pectors, explorers, settlers, and all interested in the opening 
and development of new lands. Seventh edition. By S. 
Herbert Cox. Pp. 260, ill., index. Charles Griffin & Co., 
London, 1918. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. 
Price, $2.25. 

To be candid about this little book, we might say that 
while it contains a good many practical suggestions, we do 
not agree with the preface to this last edition, wherein it 
is said that "revision does not appear to be necessary." 
On perusing the chapters covering chromite, sulphur, molyb- 
denite, tungsten, antimony, and other minerals of much 
importance, we find that many of the great deposits are 
omitted, the tests are quite inadequate, and the uses of 
these products are not well explained at all. We are some- 
what surprised that, considering the attention devoted to 
the non-ferrous and rarer minerals in recent years, the 
author and publishers did not look into this matter. 

Mathematics for Engineers. Part I. By W. N. Rose. Pp. 
474, ill., index. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. For sale 
by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $5. 

This volume, which is Part I, is devoted to elementary and 
higher algebra, mensuration and graphs, and plane trigo- 
nometry. Part II will consider calculus, harmonic and 
vector analysis, spherical trigonometry, and kindred sub- 
jects. The book is designed rather as a reference book for 
the practicing engineer, whether he be college-trained or 
self-educated, rather than as a text-book for the student, al- 
though it would also be of considerable value in supple- 
menting the ordinary textbook. While mathematical theory 
is expounded carefully, the practical application of that 
theory is kept ever to the front with problems to be solved 
that are really practical, not like the old-style 'clock' prob- 
lems that many of us remember. The chapter-headings are: 
Aids to Calculation, Equations, Mensuration, Graphs, Alge- 
bra, Plane Trigonometry, Areas of Irregular Curved Figures, 
Calculation of Earthwork Volumes, Platting of Difficult 
Equations, Determination of Laws, and The Construction of 
Charts. The text, unfortunately, contains a number of typo- 
graphical errors, which should be corrected in another edi- 
tion. However, these are relatively unimportant, and the 
book in general will be useful both to the practicing engi- 
neer and the student. 

followed in the first part of the new book, each kind of 
apparatus being discussed in turn, but, whereas in the 
earlier volume the description of each class of equipment 
was followed by examples of its practical application, to- 
gether with cost data, all this information, along with a 
good deal more of the same kind has been placed in Division 
II in the present volume. The chapter headings in Division 
I are as follows: Tools for Loosening and Hand Excava- 
tion; Drag and Wheel Scrapers; Blade or Road Graders; 
Elevating Graders; Capstan-Plows; Power-Shovels; Scraper, 
Templet, Trench, and Wheel Excavators; Cableways; Dip- 
per-Dredges; Ladder-Dredges; Hydraulic Dredges; Subaque- 
ous Rock-Drills; Car and Wagon Loaders. Division II, as 
already noted, is devoted to the practical application of ex- 
cavating equipment including cost data. The arrangement 
here is according to the kind of work rather than the ma- 
chine used for doing it, the chapter headings being: High- 
way Construction; Railroad Construction; Reclamation 
Work (including both irrigation and drainage) ; Rivers, 
Harbors, and Canals; Municipal Improvements; Quarries, 
Open-Cut Mines, Gravel-Pits, Brick-Yards; Tunnels and 
Underground Mines. A curious omission is that no mention 
is made of gold-dredges, although a large part of both divi- 
sions is devoted to dredges. The book is well-Illustrated, 
mainly from manufacturer's catalogues. It will be of value 
to anyone engaged in excavating work. 

Excavation; Machinery, Methods, and Costs. By A. B. 
McDaniel. Pp. 526, ill. The McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 
New York. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, 

If it were not for excavating machinery, the 220,000,000 
cu. yd. of material at the Panama Canal could not have 
been moved, nor could 35,000 tons of ore per day be moved 
from the Utah Copper Co. From the coolie shoveling earth 
into small baskets to the steam-shovel operator handling 
6000 cu. yd. per day is a long step. The present volume is 
a revision and enlargement of the author's earlier volume on 
'Excavating Machinery'. The same general arrangement is 

Mining Decisions 

Status of Association Placer Locations Prior to Discovery 

A question arose in the course of locating association 
placer claims in California as to the effect of a conveyance 
by the association locators to one of their number or to a 
stranger. The Supreme Court of California in the case of 
Miller v. Chrisman, 142 Cal. 440, held that the associates 
might convey to one of their number without defeating the 
association location, and in the later case of Merced Oil Co. 
v. Patterson, 153 Cal. 624, it was held that the same princi- 
ple applied to conveyances by the associates to a third party. 
In order that there might be no doubt on this subject, Con- 
gress passed an Act on March 2, 1911, 36 Statutes at Large, 
1015, providing that patent might issue to an individual or 
a corporation for the full area of 160 acres where such a 
claim had been located under the mining laws as containing 
petroleum, oil, or gas, and where the original locators had 
transferred the same to a qualified person or corporation 
prior to discovery of oil or gas, provided that the location 
was in all other respects valid and was not withdrawn from 
mineral entry. 

In the case of eight locators filing on 160 acres of land 
as a placer oil claim, who wish to convey the claim to a cor- 
poration to develop it, the corporation can hold the claim 
as a single claim of 160 acres, and does not need to cut it 
up into eight 20-acre tracts. The recent case of Union Oil 
Co. v. Smith, 39 Supreme Court Reporter, 308, a case de- 
cided (March 31, 1919) by the Supreme Court of the United 
States, is similar. The Court there points out the character 
of the title prior to discovery. 

It should be remembered that the mistake of having 
'dummies' act as locators before conveyances to a corpora- 
tion should be avoided. Each of the original associates 
should be bona fide interested in the location and receive 
valuable consideration for the transfer to the corporation. 
A location by eight individuals for the benefit of a corpora- 
tion, the individuals merely acting as dummies and not re- 
ceiving valuable consideration, has been repeatedly held to 
render the location invalid, at least as to everything except 
20 acres, which a corporation can lawfully locate in a single 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Dividends From Mines, United States and Canada 


Company and situation Metal Shares Issued Par value 

Ahmeek. Michigan copper 200.000 »26 00 

Allouoz. Michigan cppe, 100.000 26.00 

American S. & JR.. U. S. and Mei ckai 850,000 (com.) 100.00 

»„ -i » r a ■ „ 500.000<pfd.) 100.00 

American Z. L. & s„ United States, c.l.z.e.g. 96.600 (pfd ) 25 00 

Anaconda. Montana c.z.s.g. 2.331.250 60 00 

Argonaut. California goM 200.000 5 00 

Atolia. California tungsten 100.000 1.00 

Arizona, Arizona csnnrr / 1.510,808 1.20 

OTPPCr 1 £318.530 7% pfd. ... 

Arizona Commercial. Arizona c.g.s. 176 000 5 00 

Barnes-King. Montana roM 400^000 5 00 

Bmgham Mines. Utah l.s. r . 150.000 10 00 

Bunker Hill 4 Sullivan, Idaho Is. 327.000 10 00 

Butte & Superior, Montana z.s.l. 290.184 10.00 

Butte Copper & Zinc. Montana 411.700 5 00 

Caledonia. Idaho l. a . 2.606,000 100 

Calumet & Arizona. Arizona copper 642.462 10 00 

Calumet & Hecla. Michigan copper 100.000 25 00 

Centennial. Michigan copper 90.000 25 00 

Cerro Gordo. California l.z.s. 975.000 1 00 

Champion. Michiran copper 100.000 25 00 

Chief Con., Utah l.z.e.g.c. 884,223 1 00 

Chino. New Mexico copper 869,980 6 00 

Columbus-Rexall, Utah c.s.g. 586.234 1.00 

Con. Arizona Smelting-. Arizona. . . c.g.s. 1.663,000 5^00 

Con. Interstate-Callahan, Idaho.... z.l.s. 464.990 10.00 

Copper Range, Michigan copper 394!399 25 00 

Cresson. Colorado ro ld 1.220,000 1.00 

Daly. Utah l. 8e . 150,000 20.00 

Davis-Daly. Montana copper 600.000 10.00 

Dragon Con.. Utah c.l.s.g. 1.875,080 1.00 

Ducktown. Tennessee copper 198.000 4 80 

Eagle & Blue Bell. Utah 1 c.z.s 893,146 1.00 

East Butte. Montana copper 411,000 10.00 

Electric Point. Washington lead 793,600 1.00 

Empire. Idaho copper 1.000.000 1.00 

Engels. California copper 1,791.926 1.00 

Federal M. & s., Idaho l.z.s. 120.000 100.00 

First National. California copper 600.000 5.00 

General Development. U. S 120.000 25.00 

Golden Cycle. Colorado gold 1,600.000 1.00 

Grand Central. Utah l. s . 500,000 1.00 

Hecla, Idaho l. B . 1,000,000 0.25 

Homestake, South Dakota gold 251.160 100.00 

Inspiration. Arizona copper 1.181.967 20.00 

Iron Blossom, Utah l.s.g. 1.000,000 0.10 

Iron Cap. Arizona copper 144.872 10.00 

Isle Royale. Michigan copper 150,000 25.00 

Jim Butler. Nevada e.g. 1,718.021 1.00 

Judge M. & S„ Utah l.z.c.s.g. 480.000 1.00 

Kennecott. Alaska copper 2,786.679 • 5.00 

liberty Bell. Colorado gold 133,560 5.00 

Lucky Tiger. Sonora, Mexico g.s. 715.337 10.00 

Magma. Arizona copper 240.000 5.00 

Mass Con., Michigan copper 100,000 25.00 

Miami. Arizona copper 747,114 5.00 

Mohawk. Michigan copper 100,000 25.00 

Nevada Con., Nevada copper 1,999,457 5.00 

Nevada Packard. Nevada Bilver 1,164,592 1.00 

Nevada Wonder. Nevada s.g. 1,408.409 1.00 

New Cornelia, Arizona copper 1.404,900 5.00 

New Idria, California quicksilver 100.000 5.00 

New Jersey Zinc. New Jersey zinc 350.000 100.00 

North Butte. Montana c.s.g. 430.000 15.00 

North Star, California gold 250,000 10.00 

Old Dominion. Arizona c.s.g. 293,353 25.00 

Ontario Silver, Utah s.l. 150.000 100.00 

Osceola. Michigan copper 96.150 25.00 

Phelps Dodge, Ariz., N. Mex„ Mex. c.s.g. 450.000 100.00 

Plymouth Con.. California gold- 240.000 4.80 

Portland, Colorado gold 3,000,000 1.00 

Quincy, Michigan copper 150,000 25.00 

Bay Con.. Arizona copper 1,577,179 10.00 

Rochester Mines, Nevada s.g. 2.148.791 1.00 

Shannon, Arizona copper 300,000 10.00 

Shattuck, Arizona c.l.s.g. 350.000 10.00 

Silver King Coalition, Utah l.s. 1.250.000 5.00 

Silver King Con.. Utah I.b. e.g. 700.000 1.00 

St. Joe Lead. Missouri lead 1.409.466 10.00 

Tamarack & Custer. Idaho l.s. 1,776,500 1.00 

Tennessee Copper, Tennessee copper and acid 391,498 no par value 

Tintic Standard. Utah l.s. 1.175,000 0.10 

Tomboy, Colorado g.s. 310.000 4.80 

Tom Reed, Arizona gold 909,555 1.00 

Paid In 1919 


































































































































Latest dividends 

Date Amount 

Mch, 31. 11119 1.00 

Mch, 31, 1919 1 00 

Mch, 15, 1919 1.00 

May 1, 1919 1.50 

Aug. 25. 1019 1.00 

Jail. 25. 1019 0.30 

Sept. 15. 1918 0.60 

Mch. 31. 1918 

Aug. 21, 1018 0.30 

Oct. 31, 1918 0.50 

May 15. 1919 0.10 

June 30. 1919 0.25 

Mch. 4. 1919 0.25 

Sept. 1917 1.25 

July 30. 1918 0.50 

June 5, 1919 0.01 

June 26, 1919 0.50 

Dec. 31. 1918 15.00 

Dec. 31, 1918 1.00 

Jan. 1917 0.05 

Aug. 15, 1918 6.40 

May 1. 1919 0.06 Ys 

June 30, 1919 0.75 

Jan. 15, 1919 0.02% 

Dec. 1918 0.05 

Oct. 21, 1918 0.75 

June 16. 1919 0.50 

June 10. 1919 0.10 

July 1. 1919 0.10 

Dec. 30. 1918 0.25 

Oct. 1918 0.01 

May 1917 0.96 

Mch. 1919 0.05 

Dec. 21, 1918 1.50 

April 1. 1919 0.03 

July 1, 1918 0.05 

Oct. 1. 1918 0.01% 

June 14. 1919 1.00 

Mch. 1919 0.15 

Sept. 3, 1918 1.00 

June 10. 1919 0.03 

April 21. 1919 0.40 

June 28. 1919 0.15 

June 25. 1919 0.50 

July 28. 1919 1.50 

Jan. 25, 1919 0.02 >i 

Dee. 1918 0.25 

Mch. 31, 1919 0.50 

Aug. 1918 0.07 

April 1, 1919 0.12% 

June 30. 1919 0.50 

Sept. 1918 0.05 

Mch. 20, 1919 0.10 

Jan. 6, 1919 0.50 

Nov. 1917 1.00 

May 15, 1919 0.50 

May 1, 1919 1.00 

June 30,1919 0.37 % 

April 20. 1919 0.02 

May 21, 1919 0.05 

Nov. 25. 1918 0.25 

Jan. 1, 1919 0.25 

Feb. 10, 1919 4.00 

Oct. 28. 1918 0.25 

June 28. 1919 0.40 

Sept. 30, 1918 1.00 

Jan. 4, 1919 0.50 

Mch. 31, 1919 1,00 

April 2, 1919 2.50 

Jan. 1, 1919 0.12 

April 21. 1919 0.03 

June 30, 1919 1.00 

June 30, 1919 0.50 

Oct. 1, 1918 0.02 

Nov. 15, 1917 0.25 

July 25, 1919 0.35 

Jan. 1918 0.15 

April 1, 1918 0.10 

Dec. 20, 1918 0.50 

Aug. 27, 1918 0.06 

May 15, 1918 1.00 

June 27, 1919 0.08 

June 28, 1918 0.12 

Dec. 1918 0.02 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

Company and situation 

Toner ah Belmont. Nevada 

Tonopah Extension, Nevada 

Tonopah Mining 1 , Nevada 

United Eastern. Arizona 

U. S. S. B. & M., U. S., Mexico. . . 

United Verde Copper, Arizona .... 
United Verde Extension, Arizona. 

Utah Apex, Utah 

Utah Con., Utah 

Utah Copper. Utah 

Utah Metal, Utah 

Vindicator Con., Colorado 

Wellington Mines, Colorado 

West End, Nevada 

Wolverine, Michigan 

Yellow Pine. Nevada 

Yukon Gold, Alaska, Cal., Nev... 

Belmont Surf Inlet, British Columbia 

Buffalo. Ontario 

Coniagas. Ontario 

Con. M. & S.. British Columbia. . . . 

Florence. British Columbia 

Granby Con. M. S. & P. B. C 

Hedley. British Columbia 

Hollinger. Ontario 

Howe Sound, British Columbia.... 

International Nickel, Ontario 

Kerr Lake. Ontario 

Lake Shore, Ontario 

McKinley-Darragh. Ontario 

Mclntyre, Ontario 

Mining Corp., Ontario 

Nipissing-. Ontario 

Rambler-Cariboo, Britisb Columbia. 

Standard, British Columbia 

Temiskaming, Ontario 

Tough-Oakes. Ontario 

Trethewey. Ontario 


Shares issue* 

1 Par value 

Paid in 1919 































l.z.e.s.g. { 

pfd. 486.350 






com. 351,115 








do par value 






































































































































( com. 1.673.384 




nc ' 1 pfd. 89.126 























202. 2S4 

























































Latest dividends 






1919. . . . 











1919. .-. . 



02 Vi 

1919 0.05 

1918 0.25 

1919 0.13 '.~ 

1919 0.62 Vi 

1919 0.01 Vj 

1919 1.25 

1919 0.10 

1919 . 

0.02 S£ 

1919 0.03 

. 0.05 
. 0.62 Vi 
. 0.50 
. 0.12 Vi 
. 0.05 
Abbreviations : g = gold, 8 = silver, c = copper, 1 = lead, z = zinc. 

Note: Companies not included in the above list are requested to submit details Changes in capitalization and new dividends will be entered 
on receipt of the information. This table will be published quarterly. Corrections are invited. 


Company Reports 


This company has made application to the New York 
Stock Exchange tor the listing ot its capital stock, and its 
official statement contained some interesting data. The 
authorized capital is 2,000,000 shares, $10 par, of which 
1,409,466 have heen issued. The company controls the 
Mississippi River & Bonne Terre Railway and the Bonne 
Terre Farming & Cattle Co. By June 1917 it had acquired 
the whole of the properties of the Doe Run Lead Co. The 
St. Joe company owns directly 6444 acres of lead-bearing 
lands, 4244 of which are in the Flat River-Leadwood dis- 
trict, and 2240 in the Bonne Terre. By acquiring the Doe 
Run, it also owns mineral rights on 7054 acres in the Flat 
River-Leadwood and Doe Run districts. The estimated de- 
veloped ore-reserves are 19,450,000 tons, and undeveloped 
15,525,000 tons. Three mills are operated — the Bonne 
Terre, Leadwood, and Rivermines — with capacities of 2000, 
2000, and 4000 tons daily, respectively. The smelter at 
Herculaneum, on the Mississippi river, has an annual capac- 
ity of 120,000 tons of pig lead. The output during the past 
five years was: 77,404; 84,356; 91,073; 94,820; and 79,620 
tons of lead. The company also owns 1000 houses, tenanted 
by employees, and operates mercantile stores. Dividends 
since 1874 total over $21,000,000, plus 25% from the 
amortization reserve and 2084% as stock dividends. The 
net income from all sources last year was $5,121,164. Divi- 
dends amounted to $2,819,004. Current assets total $5,493,- 
191, and liabilities $771,712. Working assets include $481,- 
946 for lead on hand and in process, $1,651,038 for ma- 
terials and supplies, and $26,621 for net store accounts. 
The reserve for Federal taxes is $2,000,000. 


Property: copper mines, smelter, and acid-plants at Cop- 
perhill, Tennessee. 

Operating Officials: A. L. Tuttle, general manager, M. A. 
Caine, assistant. 

Financial Statement: the Tennessee Copper Co., which is 
the operating company of the Corporation, made a net profit 
of $706,572 during 1918. The consolidated balance-sheet 
shows current assets to be $2,669,252, and liabilities $642,- 
163. ' The net bonded indebtedness is $1,453,391. 

Dividends: No. 26 absorbed $400,000. 

Development and Mining: extensions totaled 2858 ft., 
mostly in the Burra Burra mine. This cost 20.17 cents per 
ton. Diamond-drilling in 21 holes amounted to 3579 ft., at 
a cost of $2,539 per foot. The Burra shaft was sunk from 
No. 10 to No. 12 level. North and south drifts on No. 10 
opened good ore. A brick change-house of 3 08-men capacity 
was erected. No. 7 level of the London mine opened well in 
the north. Not much work was done in the Polk County 
mine. Ore-reserves in all mines total 3,480,911 tons, of 
which 3,182,819 tons are in the Burra Burra, plus 134,910 
tons broken in stopes. Mining cost $1.3747 per ton. 

Smelting and Production: the blast-furnaces reduced 
568,131 tons of charge, using 32.5S4 tons of coke and 703 
tons of pulverized coal (the latter being tried in one fur- 
nace). Smelting cost $2.16554 per ton of ore smelted, and 
converting 1.061 cents per pound of copper. The company 
ore — 402,071 tons — yielded 9,750,008 lb. of copper, plus 
69,830 lb. from leaching flue-dust. 

The two acid-plants made 2S3.092 tons of 60° sulphuric. 

All costs amounted to $4.497S8 per ton of ore, equal to 
18.526 cents per pound of copper. Powdered coal is being 
used successfully in the blast-furnaces. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 



niiiimnniimui mtiiiii m n t mi mimiiimiiiiiiii nniiiiitiiMiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiii iiiiiminiiiiiun 


Standard plug-cocks and gate-valves on pipe-lines in 
mills, cyanide plants, and other works, are frequently the 
cause of much bother from becoming 'frozen', followed by 
their being broken. This happens in spite of grease and 
cleaning, and we have known of large plants where one 
man was kept busy doing this. Accompanying these notes 
is a diagrammatic view of a new, though thoroughly tested, 
plug-valve, the invention of S. J. Nordstrom, who was en- 
gaged in the design, construction, and operation of cyanide 
plants in Mexico. For over three years this valve has been 






in use, particularly at Pachuca and El Oro. It has also 
been adopted as standard equipment at several plants in 
place of ordinary plug-cocks and gate-valves for cyanide 
solutions, slime, water, and air. 

The basic principle of the Nordstrom patent is the com- 
bination in a plug-valve of lubricant conduits and a lubri- 
cant chamber at the base of the plug so positioned that 
when pressure is applied to the lubrication screw, this 
pressure operates to lift the plug from its seat and simul- 
taneously to distribute lubricant over the bearing surfaces. 
A flexible packing is provided between the body of the valve 
and the cover. This packing also rests upon an anti- 
friction washer forming the thrust bei ng of the plug. 
This thrust bearing is grooved concent 'ically to prevent 

leakage. The flexible packing furnishes the necessary elas- 
ticity to allow the plug to be forced from its seat for the 
purposes of lubrication and to force the plug back into its 
seat when the pressure in the lubricant chamber is released. 
The position of the lubricating conduits and of the lubri- 
cant chamber are clearly shown in the illustration. A stop 
is cast as an integral part of the plug and cover and is so 
positioned that '.he lubricant conduits can never be ex- 
posed to the fluid passing through the valve. From the 
construction it will be evident that no matter how firmly 
the plug may be stuck to the body of the valve, when force 
is applied to the lubricating screw, a pressure is created 
in the grease-chamber at the base of the plug, and that this 
pressure must either raise the plug from its seat or else 
break the body of the valve. For greater convenience in 
assembling the valve, the cover-bolts are provided with 
slotted lugs and a special nut is used to prevent the bolts 
from slipping when tightened. 

Suitable lubricants are supplied in the form of con- 
venient cartridges, which fit loosely into the lubricant con- 
duit when the screw is removed. Several grades of lubri- 
cant are supplied to suit the special conditions under which 
the valves may be used. For general purposes, the No. 1 
lubricant will be found satisfactory, but The Merrill Com- 
pany of San Francisco, part controllers of the patent, ad- 
vises that its special lubricants should be used as directed 
for certain kinds of service. 

An inspection of the various makes of standard plug- 
cocks, now on the market, will reveal the fact that the area 
of the opening in the plug is frequently no more than 60% 
of the area of the pipe. In other words, in many cases the 
effective area of a 3-in. plug-cock will only be equal to the 
nominal area of a 2*-in. pipe. All types of the Nordstrom 
plug-valve are so designed as to provide a full 100% open- 
ing in the plug. These plug-valves are made with a parallel 
opening through the plug to minimize the friction of flow 
and to increase the life of the valve. The flanged type of 
valve is constructed along lines that ensure a high hy- 
draulic efficiency, and the firm recommends this type par- 
ticularly where such efficiency is an object. The shank of 
the plug of all Nordstrom valves is finished »and, when 
specified, wrenches will be provided. These wrenches fit 
snugly on the head and are held in place by means of a 

The Mexico Realty & Development Corporation and 

Arturo M. Martinez announce the opening of their offices 
at the Equitable building, New York. 

The 'Standard' ball-mill is shown in a leaflet issued by 
Collins & Webb of Los Angeles. The 5 by 4-ft. is a popular 
size. It will crush 70 tons of sulphide ore through 30-mesh 
in 24 hours. 

To keep pace with its rapidly growing business in the 
South-West, and to render to its many customers better 
service, The Paraffine Companies, Inc., recently moved its 
Los Angeles offices to 903 North Main street. Stocks of the 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

firm's products are warehoused in a large building adjoin- 
ing the new office. 

The Burrell gas-maBk for industrial gas protection is 
briefly described in a booklet of The Mine Safety Appliances 
Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa., for which E. D. BuUard of San 
Francisco is representative. 

The Dorr Company, New York and Denver, has issued 
Bulletin No. 13, describing the Dorrco pump. This is a 16- 
page publication containing tables of dimensions, weights, 
capacities, etc., part lists, instructions for operating, and 

In Catalogue No. 7, the Standard Spiral Pipe Works of 
Chicago discusses its reinforced spiral pipe, with continuous 
interlocking seam, no rivets, and smooth inside; also its 
forged steel flanges. This firm also specializes in drop 
forgings. Price-lists are included. 

The Sullivan Machinery Co. of Chicago announces the 
establishment of a new branch-office at Room S10 Park 
building, Cleveland, Ohio, under the management of Ralph 
T. Stone, for several years past sales engineer associated 
with the New York office of this company. 

B. F. Wade, recently discharged as lieutenant in the 
U. S. Army, is now representing the Redwood Manufacturers 
Co. of San Francisco at Chicago with offices at 811 Lumber- 
mans Exchange building. He was prior to the War chief 
engineer for the Redwood Manufacturers Company. 

Paul M. Einert, aged 56, died suddenly on June 5, at his 
home in New York. He entered the accounting department 
of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. at East 
Pittsburgh in 1900. Since then he went to this company's 
foreign branches in France and England. 

H. L. Garbutt, for the last six years manager of the line 
material section of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Co., East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, has been ap- 
pointed manager of the supply division of the Westinghouse 
San Francisco office. 

In Bulletins 4S701-A and 48713, the Sprague Electric 
Works of the General Electric Co. describe and illustrate 
electric dynamometers and the adjustable loop system for 
overhead material handling machinery for terminal sheds, 

In Pamphlet No. 9-C, the improved impact-screen for the 
wet and dry sizing of all kinds of materials is described by 
the Colorado Iron Works of Denver. The limits of these 
machines are about & in. and 80 to 100-mesh. This com- 
pany's screen is used in many large works making greatly 
varied products. 

H. H. Hallowell, sales manager for the Western Ma- 
chinery Co., is touring Nevada, Utah, and other Western 
mining districts, visiting the various representatives of his 
company and appointing new representatives in open terri- 
tories. He reports conditions- throughout these fields as 
being favorable, and states that his company is securing 
good business for Western engines and hoists. 

In its 48-page catalogue, No. 63, the Armstrong Mfg. Co., 
of Waterloo, Iowa, for which H. C. Kanfman & Co. of Los 

Angeles are Western distributors, a great deal of useful 
information will be found on drilling machinery, tools, and 
supplies. A reprint of the notes of W. R. Grunow on 
churn-drill prospecting at Morenci, Arizona, where Arm- 
strong drills were used, will be found in its Bulletin No. 
CD. 2. 

J. W. McCabe, who until recently has been district man- 
ager of sales for the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. at Buffalo, 
New York, has been appointed special representative for the 
company's foreign trade department, and will leave shortly 

for an extended trip through the Orient, the Philippines, 
and Australia. W. H. White has been appointed acting dis- 
trict manager of sales at Buffalo to take charge of that ter- 
ritory during Mr. McCabe's absence. 

The S. F. Bowser Co., Ltd., of Toronto, Ontario, manu- 
facturers of cil-tanks, pumps, and storage systems, was 
organized as a Canadian company on April 1, 1919. The 
firm has for a number of years been manufacturing and 
selling these products under the control of the parent com- 
pany at Fort Wayne, Indiana. The Canadian business has 
grown steadily, practically the entire Canadian trade being 
supplied from the Toronto factory. The company issues a 
monthly called the 'Bowser Boomer'. 

The Minneapolis Steel & Machinery Co., of 154 Nassau 
street, New York, announces the expansion and development 
of the service of its office to facilitate the handling of do- 
mestic sales in the eastern part of the United States, and to 
serve the Eastern representatives of all clients. J. A. Teach, 
contracting, mechanical, and structural engineer, is now 
making his headquarters at the New York office. C. W. 
Hadden will continue his duties as export manager. This 
office is now prepared to design and quote on steel structures 
and mechanical equipment, and solicits inquiries. It is 
also prepared, and will be pleased to give complete informa- 
tion covering the Twin City products, including tractors, 
and conveying machinery. 

The Genter positive thickener (patented) is described in 
a 12-page bulletin issued by the General Engineering Co. of 
Salt Lake City. This thickener effects a separation of the 
clear liquid from the thickened unfiltered material through 
a series of cylindrical filter elements, which are continuous- 
ly held in submergence in the material to be thickened. 
The filter medium is kept free and cleansed of a minimum 
cake accumulation by filtrate counter-current, while both 
sides of the filter medium are kept in submergence in a 
pressure chamber. The capacity is from 0.3 to 0.8 gal. per 
sq. ft. per min., or for 1000 to 1200 tons of liquid per day 
about 400 sq. ft. of thickening area will be necessary, vary- 
ing, of course, with the character of the pulp. 

'Vulcan Soot-Cleaners for Return Tubular-Boilers' is the 
title of a new bulletin just published by the Vulcan Soot 
Cleaner Co. of Du Bois, Pa. This publication describes the 
model M front-end type and the model R rear-end type. 
Since 1906, approximately two million horse-power of re- 
turn tubular and Scotch marine boilers of many different 
types were equipped with these two cleaners. The bulletin 
shows how the cleaner is installed in settings of typical 
construction. It gives the results of tests conducted by the 
engineering department of the University of Illinois and by 
the Iowa Soldiers' Home, at Marshalltown, Iowa. All en- 
gineers who are anxious to save coal, who operate tubular 
boilers, and who are troubled with soot, should have a copy 
of this bulletin. 

The New York Testing Laboratories, which have been 
organized by L. R. Seidell, G. B. Jack, Jr., and H. H. Geist, 
formerly chief metallurgist, assistant chief metallurgist, and 
chief chemist, respectively, of the Wright-Martin Aircraft 
Corporation, have in addition to their well-equipped labora- 
tories at 354 Mulberry street, Newark, New Jersey, opened 
their New York offices at 74-80 Washington street. In 
addition to chemical and physicaljiesting and micro-photog- 
raphy, this organization is specializing in the source in- 
spection of materials, and as consultants in smelting, foun- 
dry, drop-forging, and heat treatment practices, and the 
metallurgical investigation of shop troubles. They are also 
making chemical investigation of various ores and mineral 
deposits, their application to industrial purposes, and possi- 
bilities of marketing same. 

July •">. l!»l!> 

MINING and Scientific PR I SS 


\X7HERE unfaltering, eco- 
* * nomical work must be 
done — Garford has won the 
confidence of thousands by 
giving dependable service and 
low ton mile cost 


Users Know" 

The Garford Motor Truck Company, Lima, Ohio 
Motor Trucks of all Capacities 

Distributors ami Service Stations in all principal cilics 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 


Under this heading 1 announcements may be made of new and 
second-hand machinery or supplies, for sale or wanted. The cost 
is five cents per word, including address, one dollar minimum order. 
Remittances MUST accompany order. Copy must be received by 
Saturday for the following 1 week's issue. 

•- muniim ii i i iii.ii < i. iiii.ii. i i i mm ■_. 

GOLD MINE BARGAIN — We control 75% of stock of a California min- 
ing 1 corporation. Through the death of the manager and promoter, the 
lack of capital and knowledge of mining-, we offer to sell this interest at 
half of the value ef the machinery and plant, valued ai S-0.000. throning 
in the underground workings valued at S35.000 and ore in sight estimated 
at $20,000 to $."i0.000. Here is a bargain. Don't answer unless you mean 
business. Address Opp. ]25P. Mining- and Scientific Press. 7-5 

A CANADIAN MANUFACTURER of machinery for the use of con- 
tractors, mi n ers, etc., is open to undertake the manufacture of any other 
machinery or device for the use of either contractors or miners, and invites 
correspondence with holders of Canadian patents, or with U. S. concerns 
desiring" a Canadian manufacturing: agency. Liberal inducements also 
offered for successful suggestions regarding- machinery or other articles 
that can be manufactured and sold in connection with the above-mentioned 
lines. Address Opp. 1253, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-19 

A PROSPECTOR AND CLEAN-UP MAN of 40 years experience wishes 
to form a business connection with investor or company; gravels, mill 
tailing's, platinum, base ores; three probable dredging' localities and the 
common metals and commercial minerals; excellent references. For terms, 
address Opp. 1243. Mining- and Scientific Press. eow-tf 

MINING ENGINEER, located in thriving town on Government railroad 
in Alaska, adjacent to large highly mineralized region soon to be opened 
by railroad, wishes financial assistance to investigate and acquire desirable 
prospect. References. Box 1654, Anchorage, Alaska. 7-12 

OPPORTUNITY — Diamond drilling on a new basis of cost, saving you 
one-half to one-quarter over present methods. Guaranteed work with best 
up to the minute equipment, efficient and experienced help. Long experienced 
and enthusiastic customers. Write for information. H. D. Staley, 132 lack 
Bdg\, San Francisco. tf 



Will purchase for cash, a second-hand 
dredge, electric drive, five to seven and 
one-half foot buckets. All machinery 
must be in A-l condition. State par- 
ticulars and where it can be seen. 

Address Opp. 1262 
MINING and Scientific PRESS 

| Tested and Guar an teed Pipe and Screw Casing I 

1 % to 18-in. STANDARD Screw Pipe: 2 to 12-in. O. D. Screw casing: I 

| GUARANTEED for 150 lbs. W. P. 

| RIVETED PIPE — All sizes. New and used. 

= 1 — 6 HP. FAIRBANKS Type Z gas engine: 1 — 25 HJ>. FAIR- j 

= BANKS Type Y gas engine. = 

= Machinery of all kinds. Write for our MACHINERY STOCK LIST. | 

| Pacific Pipe Co., (f 9 s T 6 ) 201 Howard St., San Francisco j 

stmimniiiitiun imn m n iiiiiiiihii iitiiiiiiimi mtii m iitiiiu lit 11111 nhiiii iiuiiiim uj lit ifiiiimmin nnnnuiunmi nnitii m m imnuins 
^tiitntiHit m ii iiitimi nt imiuitiii iiiiuh ii mi iitiiiii ii i in ii titiitm iitii iiui i ii hihi iiiii in in ii in urn tn inn in citiiiii hi iif ■■ ma ii hi initutijs 



| By F. L. McMECHEN I 

| CLOTH. $1.00 For Sale by 151 PAGES 1 

1 MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market St., San Francisco I 

1 — 15x24 Blake 
1 — 13x30 Blake 
1 — 13x24 Blake 
1 — 10x20 Blake 
.5 — 9x15 Blake 
1 — 7x10 Blake 


1 — 4x10 Blake 

1 — 5x30 Blake 

2 — 7x11 Dodge 
1 — 7x10 Dodge 
1 — 5x 8 Dodge 

1 — 4^x6 Dodge 

1 — 5x 9 Samson 
1^ 7x11 Sameon 

2 — 7x16 Samson 
1 — 7x15 Forsytb 


1 — No. 1 Gates 1 — No. 

1 — No. 3 Austin 1 — No. 

5 Austin 
5 McCully 

1 — No. 5 Gates 
1 — No. 10 Symons 


1 — 6x10 McFarlane 

1 — 9x12 Davis 

1 — 10x14 McFarlane 

1 — 14x26 Stearns -Rogers 

1 — 14x30 Allis 

1 — 14x27 Colorado Iron Works 
2 — 14x30 Power Mining Mactay. Co. 
1 — 16x36 Power Mining Macby. Co. 
1 — 16x36 Walker Mfg. Co. 



=j 1 1 1 1 ■ j 1 1 1 n 1 1 ■ j 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 j ■ i l 1 1 1 ■ j. mi 4. i ■ 1 1 ■ * 1 1 1 1 ■ j l 1 1 k 1. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ 1 4 i ■ ci ■ 1 1 ri 1 1 ri 1 1 1 <j ■ 1 1 1 1 1 J i ^ 



I 6-28 | 


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| Concentrating Table*, Flotation Apparatus, Classifiers, | 
| Screens, etc. | 

W. A. BUTCHART. 1326-1330 Eleventh St.. Denver. Colo. 1 

| A. P. WATT. Eastern Representative. Room 1903. 52 VanderMt Ave.. New Yoik | 

TJuini HiiiiirintmiiiBininmiimiiniiiii m tinn mmmimiiini iitiiiimmiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimnimiiminnininiiininmnni inn msmlT 



Cars — Tanks 

I Get Bulletin ?SQ-88 Machmery,Pipe,Piling,Puiiips,etc. § 

! sSSr""' u Money z§ LNICKER |N ST - LOU,s ! 



I of the United States, Arizona, California, Idaho, Colorado | 
Nevada,- Oregon and Utah — including 

Laws to Locate Oil Lands | 

| C&mpUed by CALVERT WILSON— 1917 Edition 

= Price SI. Book Dept., MINING and Scientific PRESS, San Francisco § 

niiniiuniiuiiii iiuii nutin iiiiiiiniruiimniiiiniinnini imnut mit iniinnii iinuuuiniiiiiitimiiuiiiiiiiii iinitiiHtntiiiimHiMifHWH? 

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Part I. Arithmetic 
Part 11. Geometry 

Part 111. Algebra 

Part IV. Trigonometry and Logarithm! 

'. iimiliiliiMiiJiummmiiiiiNimmiimiii 

iiiiiiimimiimillliililiiHllllllllimilii linn iimiiiimiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiMiitml 

| MINING and Scientific PRESS 

| 420 Market Street Son Francisco | 

nillllinii i iiiiiiiihii illinium iiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiKiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiitiiiiitiiiiiwiiHiiiiHHimiii; 

, I illy 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 



The cost of advertising- for positions wanted is 2 cents per word 
per insertion, including- address. Minimum order 60 cents. Replies 
forwarded without extra charge. Remittances must accompany 
order. Copy must be received Saturday morning- for the following 
week's issue. 

MASTER MECHANIC and chief electrician wants position; age 3;(; 
married; V2 years experience, construction and maintenance of mill. mine, 
power house, shops and foundry; technical and practical; speak Spanish; 
will po anywhere. Address PW l^ ii.'I. Minins and Scientific Press. 7-1 'J 

Al SCOTCH ENGINEER, master mechanic and electrician open for en- 
gagement in charg-e of power plant, mill and mine work; long experience 
with steam, (ras and Deisel engines; electric power plants and air com- 
pressors. Address Ja-s. Donaldson. 721 Dolores S t.. San Francisco, Cal. 7-12 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, university graduate, desires position as chief 
with large mining and milling- company; 5 years practical experience in- 
>taUition and operation power plants, high voltage substations, outside dis- 
tribution and motors; 3% years mining; familiar with both trolley and 
storage battery locomotives; can supervise all electrical repairs; will go 
abroad: excellent references; single; age 30. Address PW 1260, Mining and 
Scientific Press. 7-12 

THOROUGHLY CAPABLE mine superintendent and foreman. 17 years 
experience; desires position; can install and operate any kind and size of 
machinery and pumps; can sharpen steel and do some blacksmithing. frame 
timber and erect ordinary buildings at mines; been successful before both 
in handling men and getting results; can give references; go any place. 
Address PW, 1261 Mining and Scientific Press. 7-5 

MINE SUPERINTENDENT open for engagement; technical man; ten 
years experience; best of references: San Francisco interview. Address 
PW 1249. Mining and Scientific Press. 7-5 

MILL SUPERINTENDENT OR FOREMAN, experienced all-around mill- 
man, machinist and assayer; 25 years experience. Have well equipped assay 
outfit. Address PW 1250, Mining 1 and Scientific Press. 7-5 

POSITION WANTED, material agent and warehouse manager; nine years 
experience on mine construction and operation; best of references; go 
anywhere: age 34; married. Address PW 1258. Mining and Scientific 
Press. 7-1 P 

MINE AND MILL SUPERINTENDENT, technical education, 25 years 
experience; thorough machinist and assayer. also thorough in mill con- 
struction. Address PW 1224. Mining 1 and Scientific Press. 6-28 

EXPERIENCED flotation mill superintendent and metallurgist open for 
engagement with reliable company. Address PW 1257, Mining and Scientific 
Press. 7-5 

MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circulation rep- 
resentative in every mining community in the world. Replies will be held 
confidential if desired. Address. The Manager, Mining and Scientific Press. 



17—40 HP. Fairbanks. Morse Type NB Oil Engines. 
3 — 50 HP. Fairbanks. Morse Type NB Oil Engines. 
All are equipped with magneto and circulating pump, 
new. Immediate shipment from Deming, New Mexico. 


28 — Layne and Bowler Multi-Stage Pumps. 1! 
stage. Practically new. 

to 16 inch. 4 to 11 I 

E Write for special bulletin covering- above engines and pumps. | 


DENVER, COLO. 7-12 | 

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Aurora Consolidated Mines Co., - - - Aurora, Nevada 

2—4 K Gates Gyratory Crushers. 
6 — 16'x6' Steel Lined Tuhe Mills. 
6 — 22'6"x4'6" Model C Dorr Classifiers. 
13 — Dorr Thickener Mechanisms. 
o^Dorr Agitators. 

3 — 4" Byron Jackson Centrifugal Sand Pumps. 
1^—4" Byron Jackson Centrifugal Solution Pump. 
1 — 3" Byron Jackson Centrifugal Sand Pump. 
3 — 6" Byron Jackson Centrifugal Pumps. 
1 — 3" Byron Jackson Centrifugal Sand Pump. 
8 — 5" C. & K. Centrifugal Sand Pumps — two pumps 
mounted on same bed and driven by same pulley. 
1 — 3" C. & K. Centrifugal Sand Pump. 
1 — 4"x6" Gould Triplex Pump, Belt Driven. 
4 — 7"x8" Gould Triplex Pumps, Belt Driven. 
1 — 10"xl2" Gould Triplex Pump, Gear Driven. 



2 — 14"xl3" Doak Vacuum Pumps. 

1 — No. 5 Cameron Sinking Pump. 

1 — S3}4"x24"xl8}4"x34" Ingersoll-Rand Compound 
Compressor, Class P-2. Capacity 3000 cu. ft., di- 
rect connected to 

1 — 450 H.P., G.E. Synchronous motor, 150 R.P.M. 

1 — I5"xl2"x9"xl2" Ingersoll-Rand Compound Com- 
pressor, Imperial Type 10, capacity 600 cu. ft. 
61 — A.C. 3 ph., 60 eye. 440 motors, % H.P. to 150 H.P. 

2 — G.E. Elec. Mine Locomotives, 250 V., A.C. motors. 
Weight 8000 lb. Draw pull 2000 lb., 24" gauge. 
28 — Redwood Tanks, 8'x5', up to 36'xl2'. 

1 — Scheidel AVestern X-Ray Outfit complete, Crown 
No. 2, 220 volt. 

Large Assortment New and Used Pipe, 2" to 8". 
Large Assortment New and Used Belting. 
Large Assortment Transmission Machinery. 



Consisting of G. E. Motors, Redwood Tanks, Triplex and Sand Pumps, Compressors, Presses, 
Ore Buckets, Pulleys, Shafting, Pipe, Etc. 

We Have in Stock at Reno a Large Stock of Mine Cars, Pulleys, Engines, Boilers and Other Equipment 

Write or Wire For Complete List and Prices. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 


Announcements in this column are secured through the co-opera- 
tion of many of the largest mining' companies in the United States. 
Advertisements under this heading will be inserted two times without 
charge. Additional insertions charged at the rate of 2c. per word. 
Including address. 



SINCE 1884- 



umimmimiiumiimiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiitiniiiiiimiiiimiitimniii iiiiiiiiiiiiirmiimiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimmiimi£ 

Mine Sampling and Valuing 

By C. S. HERZIG | 

| A Discussion of the Methods Used in Sampling and Valuing 1 

ORE DEPOSITS, with Especial Reference to the work | 

I of Valuation by the Independent Engineer | 

I 420 Market St. Mining and Scientific Press San Francisco | 



POSITIONS OPEN with large mining and milling company, situated in 
the State of Chihuahua, Mexico: Foreman — Butters and Oliver filters — 500- 
ton cyanide plant. Applicant must have thorough practical knowledge of 
Alter plants. Should speak Spanish and be capable of handling- Mexican 
labor. References required as to experience and ability; state salary expected. 
Zinc-houee foreman — Merrill filters — zinc boxes: Steele-Harvie crucible melt- 
ing furnaces. Required to speak Borne Spanish and have had practical 
experience with precipitation department of cyanide milling plant. Must 
also have had experience melting bullion. References required; state 
■alary expected. Address PA 1078, Mining and Scientific Press. tf 

POSITIONS secured promptly for well qualified men in aU branches of 
mining and metallurgical work; 16 years established clientage with largest 
companies in the industry. Business Men's Clearing House, Denver, Colo- 
rado, tf 



i Second-hand but in pood condition. Liners and grates show very = 

| little wear. Equipped with new trunnion liners, new bolts and nuts, § 




r; Broadway, New York tf. § 


For sixteen years we have supplied 
technical men to mining employers — 
superintendents, engineers, chemists, 
foremen, master mechanics, elec- 

The effectiveness of our service is 
Indicated by the following excerpts: 

"For many years this company has en- 
gaged moBt of its men through your agency. 
The absence of such an agency ae yours 
would affect us quite seriously." 

"The work you are doing is valuable to 
our industry. Tou have given us service in 
getting men that we would be at a loss to 

"In many instances in the past eight or 
nine years it would have been a very hard 
task for us to find the proper men for 
various positions, had it not been for your 
prompt and efficient services." 

Remember — These state- 
ments come from the very 
largest mining companies In 
America. Write or wire your 

[Business Men's 

Clearing House 

Denver. Colo..U.SA 

A Few Suggestions for Your Mining Library 


By W. H. Storms 

265 pp. Cloth $2.00 

A treatise on practical timbering 
methods. Up-to-date, practical, 


By Herbert C. Hoover 

103 pp. Cloth $2.50 

Contains information concerning 
valuation, organization and ad- 
ministration as adapted to copper, 
sold, lead, silver, tin and zinc 


By J. B. Finlay 

400 pp. Cloth $5.00 

A compilation of Cost Data based 
on results of the most important 
mines throughout the World. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



f. miimtimmnimmr iimiiimiiniiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiHimiiHiiiniiiiiiimiiimiin iimiiiimmmiiimimiiiiiiiiimmmm niiiitiiiii imiiiiimimiiiiiiiin mum miiiiimmmiimmmmliiiiiM i in. 

.lulv 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



pspy fWi iiiJg^Hi 

»V V 

^s^^v- rba 

« «*. 

JMMIItlllllllilllllMllllllilllllllllMIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIillllllllllllllMlllillinilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllltlllllllltlllllllllllllllMIIIIIIII^ JIIMIIIIIIIIIIIII1IIII1III1I 

| Perforated Steel Screens | 

Of Every Description | 

IIIIMUIHMtHIIIIHHIIIlll I lllllllllllHHHl.llllllMllllir -iiiiiimllllliiiiim |||<£ 



I Made for Service j 

I The Harrington & King Perforating Co. | 

637 N. Union Ave., Chicago, 111. j 
NEW YORK OFFICE: 114 Liberty St. 

3iii iiniiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiimiiiiilii mi iiiiiimiiiuiiiiiiiiiliiiimiiriiiiimiiiimiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiimnmiiG 




| 2 MINE CAGES for vertical shaft, designed to carry mine car with | 

| 1800 lb. of ore; outside measurement of platform 4 ft. 2 in. long-, = 

| guides 4 in. x 4 in. and 2 ft. 11 in. apart; platform of gTating- and I 

| with track for 50 centimeter gauge. | 

1 S MINE CARS, rotary dump, with roller bearing- wheels and axles; | 

1 capacity 1800 lb. of ore; total height 42 in. § 

| All of the above are new and packed for export shipment. | 

= An opportunity to obtain quick shipment at low price. = 


= 42 Broadway, New York tf. 5 

Iiminimiiiii iiniimi mil minim mimiim t 1 m miimiiiimiimiimiimiiiimiiiimii)imimm£ 


mmms .-largest stock ofused equipmen r I 


One 360 H. P. De Lavergne International 
Combustion Oil Engine 

One Floating Cooler, 5 ft. Diameter by 
18 ft. between cones 

Both good as new 


For Further Particulars Address 

The Ozark Smelting & Mining Company 

601 Canal Road, Cleveland, Ohio 



I The Following Powell Pilot Gate Valves: \ 

I 61 — No. 460 — 1%". = 

I 494 — No. 460 — 1%". = 

I 164 — No. 460 — 2". § 

3 48 — No. 460 — 2%". I 

| 126 — No. 462 — 1%". All Iron. g 

•:'- Will sell at factory coat in any quantity. Write for prices. i 

| W. B. SCHAW, P. O. Box 445. Sacramento, Cal. | 

I Mill and Cyanide I 

By A. W. ALLEN 128 pp Cloth 




Compiled and Arranged for the Use of 



MINING and Scientific PRESS, | 
420 Market St., San Francisco. 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find $2 for which please § 

send me one copy of Allen's 'Mill and Cyanide Hand- | 

book'. | 

i Name 

I Address 

.miimiimiimiiiiim Iliniili mum imiiiimmiimtiiimiimm miimiimiimmmmmmiimumiF 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

Practical Oil Geology 



Flexible Fabrikoid 

233 pp. 


This new edition with consider- 
able new material added contains 
the following chapter headings: 

1 — Origin and Accumulation of 

2 — Physical and Chemical Prop- 

3 — Stratigraphy 

4 — Structural Geology 

5— Prospecting and Mapping 

6 — Locating Drill-Hole Sites 

7 — Oil Well Drilling 

8 — Oil Production 

9 — Water 

10 — Natural and Casinghead Gas 

11 — Oil Shales 

12 — Geological Field Methods and 
Instruments in Use 

13 — Cautions 





MEVEVG and Scientific PRESS, 

■420 Market Street, San Francisco 

Gentlemen: Please send me one copy of "Practical 
Oil Geology" by Hager, for which I am enclosing J2.50. 





= treatment of ores Is most efficiently accomplished by the JANNEY = 


= belt driven is especially adapted for mills treating' up to 100 tons = 

= per day and the "Standard" Janney for mills treating more than 100 = 

= .tons per day. = 


= patented circulating' feature insures the highest degree of efficiency. = 

= it increases the time factor by building up a large circulating: load § 

= that passes the ore pulp many times through the machine. This § 

= gives a maximum extraction with the fewest possible number of = 

= machines. = 

E We make a specialty of testing ores by flotation. Send for § 

| Illustrated booklets. = 

§ Manufactured and Sold Exclusively by 


§ Felt Bonding, Salt Lake City, Utah § 

| 2 I 




i DDf.Tr. /FLEUSS\ Self Contained 

| r JSKJ 1 VJ VDAVIS ) Oxygen Apparatus I 

Is again available for American Mine Operators. Dur- § 

ing- the war period practically the entire plant of = 

| Siebe. Gorman & Co. Ltd. has been at work for the 

= men in the trenches. Proto equipment having - been 

r recognized as standard by the Allied governments. = 

A large stock of parts is now on hand and prompt de- 
| liveries are being; made. Send us your requirements. = 

| H. N. ELMER, General Agent § 


1140 Monadnock Block. CHICAGO. ILL. § 

| FRANK C STOVER, Sole, Engineer for Fire Departments § 
| 1174 Phelan Bldg., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. § 



Electric Mining Locomotive* 


Switcket, Fragi, ud Eqmpmeat. 














Allis-Chalmers Co. Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. = 

Chicago. 111. Denver, Colo. 

Harron, Rickard & HcCone. San Francisca = 

Frank R. Perrot, Sydney and Perth, Australia | 






1 Get Out Prictt Santfle, Gratis j 

1 UNITED NAVAL STORES CO., new york i 

iimiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiuiiiiimniiiiimiiiiittiiiiiiiiiiTUUi hi Htm ii mipi nun iiiuinnBwmniinniniBiB - 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 





Are Not Affected by 

Muddy, Gritty Water 

The cylinder has large clearance and | 

the plunger Is outside packed at the | 

top. The suction and discharge valves | 

are Stted with bronze taper Beats and | 

are easily exchanged by removing bon- \ 

nets The Jack Head works altogether § 

on the down stroke; the pump rod li | 

made to weigh just half the amount of | 

pressure exerted on the plunger so that § 

the load Is equal and uniform at all | 

times whether on down or up stroke. | 

In this way | 

Balance Bob is Eliminated 

thereby Increasing the efficiency and | 

materially reducing cost of installation. X 

These pumps are made with capacities § 

of from 30 to 500 gallons per minute § 

and for elevations up to 600 feet. | 


Eatablahed 1850 j 

299 Fremont St. San Francisco, Cal. | 


The proper meof 
proper explosim 

Giant Explosives save time, 

money and labor in blasting 

because they are made especially to suit Western 


As the Giant Line includes every type and grade of 
blasting agent, you will have no difficulty in securing 
exactly the right explosive for your purpose. 

The extra care and skill employed in manufacturing 
Giant Explosives are your guarantee of their strength, 

stability and uniformity. 

Ask the Service Division of this company how your 
blasting may be made more economical and efficient. 


"Everything for Bloating" ; 
Home Office: San Francisco 

Branch Offices: Denver. Portland. Salt Lake City. Seattle, Spokane 





• auii*e»- ftQN WORK* 

Your opportunity to market quicksilver at the 
prevailing: market price is easi,l.v solved' by 'the 
installation of a JOHNSON-McKAY FURNACE. 
These furnaces are successfully treating- cinnabar 
ore on smal 1 properties where the cost of other 
types of furnaces would not warrant the outlay 
for first .cost. 

They are easily installed, operated at a minimum 
of cost, require no skilled labor and are capable 
of treating a considerable tonnage per day. 


Joshua Hendy Iron Works 

San Francisco, Cal. 

ntmmiiHimim immimm until n ifiini mi iiiifiinniii n m n n I n mil n li ill li m iimiiiimiiini iimimiiimi mimmimmiimimmiiiimiimimimiiiiiiiiimmi i in i iiiiimmiiimiiimiii iiiiimm mmtiiiKiE 

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3 Biimingliain. Ala— Box 908. Chicago, HI— 512 1st Nat. Bk. Bldg i 

I. Cobmbiu, Ohio-607 New Hayden Bldg. Dallas, Tei-1217 Praetorian Bldg. | 

= Minneapolis, Mhm— 712 Plymotl Bldg. Kansas City, Mo— 716 Scarritt Bldg. = 

1 New York City-No. I Broadway San Francisco. Cal.-7 1 1 Balboa Bldg. I 

= \ Los Angeles, Cal.— 339 Citizens' National Bank Bldg. I 

itiiiiiiiiimmimmim tiiilllinilllllimllllllllllllimimilllllllllllllllllllimilltllllllllllltllllllllllu: 



U. S. and Foreign Patents 
Preliminary Searches 
Validity Reports 





mmiNiiiiiimi iimiiimmii Illllllliumiil iimititiuitiiiiiiiiiniiiiimi I iiiiimm- 


' EARLE C. BACON. Inc. engineer S . 

? 6 CORtUndt St. NFT-V YORK ,' Sund for Ruiletin C-l 

nmiim hi ; i "in iimim i iimiimum i mmiimm u mm f, 

^■•■•■Liiiit JDir mr iiiitiiiiriuiiirjiiiiiitii Jiiirniit «i>iijiimji*ii*ii imMiiriiiiiniiilllitlLlllliiiiliiltllliit^ 

I Uinl]lr~B t3 paBB-BiPSl 




S People's Gas Bldg. Felt Bldg. Hollingsworth Bldg. | 

1 Chicago, 111. Salt Lake City. Utah Los Angeles, Cal. jj 

nliimiiniiimiiinimi iiiiiiiitiiliiiiliiilliiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiltiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiNllllliilliiliiiiiiinliHiiiiiuiiE 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

vumiiHniuinHiHininininniniriiiMiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiifiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiii^ ^iiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiniiiiiinin.inMiHiiii(iiiiiMMinniMiMiMiiiniiiriiMiniiiiiiiiitiiiiiiii(iiimi<iiiiiumiiiiiiiiHHiuHiimnitu 


Not a drop of Leakage in this 12,000-foot installation of § 

Lap Welded and Spiral Riveted Steel Pipe | 

when 286-lb. working pressure turned on at the Homes take Mining Co., 1 

Lead, South Dakota. s 

Catalog Lap Welded Pipe (Large Diameters) and Spiral Riveted = 

Pipe mailed on request. = 


Chicago, 111. § 

GO Church St., New York 


Leschen Tramways 

We design and manufacture Aerial 
Wire Rope Tramways not only for the 
economical conveying of ore and like 
material, but also for the disposal of 
ashes from boilers, waste from coal mines, tailings 
from concentrating plants, or refuse from various 
manufacturing processes. 

The first cost is often very small; the saving 
in labor and annoyance often very great. 

Established ISSJ 


St. Louis, U. S. A. 
New York, Chicago, Denver, Salt Lake City, San Francisco 

^NimiiiNitimiiiiiiiiiniimiiimmmiuiimmiiiiimimiifiiiiiiit i lit iiiiiimiiiiimijiiiiiimmiimiimimimilliiiiiiu 


is particularly noted for = 
being: DEPENDABLE. If = 
24 -hour service is what = 
you want, send for our = 
booklet. = 



106 W. Third St., | 

Los Angeles. Calif. = 

iniiiiiiiiiitiitiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiijiiii utiiiiriiiimrutiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiirs 




Most extensive and successful manufacturers. | 
Old plates replated — made equal to new. = 


1349-51 Mission St, San Francisco E. G. DENNISTON, Prop. | 
Get our prices. Catalog- sent. = 

Telephone Market 2&I5. = 

?tn jniinrntMiiitiiiii iitm m ■■ hi utii lit i msii riiffi iiiiiiiiiiiriiiiini iisMimiif n iimiiiif 1 1 mil m in n ni »i m imii ii iitm tn n i n m ■miiiii inin 












I Los Angeles Foundry Co. j 

Los Angeles, CaL 

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| Standard Pipe— Screw Joint Casing, Pipe | 

| and Casing Fittings, 


! Valves and Brass Goods 1 


nnmiiiiiiiMimmiimiimiiiiimmiimiiii imiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiniiiiiinii iiiiiiiiiitniiiili iiiiiimimmnmtntntimir; 

Backed by a record of 26 year 

of dependable Bervlce. 

th e fuFKiN Rule Qo. 

Tapes and 


New York 




= For twenty years metallurgists and aasayew 

E feave looked upon Thompson Balances and 

= WelffhtB as the acme of precision. Hade hi 

| a style as 2 size for every purpose. 

| Write for eats-tot; 


| Denver. Colo. 

a iuuuiiii iiiiiui mm iimiii ii iinimtmiiumunumumi mm »uuniiniiimmitiuuiu luunuiuujiiuiiiuiainiiuuMiw ni i TO Ti u Tniiig . 

Inlv 5, L919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Ill II Illlltllllll 

minium iiiiii inn iiiiiii 111 ii 111 mi i ii 111 ii km 

To Stand the Strain 





THE requirements of heavy duty demand great 
strength and durability o£ conveyor and ele- 
vator belts. 



for conveyor and elevator belting make a joint 
of unusually high tensile strength, combined 
with an even balance and smoothness on both 
sides that give a joint of great durability. 

Simple in construction — all steel — easy to 
apply. "High Duty" Fasteners are made in 
various sizes tor belts | inch and upward in 

Write for complete information. 



Dept. H. D. 26, 522 So. Clinton St., 


Spiral - pump V 


\ ' •^KENOYmO^O' 

\ \''-,S^kFrakcVsco,Cal. 




for economically | 
handling liquids { 

containing solids. g 

Their use and | 

application has | 

become universal in | 

the handling of | 

battery sands, | 

tailings, slimes, etc. | 

I JOSHUA HENDY IRON WORKS, San Francisco, Cal. j 

nmimmimiiiiiimiimim inn I I Ilium ' ' mm ' ' '»" "- 

3iiiHimiiiiiimimiiiimiiiimmimiimimiiiimmim miimiiiimmiiiiiiiimiiiimmimmimmiimiiiimiimimiimiimimiiiiH 

Screens while it grinds | 






Interchangeable, peripheral | 

nr end i: 

3 tons to 40 slot $175 i 

10 375 | 

20 ' 5S0 1 

40 ' 775 i 

Pat. Mar. 23, 1916 | 

Larger sizes made | 

Repeat orders show merit = 

Large ore-testing plant | 

p In connection § 


fiiiiimmimiuimiimimmim umiiiiiiuimiiimiiiimiimiiii iiimiimiiiiiiim iiimimiiiim mm i 7: 


No. 568. Gun Metal 
Cap Lamp 

This Lamp of sturdy 
construction in Gun 
Metal finish is one 
of the most popular 
types made. 

^— THE Mo- SI ^— 


— 6 hour capacity— all 
aluminum lamp — the 
strongest lamp made. 



| 268 Market St. San Francisco, Cal. | 



illinium mum iiiiitiiiiimiiiimiiiimmmiiiit miiiliilllill i ( iiiiiiiiiiimiinilliiiiiuiiim mining 

| Don't be content with the knowledge 

| you now have of your profession. | 


| The world is progressing at a high rate | 
[ of speed. New books are continually | 
I being published. | 


1 of the MINING and Scientific PRESS 
i carries a complete line of technical 
I books on Mining, Mechanical, Elec- 
I trical and Civil Engineering, Metal- | 

: lurgy, Assaying, Geology, etc. 

1 Take Advantage of our Combination | 
| Offer on the following page. | 

fi mi mm i iiimmimm milium iiimm mi Ml mm mimiintniininmS 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 




Mining Engineer's 

2375 Pag**, lnd*x 

This splendid handbook contains no discus- 
sion of abstract theory. Nothing but facts 
are found within its covers; not a surplus 
word, nothing of any consequence Is 
omitted. It Is a veritable encyclopedia. 

Price W 

Mining and Scientific Press one year. . . 4 


Special Price for Both, 
in Combination 



Technical Methods 
of Ore Analysis 

374 Pat**, lnd*x 

This Is the seventh edition of this standard 
work, and is the last word on this subject. 
The chemist, mining engineer, assayer, and 
everybody concerned In the determination 
of the economic value of orea will And this 
book of great value. 

Price $2.75 

Mining and Scientific Press one year . 4.00 


Special Price for Both, 
in Combination 



Six standard books, the latest editions, and the best in 
their fields, in combination with subscriptions to the 
MINING and Scientific PRESS at prices effecting a sub- 
stantial saving over the retail prices. 




Blowpipe Analysis, 
and Crystallography 

155 Paget, Index 

This is a handbook. Just the thine for the 
pocket ot the held man as a reference work, 
and equally valuable oh the desk of the 
busy consulting engineer, mine manager 
and assayer. It is thorough, practical and 
confined to essentials. 

Price W.50 

Mining and Scientific Press one year. 4.00 


Special Price for Bolh 
in Combination 




M.W.gP.W.glJ J AWIU!.JJI.'.JM,™ 

Timber Framing 

275 Pag**. Ind*x 

This book contains design and construction 
of head-frames, flumes, ore-bins, (.resiles. 
water-towers, mill-buildings and, in fact, 
all building Incident to mining operations, 
A book for reference and study for those 
connected with construction work. 

Price •».!» 

Mining and Scientific Press one year. 4.00 

Special Price for Both, , 

in Combination 

Hydraulic and 
Placer Mining 

425 Pag**, Index 

This Is the third and last edition (1918) 
and covers the essentials of the entire 
placer mining field. It la thorough, prac- 
tical and gives due consideration to the 
apparatus employed. It Is an invaluable 
reference book, and equally useful to those 
who desire to add to their knowledge of 
this branch of mining. 

Price fi3 

Mining and Scientific Press one year. . 4 


Special Price for Both, 
in Combination 






Mechanical Engineer's 
Pocket Book 

1526 Pag**, Indtx 

The standard mechanical engineers' refer- 
ence book covering every conceivable phase 
of the profession, a veritable encyclopedia 
in Itself. 

Price IS 

Mining and Scientific Press one year. . 4 

Special Price for Both, 
in Combination 



MINING and Scientific PRESS, 

420 Market Su, San Francisco, Cal. 


Add $1.00 for Canadian Postage; 
$2.00 for Foreign Postage. 

Enclosed find $ (2) 

Please enter my subscription to MINING and Scientific PRESS and send me the_following book as per combination offer 

Name .. 

Vocation , 

Company employed by. 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


ainmiiiilimumiiiimtiiimiiiiiiiiium imimiinmiimiilitiHiimillltllmii 


Send for Special Illustrated Catalogue 

American SteeWire 






GRIND-don't CUT 

You can grind rock or placer-ground faster than you 
can cut it ; therefore, we use a shot-bit giving a grind- 
ing edge that fairly eats through the ground. 



your property. It's easy. The 
Dobbins brings up clean cores 
fifteen and twenty feet long — 
and does it uniformly. 

The Dobbins is in use the world over on 
every kind of rock or placer-ground. You 
can team all about the Dobbins from one 
of our agents or 

Write directly to us for 
booklet 16. mentioning the 
character of your ground. 


i- H iff '**& 

147 WEST 42nd STREET 



San Francisco and Los Angde* 
Salt Lake City. Utah 

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Aldrich Pumps 


Cut illustrates a 5"x6" Horizontal Triplex Portable Pump 
rated at 150 U. S. G.P.M. against 175 teet. A very handy 
machine for use about the mine for operating on incline 
slopes or pumping out dips. Cement lined and bronze 
fitted for acidulous mine water. Write for "Pump Data" 
giving full description. 


Allentown, Pa., U. S. A. 

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—Over 40 MODELS to Select from 


Write for 1919 Catalog. 

JUSTRITE MFG. CO., 2075 Southport Ave. , CHICAGO! 

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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

Weilman-Lewis Company 

Mechanical and Metallurgical 




Specializing flotation of Complex and Carbonate ores. 
Cyanide treatment of Silver and Gold ores. 

I F you are contemplating building a mill, let us figure 
* with you upon designing and construction. We 
have the organization and equipment and can construct 
your mill quicker than you can, and at less cost. 

If your mill is not making a satisfactory recovery of 
the values, let us investigate and place you upon a 
paying basis. We have a full staff of competent Metal- 
lurgical and Mechanical Engineers. 

900 Hibernian Building 
Los Angeles California 


Rorr - 

Offers such 
as to justify 


There's the Saving of Labor 
" Use of Solid Cars 
" Saving in Car Maintenance 
" Speed of Operation 
" Avoidance of Accidents 

Can't possibly elaborate them all here, but 
you can have full information for the asking 

New York: 



Arcade Bid?. 

Knoxville : 

Bank Bids. 



Tremont St 


E offer you Improvements and protection under 
Earasay, Wood, Claghorn and other patent*. 

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12th Edition Catalogue with engineering Information yon need I 

mailed free to prospective oeera. To others at a dollar. = 


1218 Union Bank Building. PITTSBrBGH. PA. = 




75 Fremont Street 




| General Naval Stores Co.. 90 West Street, New York | 

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5 ■ 1986 Harrison Street, 
= San Francisco, Calif. 

86 West Street, B 
New York. N. Y. | 



Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

F. E. MARINER. Pres. 

Gull Point, Fla. 

Mis iiummii mmiiiiini 'iiiiiii; .,::..,- ,..: rn inn i|iiiiiiiiiii;it(iMliiiiliii!iiniiiNr 



Jigs, Screens, Sand and Slime | 
Tables, Classifiers, Automatic } 
Ore Feeders, Etc. 

Manufactured by 

35 Runyon Street Newark, N. J. | 


July :>. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


■ ■ ■ . 


Forget Belt Troubles 

—when your plant is driven by 


Eliminate shut-downs on account of belt troubles. Never has there been a 
more satisfactory or dependable belt than 'Wooster'. It is adaptable for both 
conveyor and transmission purposes. It is solid cotton-woven. There are no 
plies, laps, stitches or sections. It is absolutely uniform and of the same dur- 
ability and strength throughout. Wooster fabric is thoroughly impregnated 
and saturated under pressure with an asphaltum solution. This makes it 
resistant to the action of moisture, alkali, acid or gas fumes — and gives it 
exceptionally long life. 

Wooster is the ideal belt for mine use — it may be exposed to damp or heat with- 
out fear of injury. Underground — in the mill — in the smelter or out-of-doors 
Wooster can be depended to transmit a larger percentage of horse-power for a 
greater number of hours than any belt made. 




126 Pine Street, Successors to LELAND EQUIPMENT CO. SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Send for catalogue 

Refinement in the smallest details is a 
characteristic of the Longyear drills. 

This is a No. 2 drill equipped with Screw Feed 
Swivel Head, all gearing is of steel, machine 
cut. The hoist is of the internal geared type, 
the engine is duplex, with double-bearing cross- 
heads. Nothing has been neglected to make the 
Longyear drills the last word in diamond drills. 

A Drill for Every Purpose 


Branch Office, Tucson, Arizona 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

We carry in stock the latest books on engineering subjects. Here are a few of the best. 




$5.00 598 pp. 

Contains chapters on economic geology, mineral production, topographic and geologic features, distribution 

of deposits and details of each class of ore worked in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, 

Colombia, Ecuador, the Guianas, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. 


Cloth $2.50 271 pp. 


A practical manual for Chemists, Petrologists, Mining Engineers, and others, dealing with a selection of 

methods for the chemical analysis of silicate rocks, especially of igneous origin. Contains five parts 

as follows: Introduction; Apparatus and Reagents; The Sample; Operations; Methods. 


Cloth . 



210 pp. 

Explains the following phases of zinc: history, rise and progress of production, sources of supply, 

marketing, smelting, other methods of production, physical and chemical properties, 

industrial applications, industrial alloys, commercial compounds, etc. 




485 pp. 

Divided into the following parts: (Part one) Production of Compressed Air. (Part two) Transmission of 
Compressed Air. Also special reference is made to Mine Service. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market St., 
San Francisco, California 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find If for which please send me. postage prepaid, the following books: 

It is understood that if any of the above books prove unsatisfactory, I am at liberty to return them within ten 
days and purchase price, less carriage charges, will be refunded. 

Name . . 

July •".. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




Tin, IVIonozite, 


Placer Gold, 
| the EMPIRE DRILL will help you. 

The Empire Drill is the most accurate 
and cheapest apparatus for prospecting 
for these minerals. 

It is simple, light and portable, and can 
be taken anywhere that a man can go. 

| It is used by the United States, English, 

Canadian and Russian Governments. 

Smntt far catalog. 




7 k I 







m \ 



If ^1 

1 li 


COUPLING -J • | . \ 



J-! ItSK. 

• ' J<-gASIN6 








SHminiKIPtl tlllllllltllllHIIIItlllllltlilllllltllllllllllllllltlllllllltlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllltHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII It tllltlllltllllllllllllllllllllllllllMllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllmllllllllrillllllllllllllK II lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllNlllfllllllflllllllllMlllllllllllllMII^ 




After years of experimental work on all the common and { 

complex ores of Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tungsten, Iron, Silver, j 

Molybdenum, Chromium, Manganese, etc., we are able to | 

guarantee an average extraction of 8 5 % and better of prac- j 

tically every kind of concentrating ores — whether Sulphides, | 
Carbonates or Oxides — while over 90% is constantly being 

obtained on many ores. j 

Compare These Figures With What 
Your Mill is Doing 

Our exhaust or vacuum principle is a radical departure from every other process of concentration. It | 

is not only scientifically correct, but can be absolutely controlled to any desired suction, detecting the slightest | 

difference in weight between the rock and mineral contents, producing a perfect separation and Absolutely | 

Dustloss — 

Handles every size from largest to dust. Rotation of cylinders tumbles the ore and rock, the suction | 

draws the rock upward farther with each rotation, while the heavier concentrates fall downward and out of | 

the machine in a constant stream. | 

All metal construction. Add as many sections as desired. g 

Whether you have an abundance of water for wet concentration or are in the desert, the Meyer Dry | 

Concentrator is worth your thorough investigation. | 

Send Us Prepaid: 10 lb. uncrushed run of ore; 20 lb. each of three sizes of crushed ore — coarse, medium | 

and fine, as 16, 30 and 60 to 100 mesh; 15 lb. of unsized crushed ore. This saves unnecessary delay. Will j 

return results — Then Yon Know. Our catalog explains everything | 


cylinders, Model A. Capacity 25 tons per 
day. Our large models have capacities from 
8 to 20 tone per cylinder. 


Sole Manufacturers 

CANTON, OHIO' -■UUtllil]l1llllllllllll]IIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIllltllliMI«llllllillll 

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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

RATES: One-half inch, tS5 per year, subscription included. Combination rate unth The Mining Magazine (London) one-half inch in each, tko per year, subscription included, 

iiiiiiuiiMltftcittfHijitiriiniii tiMirtitiiiif iiijiiui tinui mi^ii nf n imiiii in n tinnn n lii ■■ r f i j iil iiiinitltllllltllllllllllllllltlllllllllllirilllltllllllinillllllllMUIIIIlllIllllllllllllflltllllllllllillllllllllMllMlllllllllllllullitiitiiiiiiiMLin miiim r 

ALDRIDGE, Walter H. 

50 East 42nd St.. New York 


% Chile Exploration Co., Chuquicamata 
(via Antoiasasta) Chile, South America 

CARR, Homer L. 


Mining: Director. The Finance Exploration and 

Development Corporation ol America 

50 Broad Street. New York 

ARGAL.L & SONS, Philip 



First National Bank Bdgr.. Denver 

Cable: Are-all Code : Bedford McNeill 

BENEDICT, William de L. 

19 Cedar St., New York 

CHANCE * CO., H. M. 



839 Druxel Bder . Philadalphia 

ARNOLD, Ralph Cable : Ralfarnoil 


Union Oil Bdg.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

120 Broadway. New York 

No. 1. London Wall Bdg., London. E.C. 


H. W. Blaisdell, President 
Specialty: Designing- and Constructing Exca- 
vators for Circular and Rectangular Vats 
480 Pacific Electric Bug-.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

CHANN1NG, J. Parke 


61 Broadway. New York 

B. C. Austin W. V. Wilson 



805 Santa Marina Bdg., San Francisco, Cal. 

Cable : Austin Usual Codes 

BOISE, Charles W. 


Foreign Exploration 

Cable : Mukeba 42 Broadway, New York 

CHASE, Charles A. 

826-826 Cooper Bde*., Denver 
Liberty Bell G. M. Co.. Tellnride. 


John M. Baker 
Paul W. Gaebelein Hamilton W. Baker 


185 Devonshire Street, 
Boston, Mass. 

BOSQUI, Francis L. 


90 West St., 54 New Broad St., 

New York City London, E.C, England 

BRAYTON, Corey C. 

3937 Magnolia Ave., Berkeley, Cal. 

Edwin E 

. Chase 


L. Chase 


& SON, 





1028 First National Bank 



COHEN, Samuel W. 

Dominion Express Bdtr . Montreal. Canada 

BALL, Sydney H. 


42 Broadway, New York 

Cable : Alhasters Rogers. Mayer & Ball 

BRODIE, Walter M. 

47 Cedar St., New York 

COLE, P. h. 


Shanghai, China 
Cable: Haneo 

BANCROFT, Howland 


Symes Bde:., Denver 

Casilla No. 215. Oruro, Bolivia 

Cable: Howban Code : Bedford McNeill 

BROWN, R. Oilman 


Pinners Hall, London, E.C. 2 

Cable : Argeby Usual Codes 

COLLBRAN, Arthur H. 

Seoul. Korea 








Bureh, Herehey & White 
BURCH, Albert 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable: Burch 

Usual Codes 

COLLINS, Edwin James 

Mine Examinations and Management 
1008-1009 Torrey Bdg., Duluth. Minn. 


11 Pine St.. New York Marquette 

Code: McNeill 

BURCH, H. Kenyon 


Phelps Dodge Corporation, 

Copper Queen Branch 

Bisbee, Arizona 

COLLINS, George E. 

Mine Examinations and Management 
414 Boston Bdg., Denver 
Cable: Colcomac 

BEATTY, A. Chester 

25 Broad St.. New York 
No professional work entertained 
Cable : Granitic 


71 Broadway. New York 

COLLINS, Henry P. 

66 Finsbury Pavement, London, E.C. 

Hamilton, Beauchamp, Woodworth. Inc. 


Specialty: Flotation 

419 Embarcadero. San Francisco 


Citizens National Bank Bdg., Los Angeles 



San Francisco, Cal. 

Maps and drawings for mining men 

Jiilr r». 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



(HANS ION, Robert E. 

1213 Hobort Bdg. 588 Market SI. 

San Fnuieisco 2 Rector SI.. New York 

Cable: Reerans Code: McNeill 100* 




Field Engineer for Cro 



ve M 



30 North 






DAVIS, Leverott 


Examination, Development. Management 

911 Foster Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 


W. E. 


618 North Third Avenue. 

Phoenix. Arizona 

DEL MAR, Algernon 


Specialty. Mill Operation and Construction 

1424 Alpha St.. Los Angeles 

DENNIS, Clifford 




Crocker Bdg. 









The Insurance Exchange. San Francisco 

Cable : Deerhodor Code : McNeill 1908 

PARISH, George E. 


First National Bank ltd*.'.. San Francisco 

25 Broad St.. New York 


John It 



orncr. 68 Butter 
Residence, s 
Cable: Farish 



. San yrancisco 
Mateo. Cal. 

PINCH, John Wellington 

301 High St.. Denver. Colorado 








. 45 

Cedar St. 




1st Nat. Bk. Bdg.. Denver. 423 Broad St., New 
York. 826 Great Southern Bdg., Dallas, Tex. 
Cable: Calnshoil Usual Codes 

FITCH, Walter Jr. 




Shamokin. Pennsylvania 

Eureka. Utah 

B . B. D avis Anton Kragtorp 


Old National lliuili li.lg . Spokane, Wash 



Sin ii.i ty: Cyamdlng Gold and Silver Ores 

410 7he Embarcndero. San Francisco 

HANSON, Henry 


Specialty, Gold and Silver Ores 

Plant Design and Construction 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco. Cal 

HAWXHURST, Robert, Jr. 

Starr King - Mine. Inc.. 
58 Sutter St.. San Francisco. Cal 
Cable; Hawxhurst 

Burch, Hershey & White 


Oscar H. 


Kellogg. Idaho 

Cable: Hershey 











Lake City. 



% General Development Co- 
Code: McNeill 1908 61 Broadway. New York 

DOLBEAR, Samuel H. 


Specialty: Non-metallic minerals 

1411-1412-1415 Merchants National Bank Bdg., 

San Francisco 

FOWLER, Samuel S. 


Nelson, British Columbia 
Cable: Fowler Usual Codes 




228 Perry St.. 

Oakland. Cal 




John V. N. Dorr, President 
Denver • New York London, E.C. 


704 Lonsdale Bdg.. Duluth. Minn. 

DWIGHT, Arthur S. 


29 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Sinterer 

Code : McNeill : Miners & Smelters 

DYER, S. C. 

% Transvaal & Rhodesian Estates 
P. O Box 13, Bulawayo, Rhodesia 



Mine and Metallurgical Plant Design and 


1119 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

GABY, W. E. 

Santa Rita. New Mexico 

GAHL, Rudolf 

804 Equitable Bdg., Denver, Colo. 

GARREY, George H. 



Bullitt Bdg., Philadalphia, Pa. 


H. L. 


1025 PeopleB 

Gas Bdg 

. Chicago 

HOOVER, Herbert 

120 Broadway. New York 

HOOVER, Theodore J. 

1, London Wall Bdg.. London. E.C. 
and 634 Mills Bdg.. San FranciBCO 
Cable: Mildaloo 

HOLLOWAY & CO., Geo. T„ Ltd. 



13 Emmett St.. Limehouse. London. E. 

Cable: Neolithic Code: McNeill 

EASXON, Stanly A. 


Manager Bunker Hill & 
Concentrating Co., 




GEPPERT, Richard M. 

Gi> Berwyn St., Orange. New Jersey, U. S. A. 

HOSKIN, Arthur J. 


Mining, Metallurgy. Geology, Oil Sbale 


411 Chamber of Commerce Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 

H. W. Evans 


. C. Ballagh 




P. O Box 1155, El 



EYE, Clyde M. 


% Wells Fargo Nevada Nat. Bank, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

GRANT, Wilbur H. 


1213 Hobart Bdg.. 582 Market St., 

San Francisco 

Code : Bedford McNeill 

GREENAN, James O. 

Mina. Nevada 

HOYLE, Charles 

Apartado 8. El Oro. Mexico 



Specialty: Milling Complex OreB. Milling 

Methods, Equipment and Management 

729 North Walnut St., Colorado Spnnes. Colo 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 



811 Alaska Commercial Bdg.. San Francisco 
Cable: Haruston 



401 Bank of California Bdg.. 

Tacoma. Wash. 

MERRILL, Charles W. 


131 Second St.. San Francisco 

Cable : Ln reo Code : Bedford McNeill 







2U Broadway. 



Dudley J. Inakipp John A. Bevan 



1 Broad St. Place. London, E.C. 

Cable: Monazite Usual Codes 

LEWIS, H. Allman 

Cochabamba, Bolivia 
The Berenguela Tin MineB, Ltd., 

Turu Inrenio. Potosi Code: McNeill 1908 


Specialty: Pyro-Metallurgy of Copper and As- 
sociated Metals. 29 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Ricloy Code: McNeill 



121 Second St., San Francisco 

Cable: Lurco Usual Codes 



% British Consulate, Vladivostok 

via Pacific. Siberia 

JANIN, Charles 


716 Kohl Bdg 




Char] an 



JENKS, Arthur W. 


Euclid Apartments. Berkeley, Cal. 



Goldfleld Consolidated Mines Exploration Co. 

Crocker Bdg.. San Frahciseo, Cal. 

Bewick. Moreing & Co. 


62, London Wall, London, and 

1018 Crocker Bdg/., San Francisco, Cal. 

Cable: Wantoness Usual Codes 


Diamond Drilling and Shaft Sinking- 
Manufacturers of Diamond Drills and Supplies 
General Office: 710-722 Security Bdg.. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cable: Lonrco Code: McNeill 



Examines mines and oil lands; Engineers work 

of development and operation 

721 S. Hope St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

MILLS, Edwin W. 


75 Yamashita-cho. 

Yokohama, Japan 

Telegrams: Edmills Usual Codes 






East 40th St. 







KEENE, Amor F. 

233 Broadway. New York 
Cable Address - Kamor. New York 



Avenida Isabela La Catolica, Num. 25, 

Mexico City 


Chas. A. 


Bisbee. Arizona 

E. H. Eennard E. C. Bierce 



Mill Design and Construction. Filtration. 

Hollingsworth Bdg.. Lop Angeles, Cal. 

LUNT, Horace P. 

Commissioner of Mines for Colorado 

Denver. Colo. 

No professional work undertaken 



1057 Monadnock Bdg.. San Francisco 

Cable: Fredmor Code: McNeill 

KINZLE, Robert A. 

First National Bank Bdg.. San Francisco 



Andagoya. via Buenaventura. Colombia. 

South America 

MUDD, Seeley W. 


1208 Hollingsworth Bdg., Los Angeles. Cal. 

KXRBY, Edmund B. 


918 Security Bdg.. St. Louis 

Specialty: The expert examination of mines 

and metallurgical enterprises 



% Burma Mines. Ltd.. 

Jamshedpur. India 






Mills Bdg. 

San Francisco 



Examination, Management, and Operation of 

Mines. Design Equipment 

Newhouse Bdg.. Salt Lake City, Utah 


10 Austin Friars, London 




120 Broadway. 












Bdg,. Salt Lake City. 



, E. 








NEILL, James W. 


159 Pierpont St.. Salt Lake City, Utah 
Pasadena. Cal. Snelling. Cal. 



822 Paulsen Building, 

Spokane. Wash. 

McGregor, a. g. 


Design of Metallurgical Plants 

Warren. Arizona 


Union Learue Club. San Francieco, Cal. 


C. B 





MEIN, William Wallace 

43 Exchange Place. New York 
Cable: Mein, New York 






335 Cooper Bdg.. 

303 First Nat'l. Bank, 

Denver. Colo. 

Lincoln, Neb. 
Code: Bedford McNeill 










MERCER, John W. 


General Manager South American Mines Co., 

Mills Bdg.. Broad St.. New York 

NOWLAND, Ralph C. 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 
In charge Exploration Dept, of D. C. Jackling 

.Iiilv 5, L919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



E. E Olcott C. R. Corning 


30 Wall St.. New York 

PAYNE, Henry M. 


1870 Hudson Terminal. 

50 Church St.. New York 

Cable: Macepayne Usual Codes 

PEARSE & CO., Arthur L. 


Coal and Shale Treatment 

Worcester House. Walbrook. London. E.C. 

PERKINS, Walter G. 

687 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 

PLATE, H. Robinson 

Hobart Bdg\, San Francisco. Cal. 

Code: Bedford McNeill 

Howard Poillon C. B 


63 Wall St.. New York 


42 Broadway New York 



Mininir investigations carefully made for 

responsible intending investors 

5"25 Market St.. San Francisco 

RITTER, A. Etienne 

Colorado Springs. Colo. 

ROBERTS, Milnor 


The Pacific Northwest 

British Columbia and Alaska 

University Station, Seattle, Wash. 


1108 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

Code: McNeill 

ROGERS, Edwin M. 


32 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Emrog Code: McNeill 

SHALER, Millnrd K. 


6. Montague du Pare. 

Brussels. Belgium 


25 Madison Ave.. New York 





Quebec. Canada 

Fundicion de 

Los Arcos. Toluca, 


H O Box 

100. Cobalt. Ontario. 

SIZER, F. Ii. 




1006 Hobart 









60 Broadway. 

New York 



Code: Western Union 

SMITH, Reuben Edward 

Vladivostok. % Magazine E. L. Smith 
Cable : Resmith, % Magazine Smith 

Code: McNeill. 1908 



Casilla 489, Sanitago de Chile 

Cable: Eivapo. Santiag-o, Chile Code: McNeill 



c /c Oroville Dredging. Limited. 

Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 

PROBERT, Frank H. 


University of California, 



ROGERS, John C. 

Examination and Exploration of Mining Prop- 
erties with a view to Purchase 
Copper Cliff. Ontario. Code : Bedford McNeill 

Allen H. Rogers Luciue W. Mayer 

Sydney H. Ball 


42 Broadway, New York 
201 Devonshire St.. Boston, Mass. 
Cable: Alhasters 

Franklin W. Smith Ralph A. Zieaemer 


Bisbee, Ariz. Code: McNeill 


29 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Spilroe 

SPURR, J. Edward 



1755 Park Road. N.W.. 

Washington. D. C. 





44 Svetlanskaia, 



Gables: "Fedora" 

Code: A. B.C. 

5th Edition 

ROYER, Prank W 


Consolidated Realty 


Los Angeles 

and Apartado 805, 


City, D. P. 

Cable: Royo 

Code: McNeill 

STANFORD, Richard B. 


Room 206, Metropolitan Bank Bdg.. 

New Orleans, La. 

Cable: Stanford Code: McNeill 


Room, 1202, 25 Broad St., New York 
Member A. I. M. E., 1890 



120 Broadway, New York 

Milling and Smelting of Ores, especially of 

Copper. Ore Smelting Contracts. 


W. H. 




Broad St. 

New York City 

Cable : 


RICE, John A. 



525 Market St.. San Francisco 

SCOTJV Archibald B., 



First National Bank Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 


819 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 

RICHARDS, Robert H. 

Make careful concentrating tests for the de- 
sign of flow-sheets for difficult ores 
491 Bolyston St.. Boston. Mass. 

SCOTT, Robert 

498 S. Eleventh St.. San Jose, Cal. 

STEVENS, Arthur 




Hillside Ave. 




120 Broadway, New York 

W. H. Seagrave W. E. Dunkle 


L. C. Smith Bdg.. Seattle 

STEVENS, Blarney 


Nogales. Arizona 

% Lower California Metals Co., and 

Sociedad Anonima de Metales 

RICKARD, Forbes 

Equitable Building, Denver 

SEARS, Stanley C. 

Reports, Consultation and Management 
705 Walker Bank Bdg.. Salt Lake City, Utah 
Usual Codes 


Vancouver Block, Vancouver, B. C. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 


STINES, Norman C. 

4. Moorgrate Street, London, E.C.. 2 
Codes : McNeill (both Editions) and Bentley'e 


Goldfield, Nevada 

WHITMAN, Alfred R. 


43 Exchange Place, 

New York 

STRAUSS, Lester W. 


Caailla 514, Valparaiso. 

Chile. S. 


Cable: Lestr a- Valparaiso 



TURNER, Scott 

loll Bank of Hamilton Bdg.. 
Toronto. Ontario. Canada 








Glendora. Cal. 

8UMMERHAYES, Maurice W. 


Met Bluestone Mining: & Smelting Co., 

Mason, Nevada 

TWEEDY, George A. 

Casa Grande. Ariz. 

H.AJ.Wilkens J.H.Devereux W.B.Devereui.Jr. 

London 120 Broadway, N. Y. Mexico. D JP. 
Cable: Kenreux Code : Bedford McNeill 

SWIFT, Ernest I/ee 

505 Fairbanks Ave., Oakland. Cal. 


534 Confederation Life Bdg-.. Toronto, Canada 
Cable: Tyrell Usual Codes 

WINCHELL, Horace V. 

1212 First National-Soo Line Bdg., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cable: Racewin 

SYMMES, Whitman 

Pres. and Mgr. Con. Virginia. Ophir. Mexican, 

Union Consolidated, etc. 
Virginia City. Nevada 

VAN LAW, Carlos W. 


Examination. Organization and Management 

of Mining Enterprises 

55 Congress St., Boelon. MasB. 


Continental Bank Bdg.. Salt Lake City. Utah 


Contractors and Engineers 


1108 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

Code: McNeill 

TALMAGE, Sterling B. 

Geologic Maps, Examinations, Reports 
315 Judge Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah 

WALLACE, H. Vincent 


329 Central Building 

Los Angeles, California 


42 Exchange Place, New York 


14 Copthall Ave.. London. E.C. 2 
And Peking, China 
Cable: Natchekoo, London 

WISEMAN, Philip 


1210 Hollingsworth Bdg*., Los Angeles 

Cable: Filwieeman Codes: W. U.: McNeill 

WRIGHT. Charles Will 







Wright, Arbus 


McNeill ; 

WROTH, James S. 

42 Broadway, New York 

TELLAM, Alfred 


Denver Engineering Works Company 

Denver. Colorado 


Buyers and Separators of Complex Ores 

706-6 Deseret Bank Bdg.. 

Salt Lake City. Utah 

WEBBER, Morton 


165 Broadway, New York 

O'Rouke Estate Bdg.. Butte, Montana 

WEEKES, Frederic 



233 Broadway. 



Edwin S. Berry 

Pope Yeatman 


Examination. Development and Management 
of Properties 

Room 708. Ill Broadway. New York 

Cable: Ikona Code: Bedford McNeil! 


45 Exchange Place. New York 



% Ropp Tin Ltd.. P. O. Naraguta. 

N. Nireria. W. Africa 

Codes: McNeill, both Editions 



Salisbury House. 







WEIGAJUL, Arthur R. 


General Manager The Seoul Mining Co. 

Tul Mi Chung- (Nantei) 

Whang- Hai Province. Chosen (Korea) 

WESTERVELT, William Young 


17 Madison Ave. (Madison Square East) 

New York 

Cable: Casewest Code: McNeill 

WHITE, Charles H. 


788 Mills Bldg., San Francisco 



Offices and Laboratory 
Story Bdg 1 ., Los Angeles. California. U. S. A. 

Examinations and Reports on all Mineral 

Deposits. Formations and Processes 

of Extraction 

20 years experience in the Western States, 

Pacific Coast States. U. S. A.. Mexico 

and Central America 




Mills Bdg., 

San Francisco 

Cable: Latite 

Code: Bedford McNeill 

Burch. Hershey & White 

WHITE, Uoyd C. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 



Examination of oil lands and mineral deposits. 

Geologic and structural maps. 

415 Empire Bdg.. Denver, Cot. 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRKSS 




National Pipe is uniform, ductile, spellerized, durable, thoroughly tested and inspected, 
made full standard weight, has high tensile strength, gives clean, strong threads. Two 
hundred ton stock to ship from, sizes from Y% -inch to 10-inch. 


Ppatt-Gilbert Co 



Phoenix, Ariz. 



.lillliliillMlllliliniillililMIII lllllilliilNiliillllllllllllllMlillimmilllimililinillllimillllliiliililiiiiliilllll imillllllllilimii;nmi 

A Smith Hydraulic Turbine 




installed in a con- 
crete scroll case, 
fulfills the re- 
quirements of 


in the power and pump- 
ing equipment 
furnished the 

U. S. 

as shown in accompany- 
ing illustration 


214 H. P., 225 R. P. M. 



Iron Body, Bronze Mounted 

All parts easily accessible tor inspection and renewal, 
due lo action of silt at certain seasons. 

Made in Sizes % to 2" 

Screw and Flange 

All Parts Interchange- 

Good for 150 Pounds 

Steam Working 


The only Rubber Disc 
in an iron body valve 
in such small sizes to 
stand up to their speci- 

Similar unit now being built lor Grand Valley Protect In Colorado 


wnte for TheaWm Powell Co. I 

76 W. Monroe St. 

176 Federal St 

405 Power Bids. 

461 Market St. 


S = W?DEPEN'DABLE Engineering Specialties 

Tiimiiiitiiimiimiijiiiiimi imiilill I m I iiiiiiiilllliliiiiiiiillllllliinlliillllll " liillllllllllllllllllifi 


ftiiimiimiiimiiimiimiimiimiiiHiiiiHHiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiii.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii.iiiiiiiiiiuuiiuuuniituiiimiii? 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 

iuimriiriiiiMiniMi iiiii eij eitii ji; iih ii lii ri m in ii4 ii nr r n m 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 j 1 1 m i ■■ m i ■ i m i l 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 1 1 rn u m i n m •■ i u i ii m i n 1 1 j m u i n n i m m n i El u i ri i ■ J iiiitniiiii r irui jr iik >iin: iitin j n 1 1 m 1 1 r : 1 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 it i m i m i j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 > 1 1 1 1 1 ■ i u i ■ m j i n i > 1 1 ) 1 1 ■ i m i u tu mi iu 1 1 1 iik 1 1 l 


<F. W. Libbey) 

Assayers. Chemists and Metallurgists 


306-307 N. First St.. Phoenix, Arizona 


Assayers. Chemists and Metallurgists 


Flotation and Cyanide Tests 

1008 South Hill St., Los Angeles. Cal. 



159 Pierpont Avenue, Salt Lake City. Utah 

Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants 



The 4th edition of our Ore Testing: Bulletin 1b now ready for m ailin g, We shall be pleased to 

send it to you upon request 

New York Office, 120 Broadway. Room 2817. C. E. Chaffln. Local Manager 

Canadian Office. 363 Sparks St., Ottawa, Canada 

Australian Agent: F. H. Jackson. 22 Carrington St., Wynward Square, Sydney. N. S. W.. Australia 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F. 


(Successor to Bettles & Bard well) 

168 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake City. Utah 

Ore Shippers' Agent 



Technical and Chemical Analyses of Ores 

Minerals, and All Organic Materials 

223 W. First St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 


Chemical, electro-chemical, metallurgical and 

electro-metallurgical investigations and 

reports. Processes developed 

604 Balboa Bdgr.. San Francisco 


(Successor to Bird-Cowan Co.) 

Ore Shippers' Agent 
160 S. W. Temple St.. Salt Lake City 


Shippers' Representatives 
Box BB. Douglas. Arizona 



El Paso. Texas 

Umpire and Controls a Specialty 


Special problems in ore treatment 
29 Broadway. New York City 
Cable Address: 'Sinterer' 

ERMLICH & CO., Geo. J. 


Control and Umpire Work 

Ore Shippers Agent 

1725 Champa St., Denver, Colo. 

FROST, Oscar J. 

420 18th St.. Denver 

GIBSON, Walter L. 

Successor to 




824 Washington St., Oakland 

Phone 8929 

Umpire assays and supervision of sampling. 
Working tests of ores, analyses. Investiga- 
tion* of metallurgical and technical processes. 
Professor L. Falkenau, General Manager and 
Consulting Specialist. 




Flotation of Copper. Lead, Zinc, and Other Minerals 

Tests made on Lots of 1 lb. up to 6 Tons 


Laboratory and Office: 419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco 
Telephone: Sutter 6266 Cable address: Hambeau Codes: West. Union; Bed. McNeill 


Supervision of Ore Sampling. Technical Analysis, Cement Testing 
No. 28-32 Belden Place (off Bush near Kearny), San Francisco 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc. 


Independent samplers at the port of New York 

Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street. New York 



(Ore Testing Plant, 






Represent Shippers at Smelters 

Test Ores, and Design Mills 

861 Howard Street, San Francisco 

245 South Los Angeles Street 

Los Angeles 


An Institution of Technology and Engineering. Full degrees, low cost, fine climate, new 
equipment, accessible to mines and smelters. Write for catalogue. 




Umpires and Controls a Specialty 

Box 1736, Picher. Okla. 



169 South West Temple Street. 

Salt Lake City, Utah 


(Formerly of Falkenburg & Laucks) 

Est. 1908. Chemist. Assayer. Metallurgist 

Shippers' Representative at Smeltere 

99 Marion St.. Seattle, Wash. 

PEREZ, Richard A. 


(Established 1S96) 
130 N. Main St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

HANKS, Abbott A. 


Established 1866 

630 Sacramento St., San Francisco 

Control and Umpire Assays, Supervision of 
Sampling at Smelters 

Cable: Hanx Code: W. U. and Bed. McN. 



1118 Nineteenth St., Denver 

Ore Shippers' Agent. Write for terms 

Representatives at all Colorado smelters 


Fresno, Cal. 

IRVING & CO., James 


Mines Examined 

702 South Spring St., Los Angeles. Cal. 




211 West First St.. Los Angeles, Oal. 

Prompt and accurate service 

July 5, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 






Sltll Illllliliill 

umiiiimiiiiim i iiiimm>iiiiuimiiiiiiiiiiiimiimMiiiimitiiiitinmiii>£ 


the Can 


Leaks in flange-jointed pipe 
lines can be quickly and easily 
stopped with Smooth -On 
Elastic Cement No. 3. 

If the leak is around the gasket, it can 
be remedied by pressing Smooth-On 
No. 3 in between the gasket and the 
flange. In the case of serious leaks, 
remove the gasket, coat both sides 
with Smooth-On No. 3 and replace. 

If the leak is between the pipe itself 
and the flange, caulk in Smooth-On 
No. 3. The Smooth-On expands as it 
metallizes and makes a permanently 
tight connection. 

For Sale by Supply Houses. 


5to-57a commun'ipaw ave.. Jersey city n.j.u&a. 

chicago office san francisco office 

317-221 N. Jefleston Street 56 Sacramento Street 




Feeding Difficulties! 

In feeding oil for flotation purposes by means of 
a stopcock, a small grain of sand or dirt Impedes 
the flow and causes Inaccurate feeding. 

Why not use the Braun K & K Oil Feeder which 
operates automatically and is not affected by for- 
eign matter In the liquid. Set the machine once 
and as long as you keep oil in the tank, it's on the 
job twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. 


Adapted for Use with Any Standard Size 
Flotation Machine 

(Not a Laboratory Machine) 

Made in two types — one for Oil and one for Acid. 
The Acid Feeder constructed of lead and bronze to 
withstand reagents. 

Measurements: Length, Z3 in.; width, 16 in.; 
height, 15 in. 

More complete description and information 
Bulletin S-120 


San Francisco, U. S. A. Los Angeles, U. S. A. 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 




Machinery and Supplies of Dependable Manufacturers are here Listed 
// Addresses will be found on the Sixth followinq Page — 

<J=:r dgg IfyoudonotfindwhatyouwdntcommunicatewithhliNiNoandSciENTiFicPREssSEiivicE 

Acetylene G en em torn 

Bullard, E D. 
Oxweld Acetyleue Co. 


Buttress St McCIellan 
Chalmers St Williams 
Collins St Webb, Inc. 
Dorr Company. The 
Harron. Rtckard Sc McCoae 
Meese Sc Gottfried Co. 
National Tank St Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank St Pipe Co. 

Air Receivers 

Buttress St McCIellan 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins St Webb. Inc. 

Galtirher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Reardon, P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air Sc Drill Co 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Tay Co.. Geo. H. 

Amalgamating Plates 

Buttress St McCIellan 
Denver Engineering Works Co 
Morse BroH. Machy. Sc Supply Co. 
San Francisco Plating Works 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Worthington Pump St Mach. Corp 


Mine St Smelter Supply Co. 
Sena Concentrator Co. 

Assayers' and Chemists' Supplier 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Braun Corporation. The 
Rraiin-Kneeht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Mine Sc Smelter Supply Co 
(See Index to Advertisers* 


Braun Corporation, The 
Braun -Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Balances and Weights 

Aineworth 4; Sons, Win. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Fairbanks, Morse Sc Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morso Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Thompson Balance Co. 

Balls for Ball-Mills 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 

Chalmen- & Williams 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Hnrdinge Conical Mill Co 

Hickok and Hickok 

Los Angeles Foundry Co. 

Ball-Mills (see 'Mills') 

Garratt Sc Co.. W. T 

Belting and Lacing 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Dodge Sales Sc Eng. Co. 
Fairbanks. Morse & Co 
Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 
GaUcher Machinery Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
Harron, Rickard Sc McCone 
Meese i Gottfried Co. 
Tay Co.. Geo. H. 
United States Rubber Co. 
Worden Co,, W. H. 

AlliB-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Gollgher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Riekard Sc McCone 

Hendrie Sc Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. St Supply Co 

Nnrdberc Mfg. Co. 

Bix Compressed Air Sc Drill Co. 

Blowing Engines 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 
Buttress & McOlellau 
Gallgher Machinery Co. 
Harron, Rickard Sc McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. * Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Brick, Fire 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine Sc Smelter Supply Co. 

Brlquettlng Machinery 
General Briquetting Co. 
Traylor Eng. Sc Mfg. Co. 

'Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Atlas Car St Mfg. Co. 
Dodge SaleB & Eng. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. Sc Sup. Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Mine St Smelter Supply Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co.. The 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


Atlas Car Sc Mfg. Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. Sc Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Calculating Machines 

Marchant Calculating Machine Co. 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

Carbide Flare Lights 
Bullard. E. D. 

Carbons, Borts, and Diamonds 
Atkins. Kroll Sc Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Atlas Car Sc Mfg. Co. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. Sc Sup. Co 
Mine Sc Smelter Supply Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Wcllman-Senver-Morgan Co. 
Western Wheeled Scraper Co., The 

Dodge Sales Sc Eng. Co. 
Meese Sc Gottfried Co. 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Giant Powder Co. 
Hercules Powder Co. 
Mine Sc Smelter Supply Co. 
RoesBler & Hasslacher Chem. Co. 

Chilean Mills (see 'Mills') 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Deister Machine Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dorr Company, The 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Meese Sc Gottfried Co. 
Pacific Tank St Pipe Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Traylor Eng. St Mfg. Co. 

Classifiers, Dry 

National Milling St Refining Co. 

Clutches, Friction (see 'Transmis- 
sion Machinery') 

Ailib-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McCIellan 

Chalmers Sc William* 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb, inc. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Norwalk Iron Works Co. 

Pratt-Gilbert Co. 

Reardon. P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air Sc Drill Co. 

Kosenburg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Western Machinery Co 

Worthington Pump St Mach. Corp. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Butchart, W. A. 
Chalmers Sc Williams 
Collins Sc Webb, Inc. 
Colorado Iron works Co. 
Deister Concentrator Co. 
Deleter Machine Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 
Eccleston Mach. Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. St Supply Co. 
Overstrom Mfg. Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Standard Equipment Co. 
Traylor Eng. Sc Mfg. Co. 
Young St Tyler 

Concentrators, Dry 

National Milling & Refining Co. 
Young & Tyler 

Concrete Mixers 

Buttress St McCIellan 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Contractors, Core Drilling 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

AlliB-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie Sc Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Conveyors, Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
United States Rubber Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Harron. Rickard St McCone 
Mine Sc Smelter Supply Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bacon. Earle C. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Buttress St McCIellan 
Chalmers & Williams 
Collins Sc Webb, Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering WorkB Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Harron. Rickard Sc McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. Sc Sup. Co. 
Mine Sc Smelter Supply Co, 
Morse Bros. Machy. St Supply Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Standard Equipment Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Western Wheeled Scraper Co., The 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp 
Young St Tyler 


Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Oo. 

Cyanide Plants and Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McCIellan 

Collins Sc Webb. Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Dorr Company, The 

Harron, Rickard Sc McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 

National Tank St Pipe Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Pacific Tank St Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Traylor Eng. Sc Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Chalmers St Williams 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Dorr Company, The 

Harron. Rickard Sc McCone 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Traylor Eng. Sc Mfg. Co. 

Drafting Material 

Ainsworth & Sons, Wm. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Dragline Excavators 

Buttress & McCIellan 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Harron, Rickard St McCone 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A, 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Dredges and Accessories 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. Ltd 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co 
Hickok and Hickok 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Yuba Manufacturing Co. 

Drill Makers St Sharpeners 
Collins Sc Webb. Inc. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Gallgher Machinery Co. 
Harron, Rickard St McCone 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Wood Drill Works 

Drills, Air and Steam 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Cochise Machine Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Oe. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard Sc McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. St Sup. Co 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Reardon, P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air Se Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wood Drill Works 

Drills, Chum 

Kaufman St Co., H. C. 

Dobbins Core Drill Co., Inc. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Diamond 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 


Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Harron. Rickard Sc McCone 

National Milling & Refining Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

(Continued on page 62) 



MINING and Scientifii PRESS 




Hollow and Solid 

Rock Drill and Mining Steel 

Trade Mark 

Made only by the 

International High Speed Steel Co. 

Works, Rockaway, N. J. 


§ Pacific Coast: Harron, Rickard & McCone, Su Frudico, Cal. 
| Northwest States: Western Machinery and Equipment Co., 
f Spokane, Walk, 

i British Columbia: - E. G. Prior & Company, Victoria, B. C. 







"Western" Hoists are manufactured 
in sizes from 12 to 60 horse power, 
operating on gasolene, kerosene, distil- 
late and fuel oils of low gravity. They 
embody practically every good feature 
found in other makes and many special 
features of distinct value which no 
other hoist possesses. 

The "Western" Post Brake Hoist 
represents the greatest advance in hoist 
construction up to the present time. 
Adapted to any purpose where effi- 
cient, dependable and economical 
hoisting equipment is required. 



General Offices and Factories: 

900 No. Main Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 
San Francisco Office: 423 Rialto Bldg. 

Tuiiiiuinnnimiiiimiimim iiiiiiiiiiniiiu [iiiiiHiiimiiiiiiiliiliiliimilimiiillllllllilitiii 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July a, 1919 


■Mitniiimmimiiiiimiiiimimiimmmiiimiimiimi iiiimiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiuiiin MimniiimilHlin 

IlllllllllllllllllllllUlllllllililllllliiiiimiiiilllillillllllllllllllliliiliiiiiili iiiiiiiiimiimillimimmiiilimi imiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiMiuimminm' 

Damps, Rotary 

Wood Equipment Co. 

Electrical Supplies 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Elec. Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. St Mfg. Co. 

Employment Bureau 

Business Men's Clearing House 

Jfiarineers (Designing and Contract- 
Bradley, Brufl & Labarthe 
General Engineering' Company 
Wellman-Lewis Company 

Engines , Internal Combustion 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. St Supply Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 
Novo Engine Co. 
Reardon, P. H. 

Rue Compressed Air St Drill Co. 
Tay Co., Geo. H. 
Western Machinery Co. 

Bnglnes, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 
Rosenburg St Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 


Du Pont Powder Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Giant Powder Co. 
Hercules Powder Co. 

Fans, Ventilating 

Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthon* Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Chalmers St Williams 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

United Filters Corporation 

Worthington Pump St Mach. Corp- 

Ftlter Presses 

Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
United Filters Corporation 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Fire Extinguishers 

Billiard. E. D. 
Justrite Mfg. Co. 

First Aid Equipment 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Bullard, E. D. 

Flotation Apparatus 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Butchart. W. A. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Overstrom Mfg. Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Southwestern Engineering Co. 
Stimpson Equipment Co. 


Buttress & McClellan 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Frogs and Switches (see 'Railway 

Standard Oil Co. 

FmrBacee, Assay (see 'Assurers and 
Chemists Supplies') 

Furnaces, Roasting and Smelting 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co., Inc. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. St Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Gas Producers 

We 11m an -Seaver-M organ Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
JohnBon Gear Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Generators, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Giants, Hydraulic (see 'Hydraulic 
Mining Machinery') 

Graphite Products 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Detroit Graphite Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 

Grinders, Laboratory 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Heaters, Feed Water 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Hoists* Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard St McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air St Drill Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wei lm an -Seaver-M organ Co. 

WeBtinghouse Elec. St Mfg. Co. 

Hoists, Oil and Distillate 

Buttress & McClellan 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Western Machinery Co. 

Hoists, Steam or Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wei lm an -Seaver-M organ Co. 

Buttress St McClellan 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Cochise Machine Co. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co.. Inc. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
Harron. Rickard St McCone. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Rix Compressed Air St Drill Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Tay Co.. Geo. H. 
United States Rubber Co. 

Hydraulic Mining Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Spiral Pipe Works 
Garratt & Co.. W. T. . 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Overstrom Mfg. Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 
Senn Concentrator Co. 

Ice Machines 

Norwalk Iron Works Co. 


Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard St McCone. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Powell Co., Win, 

Tay Co.. Geo. H. 

Iron Cements 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Chalmers St Williams 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Morse Bros. Machy. St Supply Co. 
National Milling St Refining Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Overstrom Mfg. Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Laboratory Supplies (see 'Assayers' 
and Chemists" Supplies') 

Lamp Guards 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 

Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 

General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. St Mfg. Co. 

Lamps, Miners* 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Bullard, E. D. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Justrite Mfg. Co. 
Pratt-Gilbert Co. 

Lining for Ball-Mills 

Chalmers St Williams 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Hickok and Hickok 
Jasper Stone Co. 
Los Angeles Foundry Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Overstrom Mfg. Co. 

Paraftine Companies, Inc. 

Lock Nuts 

Drake Lock-Nut Co. 

Locomotives, Electric 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Collins St Webb, Inc. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Locomotives, Compressed Air 

Porter Co.. H. K. 
Locomotives, Gasoline 

Fate Co., The J. D. 
Locomotives, Steam 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Morse Bros. Machy. g~ Supply Co. 
Porter Co.. H. K. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard St McCone. 
Standard Oil Co. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Justrite Mfg. Co, 
Lunkenheimer Co.. The 
Powell Co., Wm. 
Tay Co., Geo. H. 

Machinery, Used 

Buttress St McClellan 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Jardine Machinery Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

United Wrecking Co. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Zelnicker Supply Co. 

Magnets, Lifting 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 
Magnetic Separators and Pulleys 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 
Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Smelters Securities Co. 
American Zinc. Lead St Smelt. Co . 
Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Camphuis, Rives & Gordon, Inc. 
Empire Zinc Co. 
International Smelting Co. 
U. S. Smelt., Ref. St Min. Co. 
Vernon Metal & Produce Co. 
Wildberg Bros. 

Mills — Ball, Pebble and Tube 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Chalmers & Williams 
Collins St Webb. Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Eccleston Mach. Co. 
Herman, John 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. St Supply Cs 
Rosenburg St Co. 
Standard Equipment Co. 
Traylor Eng. St Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump St Mach. Cor*> 

Mills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Morse Bros. Machy. St Supply Co 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Well man -Seaver-M org an Co. 
Worthington Pump Se Mach. Corp. 

Mills, Stamp 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.. Ltd 
Buttress & McClellan 
Chalmers & Williams 
Collins St Webb. Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. St Sup. Co 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp 

Motor Trucks 

Garford Motor Truck Cs. 
White Truck Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Fairbanks, Morse & Cs. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. . 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. St Supply Co 
Rosenburg & Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Office Supplies 

Dixon Crucible Co. 

Marchant Calculating Machine Co. 

Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

Oil and Grease Cups (see 'Lubri- 

Oil, Flotation 

General Naval Stores Co. 
Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co. 
Standard Oil Co. 
United Naval Stores 

Ore-Buyers (see 'Metal Buyers and 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Catttsg 
Bullard, E. D. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 

(Continued on page 6*) 

.iiilv :>, 1919 



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Dry Concentrating System 

handles all dry 
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1 New Editions 1918, Uniform Binding, 5x7. Price, $3 each. | 

A Textbook of Mining Geology 


Contains chapters on Classification of Mineral Deposits; Ore Veins; 
The Dynamics of Lodes and Beds; Ore Deposits Genetically Con- 
sidered; Theory of Vein Formation; Ores and Minerals Considered 
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and Valuation of Mines. 

A Textbook of Practical Assaying 


Covers: Assay of Gold, Silver, Platinum, Mercury. Lead, Tin, 
Antimony, Bismuth, Copper, lion. Manganese, Ferro-Manganese, 
Zinc, Chromite, Nickel and Cobalt Ores; Analysis of Limestone, 
Dolomite, Magnesite, Calcareous Sandstones, Portland Cement, Meta- 
morphic and Igneous Rocks, Coals, Sulphide Ore, Soils, Manure, 
Water and Milk; Estimation of Alcohol, Sugar, Chlorine. Sulphur, 
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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 


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Oxygen Apparatus 

Bullard. E D. 

Siebe Gorman Co., Ltd. 


Diamond Rubber Co.. Inc. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 
Tay Co.. Geo. H. 
United States Rubber Co. 

Paint. Preservative 

Detroit Graphite Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Paraffine Companies. Inc. 
Standard Oil Co. 

Paper. Building, Insulating and 

Paraffine Companies. Inc. 

AtkinB. Kroll & Co. 
Hardin ge Conical Mill Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Jasper Stone Co. 

Perforated Metals 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machiuery Co. 
Harrington & King Perforating Co. 
Ludlow -Say lor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Pipe Covering 

Paraffine Companies, Inc. 

Pipe Fittings 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Galigher Machiuery Co. 
Garratt & Co.. W. T. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
Lunkenheimer Co., The 
Norwalk Iron Works Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Powell Co., Wm. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 
Tay Co.. Geo. H. 

Pipe, Cast Iron 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Pacific Pipe Co. 
Tay Co.. Geo. H. 

Pipe, Riveted 

American Spiral Pipe Works 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Pipe, Standard Wrought 

Galigher Machinery Co. 
National Tube Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 
Tay Co.. Geo. H. 

Pipe, Wood 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Placer Mining Machinery 

American Spiral Pipe Works 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Harrington & King Perforating Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
National Milling & Refining Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Overstrom Mfg. Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Yuba Manufacturing Co. 

Pneumatic Tools 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Prospecting Supplies 

Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Dobbins Core Drill Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Pulleys, Magnetic 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Pulleys, Shafting and HangerB (Bee 
'Transmission Machinery') 

rumps. Air Lift 

Buttress & McClellan 
Chicago Pneumatic To«l Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Pomps, Centrifugal 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

American Well Works 

Buttress & McClellan 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks.. A. S. 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Fairoanks, Morse & Co. 

Prenier & Son 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Garratt & Co., W. T. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie &. Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Iron Works, Byron 

Krogh Pump Mfg. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co 

unver Filter Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Tay Co., Geo. H. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Yuba Manufacturing Co. 

Pumps, Reciprocating 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks., A. S. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Kusenourg & Co. 

Tay Co.. Geo. H. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Bullard. E D. 

Camphuis Rives & Gordon, Inc. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Railway Supplies and Equipment 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 

RoIIb, Crushing 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Bacon, Earle C. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Tra.vlor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 
Paraffine Companies. Inc. 
Standard Oil Co. 

Rope, Manila 

Waterbury Co. 

Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Galie-her Machinery Co 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., C. 
Mef>"p & Goltfried Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Simpaon Co A. H. 
Waterbury Co. 
Worden Co.. W. H. 

Rotary Dumps 

Wood Equipment Co. 

Rubber Boots and Shoes 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
United States Rubber Co. 

Safety Appliances 

Bullard. E. D. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Siebe-Gorman Co.. Ltd. 


Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Saw Mill Machinery 

Harron. RickaW & McCou 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Cal. Perforated Screen Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harrington & King Perforating Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Rosenburg & Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Separators, Dry 

National Milling & Refining Co. 

Shafting (see 'Trans mission 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 
Robertson Co., H. H. 

Shoes and Dies 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Shovels, Electric and Steam 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co., The 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Jasper Stone Co. 

Sintering and Agglomerating 

Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co., Inc. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Smelters and Refiners 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelt. Co. 
Camphuis, Rives & Gordon, Inc. 
Empire Zinc Co. 
International Smelting Co 
U. S. Smelt. Ref. & Miu. Co. 
Wildberg Bros. 

Smelting Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Collins & Webb, Die. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co., Inc. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


American Spiral Pipe Works 
American Steel & Wire Co. 
Cary Spring Works 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Steel, Drill 

Buttress & McClellan 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
International High Speed Steel Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 
International High Speed Steel Co. 

Tanks, Steel 

Buttress & McClellan 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Digersoll-Rand Co. 
Rosenburg & Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Tanks, Wood 

Buttress & McClellan 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Tapes, Measuring 

Galigher Machinery Co. 
Luikiu Rule Co. 

Thickeners, Pulp 

Buttress & McClellan 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Company. The 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Tires, Auto and Truck 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 


Yuba Manufacturing Co. 

Tramways, Aerial 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Ainsworth & Sons. Wna. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Transmission Machinery 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Pulley Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCoue 
Johnson Gear Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Pratt-Gilbert Co. 
Rosenburg & Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morg&B. Co. 

Trucks, Motor (see 'Motor Trucks') 
Tube-Mills (see 'Mills') 
Turbines, Hydraulic 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Smith, S. Morgan 

Turbines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. &. Mfg. Co. 

Used Machinery 

Jardine Machinery Co. 
Valves (see 'Pipe Fittings) 
Water Wheels, Impulse 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Smith. S. Morgan 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Well Drilling Machy. and Supplies 

American Well Works 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Union Construction Co. 

Wheels, Car 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Hickok and Hickok 


Lunkenheimer Co., The 


American Steel & Wire Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co., Inc 
General Electric Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. r. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 
Simpson Co.. A H 
United States Rubber Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Oo. 

Zine Dust and Shavings 

American Zinc. Lead A Smelt. Co. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation. The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Camphuis, Rives & Gordon. Inc. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Cw. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

U. S. Smelt.. Ref. & Mm. Oo. 

July 5, liU'.i 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Every mine and mill 
ought to carry a stock 






Put them on any piece of heavy duty ma- 
chinery to replace the old double nut and 
washer arrangement. 

You'll note the difference. 

Drake Lock-Nuts stay tight. Patented fea- 
tures absolutely prevent them from working 
loose no matter how hard the strain or vibra- 

Try them on your ball-mills, stamp-mills, air- 
drills, connecting rods, cross-heads, in fact 
any point where you've had trouble with the 
ordinary lock-nut method. You'll find they 

Never Jar Loose 

Drake Lock-Nuts are milled from the bar. 
There are no pins or drilled bolts — and no 
washers are used. Made from high-grade 
screw steel, perfect threads and careful finish. 

Many large mines are using them now. They 
have ordered and re-ordered. 

l A to 1" S. A. E. 
l A to 2" U. S. S. 

to 3" U. S. S. to order 

Whitworth Standard Thread to order 

Insist that the equipment yon buy 
be finished with Drake Lock-Nuts. 

The added cost is slight — the ad- 
ditional security is great. 


1400 Folsom St. San Francisco 

Eastern Plant and Office, Cleveland, O. 

Sold by leading supply houses in U. S. A , 
Calcu tta , Singapore. 


Lever Throttle 


"Handy" Gate Valves 

Provided with double discs having a ball and 
socket bearing at their backs, permitting the 
discs to be wedged between the tapered 
seats when valves are closed — a con- 
struction which experience has proven 
to be best for lever operated valves. 
It insures tightness with ease of opera- 

The Lever Throttle Valve is the 

ideal throttle for Hoisting Engines, 
etc. — wherever quick 
action is necessary. It 
is made in bronze for 
working steam pressure 
up to 175 pounds and in 
Iron Body Bronze 
Mounted for pressures 
ranging from 175 to 
100 pounds, depending 
on the size. 

Lever Throttle Va lve "Handy" Gate 

Valves are intended for 
steam and water lines, where the pressure does 
not exceed 75 pounds. Made in Bronze, sizes l A 
to 4 inches, in Iron Body Bronze Mounted, sizes 2 
to 8 inches, and for handling Cyanides, Creosote, 
Alkaline Solutions, etc., is made in All Iron. 

Your local dealer can 
furnish them; If not write us. 

Write for descriptive Booklet 
No. 574-CD 


—"QUALITY"- — 

Largest Manufacturers of 

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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 




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| Deister-Overstrom Diagonal Deck Concentrating Table 

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604 Minion St.. San FrancUco, Cal. 





Bucyrus Company \ 

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| Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps | 


I WORKS: Maiyirille. Cal. 

Ullll HUM III III lllllllllllllllllllllllltlllll Mill III III III Mill 11111111 111111111111 


SALES OFFICE: 433 California St.. Sao FrancUco, Cal. f 



■ ■ 



Crushing, Pulverizing 

and Concentrating 

Catalog " X* " 


New Haven, Conn. 


Copper Steel 


Highest in quality and rust | 

resistance. Unequaled for | 

Culverts, Flumes, Tanks, 1 

Roofing, Siding, Spouting, and | 

all exposed sheet metal work. | 

= We manufacture Sheet and Tin Mill ProdaotR of every description— Black and I 

= Galvanized Sheets, Corrugated and Formed Products, Roofi ng Tin Plates, fito. = 


2 PmUo CMft R*ja: 0. B. Btiil Pkoddom Co„ Etas Fruolioo, Lot Angolt*. PortlBnd, B*»HI». 







mini Kill'- 







Tungsten, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Chrome and 
Manganese Ores and other rare Minerals. 


25 Beaver St., New York \ 






1009 17lh Street 101 Park Anrnia 



16 South Street § 


The Empire Zinc Company 
Buys Zinc Ores 

Address our Offices: 

160 Front St., New York, N. Y. 
703 Symei Bldg.. Denver, Colo. 

Or write to 




liiiimmin iiiiiiiiii i mini immmlii 

July 5, 1910 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


SrmiiiNMiiiHriiiiniiiHMHHiiiiiiiiiiHi tiiiHiiitmriiiiiiHiiiimiiiiiiititiiiiiiimiHii itn 


Purchasers of 


Address: 1012 Pierce Building, St. Loui», Mo. 



55 Congress St, Boston, Mass. I 

riiiMiMMimunimmi in m Ill mil ifltllllJI i iiiiiiiimiimiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiminillllllllilli 

^nifinmiiiiiiliriiiMiiiiiiimiiiiiliiiii lllllllllllllllllUnillUIIUHIlllil umiliunif If II Mill Utlllllllllllllf llllll lltlllltllUI! 

| The Roessler & Hasslacher 1 
Chemical Company 

1 00 William Street, New York 


\ Works: Perth Amboy, N. J. 

^ 1 

|| Cyanide of Sodium 96-98% 

Ic Cyanogen 5\-52% 


't "Cyanegg" 

* Sodium Cyanide 96-98$ in egg form, 
each egg weighing 1 ounce. 


Cyanogen 51-52^ 



I American Smelters Securities Co. 
(Selby Smelting Works) 

I Buyers of 


| Consign all shipments to 

selby; cal. I 

r Address correspondence to § 



^MIHIfllllllltlllllltrill II 111 II Mill II I! Mil 111 llllll Mill II II II til II II II 11(11 II till til II III II II II I II Mill II Mill II III 11 III II III II Mi Mil [llllll III lllllll II 111 llll L 


| Consulting Engineers | 

| 25 Broad Street, New York [ 

Specialists in the Briquetting of Ores, | 

I Flotation Concentrates, Coals, Etc. § 



| Smelters, Refiners and Purchasers of = 

| Gold and Silver Ores, Gold Dust, Bullion and | 
Native Platinum | 

r l Producers of Proof Gold and Silver for Assayers 


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I" 1 """ ' mmmiiiiiii mm i , iimmiimiimmiimm limHimi minimi 

United States Smelting. 
| Refining & Mining Company 



Gold, Silver, Lead, Copper and Zinc Ores, Matte and 
Furnace Products. 


Blister Copper and Lead Bullion. 


Gold, Silver, Lead, Copper, Spelter, Zinc Dust, Arsenic, 
Cadmium and Selenium. 


912 Newhouse Building, Salt Lake City, Utah; Ken- 
nett, Cal.; Goldroad, Ariz.; Baxter Springs, Kansas; 
120 Broadway, New York; Pachuca (Real del Monte 
Co. ) , Mexico. 



Copper Smelter and Refinery, Chrome, N. J. 

Dnporters of Copper Ores, Mattes and Bullion, 

120 Broadway, New York 

| United States Smelting R. & M. Exploration Co, 

= For examination and purchase of Metal Mines, r,G Congress St., 

5 Boston, Mass. District Offices, 120 Broadway, N. Y.: 1504 Hsbart 

= Bldg., San Francisco, Cal.; Newhouse Bids., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

miiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiniiiiiiimimiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimii iiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiifiiiiiiniiiimia- 



| New York Office: 42 Broadway 

1 Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and 
Lead Ores 



International Lead Refining Company, East Chicago, Indiana 
Rariton Copper Works, Perth Amboy, N. J. 


| 618 Eearns Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 



ATKINS, KROLL & CO., San Francisco | 











| Export and Import 

i Marketing Bullion and Metals. Represent Mining Companies in = 

= Mexico. Have facilities for purchasing and forwarding Mining Sup- = 
= plies to all parts of the World. 3 

| 612-13 Mutual Bldg. 81 New Street \ 


E Cable Address: "Orocobre" = 

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MINING and Scientific PRESS 



■ Dash -indicates - Every-Other-WeeK-or* Monthly- Advertisement- 


Ainsworth & Sons. Win,, Denver 66 

Aldrich Pump Co.. Allen town. Pa 47 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co.. Milwaukee. Wis 6 

American Cast Iron Pope Co.. Birmingham, Ala. 43 

American Pulley Co.. Philadelphia, Pa — 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Pittsburgh. . .66 
American Smelters Securities Co.. San Francisco. (17 

American Spiral Pipe Works. Chicago 44 

American Steel & Wire Co.. Chicago 47 

American Well Works. Aurora. Ill — 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co.. St. Louis. 67 
Aseayers. Chemists and Ore Testing Works.... 58 

Atkins. Kroll & Co.. San Francisco 67 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co., Cleveland, Ohio 42 

Bacon. Inc.. Earle C, New York 

Bartley Crucible Co.. Jonathan. Trenton, N. J. . 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.. San Francisco. . . 

Blake. Moffit & Towne. San Francisco 

Books. Technical 42-45-46-50- 

Bradley. Brufl & Laharthe. San Francisco 

Braun Corporation. The. Los Angeles, Cal 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co., San Francisco 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co., St." Louis 

Bullard, E. D., San Francisco 

Business Men's Clearing House. Denver 

Butchart. W. A.. Denver. Colo 

Buttress & MeClellan, Los Angeles. Cal 

Buyers Guide 60-6'.: 


Camden Forge Co.. Camden. N. J — 

Cameron Steam Pump Works, A. S„ New York. 12 
Camphuis. Rives & Gordon, Inc.. New York. . .67 

Cary Spring Works. New York — 

Chalmers & Williams, Chicago Heights, 111. . . .25 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co.. Chicago 19 

Cochise Machinery Co.. Los Angeles, Cal 
Collins & Webb. Inc.. Los Angeles, Cal 

Front Cover-66 



Colorado Iron Works, Denver 

Deister Concentrator Co., Fort Wayne. Ind. 

Deister Machine Co., Fort Wayne, Ind 70 

Denver Engineering Works Co., Denver. . . 

Denver Fire Clay Co.. Denver 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co., Denver 

Detroit Graphite Co., Detroit, Mich 

Dewey, Strong & Townsend, San Francisco 

Diamond Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co., Milwaukee Wis — 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. Jersey City. N. J. . . 7 

Dobbins Core Drill Co., New York 47 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co.. Mishawaka, Ind 8 

Dorr Company, The, Denver 66 

Drake Lock-Nut Co., San Francisco 65 

Du Pont Powder Co., Wilmington, Del — 

Eccleston Mach. Co.. Los Angeles. Cal — 

Elmer, H. N., Chicago 42 

Empire Zinc Co., Denver, Colo 66 

English Iron Works Co., Kansas City, Mo — 

Fairbanks. Morse & Co.. Chicago 

Fate, J. D., Plymouth. Ohio 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co.. Chicago. Ill 45 

Frenier & Son, Rutland. Vermont 42 

Fulton Engine Works. Los Angeles. Cal - — 

GaUgher Machy. Co.. Salt Lake City, Utah. . . . — 

Gandy Belting Co.. Baltimore. Md — 

Garford Motor Truck Co., Lima, Ohio 37 


Garratt & Co.. W. T.. San Francisco 43 

General Engineering Co.. Salt Lake City, Utah. .14 

General Briquetting Co., New York 67 

General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y 36 

General Naval Stores, New York 4N 

Giant Powder Co., San Francisco 43 

Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F.. Akron. Ohio 33 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co.. New York 2 

Harrington & King Perforating Co., Chicago. . .41 
Harron, Rickard & MeCone. San Francisco.... 3 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. Sc Supply Co.. Denver. 4 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. San Francisco 

43-45 -4 S 

Hercules Powder Co.. Wilmington, Del — 

Herman, John, Los Angeles 45 

Hickok & Hickok, San Francisco — 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co., New York — 

Ingersoll-Rand Co.. New York 13-69 

International High Speed Steel Co.. New York. 61 
International Smelting Co.. New York 67 

Jackson Compressor Co., Denver 32 

Jackson Iron Works, Byron, San Francisco. .. .30 
James Ore Concentrator Co.. Newark. N. J. . . .4S 
Jamison Steel Co., Edgar E., San Francisco. . . . — 

Jardine Machine Co.. San Francisco — 

Jasper Stone Co.. Sioux City, Iowa — 

Johnson Gear Works Co.. San Francisco — 

Jordan Co., O. F., East Chicago, Ind 26 

Justrite Mfg. Co., Chicago 47 

Kansas City Structural Steel Co., Kansas City. 

Mo — 

Kaufman & Co.. H. C. Los Angeles — 

Kingsport Wood Reduction Co., Chicago. 111. . . . — 
Krogh Pump & Mach. Co., San Francisco — 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co., Los Angeles, Cal 44 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A., St. Louis 44 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co., New York — 

Llewellyn Iron Works. Los Angeles, Cal — 

Longyear Co.. E. J.. Minneapolis. Minn 49 

Los Angeles Foundry Co., Los Angeles, Cal. . . .44 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co., St. Louis 5 

Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw. Mich 44 

Lunkenheimer Co., The, Cincinnati. Ohio 65 

Marathon Mill & Machine Works. Chicago .... 28 
Marchant Calculating Machine Co., Emeryville, 

Cah — 

Meese & Gottfried Co.. San Francisco 70 

Merrill Co.. San Francisco 24 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. New York. .. .21-41 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co., New York. . . . — 
Morris Machine Works, Baldwinsville. N. Y. . . . — 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co., Denver.... 

Mutual Truck Co., Sullivan, Ind — 

National Milling & Refining Co.. Canton, Ohio. .51 

National Tank & Pipe Co.. Portland. Ore 22 

National Tube Co.. Pittsburgh. Pa 30 

Nevada Eng. & Supply Co., Reno, Nev 39 

New York Engineering Co., New York 51 

Nordberg Mfg. Co.. Milwaukee. Wis 20 

Norwalk Iron Works Co., So. Norwalk, Conn.. 
Novo Engine Co., Lansing. Mich 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co.. San Francisco. . . . 23 
Opportunity Pages 38-39-40-41 

Ovcrstrom Manufacturing Co.. San Francisco.. — 

Oxweld Acetylene Co., New York — 

Ozark Smelting & Mining Co., Cleveland. Ohio. .41 

Pacific Elec. Welder & Mfg. Co., Renton, Wash. — 

Pacific Pipe Co., San Francisco 39 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co.. San Francisco 34 

Paralline Companies. Inc.. San Francisco — 

Pelton Water Wheel Co., San Francisco 48 

Pensaeola Tar & Turpentine Co., Gull Point. Fla.4S 

Pioneer Rubber Mills, San Francisco — 

Porter Co.. H. K., Pittsburgh, Pa 48 

Positions Available -10 

Positions Wanted 39 

Powell Co., Wm.. Cincinnati, Ohio 57 

Pratt-Gi Inert Co., Phoenix, Ohio 57 

Professional Directory 52-56 

Reardon. P. H-. San Francisco 6S 

Redwood Mfrs. Co., San Francisco 29 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co., San Francisco. — 

Robertson Co., H. H.. Pittsburgh, Pa — 

Roebling's Sons Co.. John A., Trenton. N. J. . .66 
Roesaler &. Hatslacher Chemical Co.. New York. 67 
Rosenberg & Co.. Los Angeles. Cal — 

Sacramento Pipe Works. Sacramento, Cal 44 

San Francisco Plating Works. San Francisco. . .44 

Senn Concentrator Co.. San Francisco 15 

Siebc. Gorman Co., Ltd., Chicago. HI 42 

Simpson Co.. A. H., San Francisco 31 

Smith Co., S., Morgan. York. Pa 57 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co., Jersey City, N. J 59 

Southwestern Engineering Co., Los Angeles. . . . — 
Standard Equipment Co., New Haven, Coun . . . .66 

Standard Oil Co.. San Francisco — 

Stimpson Equipment Co.. Salt Lake City .42 

Sullivan Machinery Co.. Chicago 38 

Tay Co., George H.. San Francisco — 

Thompson Balance Co., Denver 44 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co.. Alleutown, Pa 9 

Union Construction Co.. San Francisco 66 

United Filters Corp.. Salt Lake City, Utah 43 

United Naval Stores, New York 42 

U. S. Iron Works, Seattle, Wash — 

U. S. Rubber Co., New York — 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., Boston. .67 

Vernon Metal & Produce Co., Inc.. New York . . 66 

Waterbury Co., New York 16 

Wcllman-Lewis Co., Los Angeles, Cal 4S 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.. Cleveland. Ohio. . . — 

Western Machinery Co.. Los Angeles. Cal 61 

Western Wheeled Scraper Co.. Aurora. Ill — 

Western Zinc Concentrating Co., Leadville, Colo. 66 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh, 

Pa 18 

White Co., The. Cleveland. Ohio — - 

Wildberg Bros.. San Francisco 67 

Wiley & Sons. Inc.. John. New York — 

Wood Drill Works, Paterson, N. J — 

Wood Equipment Co.. Chicago 48 

Wordeu Co.. W. H.. San Francisco ......49 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp., New York . . 

Young & Tyler. Los Angeles, Cal 63 

Yuba Manufacturing Co.. San Francisco 66 

Zelnicker Supply Co.. Walter A.. St. Louis 39 

_■■■■■■■ ■■■■ ■■ ■■■ i ■■!■■ ■■ i ■■ ■■■ ■■■ ■■ i ■■ ■■ m ■■■ ■■ i ■■ i ■■ ■■ i H ■■■ hi ■■ ■■■ ■■ i ■■ ■■■ ■■ i ■ i ■■ i ■■ m i ii in i iimmm i ii urn m n j h aim i hi inn ■■ i ■■ n i ■■ i ■■ i ■■ i ■ i ■■ n 1 1 ■ i ■■ h i ■■■ ■■ i ■■ i ■ 1 1 ■ i ■■ i ■■ i ■ i ■■ m i ■ i ■■ i ■■■■■ m ii m ■■ i ■■ m i ■■ i ■■ m m ■■ i n i ■ i ■■! n iiiimmii ■■ ■»■■ t ■■ i ■■ m tmitu >n iTtr* l ■■»■■*■*- —»»■■»—»— -^ «■ 


These Column Hoists in Stock 
for Immediate Delivery. 

Write for Bulletin 

Capacity 700 lbs.-80 F. P. M. 


Compressed Air and General Machinery 
Mine, Mill and Contractors' Supplies 

57 First Street, San Francisco 

Capacity 1200 Ibs.-lOO F. P. M. 


in t in i iiimiiiiiimiimiiiiii iiiiinii iiiiiiiiiini I tiiiiiimimimiiiiiiiiiim i mi I 

inn iiiiiiiiiimmiimmiiimm nn- 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 


To Install Impact Screens 

is to handle a greater tonnage at a decreased cost 


The facts are given interestingly in Pamphlet 9-B 
A post card brings a copy. It's distinctly worth getting. 

Because the vibration keeps the meshes open. 
The character of the "impact" is different from 
that in any other screen, with the result that the 
Impact Screen actually accomplishes what has 
been long the attempt of screen builders. This 
clean screen surface insures great capacity in a 
small installation. 

Because the characteristic vibration of the Im- 
pact Screen causes a classification of the material, 
the coarse working to the top, away from the wire 
cloth, the fine working to the bottom, where it 
should be. It is just what happens when pulver- 
ized material is placed in a box and the box rapped. 

Because the vibration is not imparted directly to 
the wire cloth, which is inefficient and destructive 
of the wire cloth; but to a substantial vibrating 
frame to which the cloth is attached. Wben the 
wire cloth fails, it is from sheer wear, and prac- 
tically the entire surface wears out at the same 
time. The Impact Screen excels all others in long 
life of screen cloth and low cost of upkeep. 


New York Office 

Ore Milling and Smelling Equipment 
Since I860 

Denver, Colo. 


"Little Tugger" Hoists cost little or nothing for 
upkeep. They are so simple, rugged and so 
excellently built that this item is negligible. 
"Little Tuggers" don't break down, that's 
proven by a stack of service reports of machines 
applied to all sorts of work under all conditions. 

There are places in your mine where a "Little 
Tugger" will speed things up and at the same 
time save you money. 

Ask for Bulletin 4333 


11 Broadway 
New York 

165 Q. Victoria St. 


Offices the World Over 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 5, 1919 


A New Concentrator for All Feeds From X-in. to the Finest of Slimes 

// a head motion is POSITIVE and needs absolutely 
no attention is it not better than no head motion ? 

The PLAT-0 Self -Oiling Head Motion is Large 
and Strong and Needs no Attention Whatever 

Here is what a nser of the PLAT-0 Head Motion has to say about it : 

"Re your New PLAT-0 Head Motion, I have the following to say re- 
garding operation of same at our No. 5 Mill after a six months' test: 
We filled the head motion with oil the first day and have not had to put in 
any new oil after running six months, twenty-four hours a day, twenty-six 
days per month. We adjusted the head motion the first day and have 
never made an adjustment since. ' ' 

Write for full particulars of the PLAT-O Table 

Manufactured and Sold Exclusively by 



Manufacturer* of the well known Deister Simplex Tables and Cone Baffle Classifiers 
E. DEISTER. Pro. ud Ceo. Mv. W. F. DEISTER. Vice-Pro. E. G. HOFFMAN. Sec'j ud Treu. 

Let M&<& Supply What You Need 















660 Mission St. 67 Front St. 558 First Ave. So. Stimpson Equipment Co. 400 E. 3rd St., cor. San Pedro 


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Minings-, Press 


T. A. RlCKARD, Editor 
Parsons, associate Editor 


l'uhii*hrtl at uo Marktl St., San Praneueo, 

by thf Iirifiv PiiUislimu Company 


C.T. Hutchinson, manager 

E. H. LESLIE. 600 Fisher boo., chicaoo 

A. S. BR E A KEY, 3514 WOOLWORTH BDfl., N . V. 

iiilimiiini t II 


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Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 12, 1919 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 







The fateful First of July. The offect of the law on 
public opinion. Wild talk deprecated. Experience 
of the 'dry' States. Benefits of prohibition. Nar- 
cotics. Candy. The need for accepting the law 
in good temper. M. & S. P., July 12, 1919. 


Impatience at Washington. Recent outrages on 
American citizens. A mandatory on Mexico for 
the government at Washington. Villa and Zapata. 
Illiteracy and Indian blood. Carranza's attempts 
to govern. His generals and their vagaries. The 
prevalence of graft in the army and the inability 
to suppress banditry. A government de facto but 
not de jure. M. & S. P., July 12, 1919. 




By Oliver E. Jager 43 

Effect upon methods of smelting, particularly the 
roasting. Dewatering and feeding. The making 
of dust and hearth accretions. Dust-proof cars. 
The charging of the reverberatory furnace. M. & 
S. P., July 12, 1919. 

♦ By Blarney Stevens 45 

Croasdale's process. Difficulties encountered. 

History of this metallurgic method. Sintering. 

The theory of the process. M. & S. P., July 12, 



By Herbert Lang 47 

Masses of base-metal sulphide ore. Character of 
these deposits. The Hornet, Afterthought, and 
Bully Hill orebodies. The Longmaid-Henderson 
process and the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 
The Mountain Copper Co.'s acid-plant. M. & S. P., 
July 12, 1919. 


By L. M. Malcher 53 

Description of the welding of a fractured low- 

pressure steam-cylinder by this method at the 
Carnegie Steel Co.'s works in Pennsylvania. M. & 
S. P., July 12, 1919. 


By F. H. Mason 54 

A step in the making of steel on the Pacific Coast, 
by smelting British Columbian magnetite in the 
electric furnace. The record of an experiment. M. 
& S. P., July 12, 1919. 


By Hugh M. Roberts 55 

A discussion of the usefulness of the diamond-drill 
in sampling and delimiting orebodies. Speed, facil- 
ity, and cheapness. The work done at Ajo. M. & 
S. P., July 12, 1919. 


Staff Correspondence 58 

A method used in the Washoe plant of the Ana- 
conda company. Details of construction. M. & S. 
P., July 12, 1919. 



M. & S. P., July 12, 1919. 


M. & S. P., July 12, 1919. 


M. & S. P., July 12, 1919. 


M. & S. P., July 12, 1919. 


M. & S. P., July 12, 1919. 


M. & S. P., July 12, 1919. 



Anchorage, Alaska; Porcupine, Ontario; Divide, 
Nevada; Toronto, Ontario; Cripple Creek, Colo- 






Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Press: name chanted October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Gable 
address: Pertueola. . « 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 600 Fisher Bdr.: New York, 3514 Woolwortb 
Bde 1 .: London. 724 Salisbury House, E.C, 

Price, 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable In advance; 
United States and Mexico. $4: Canada, $5: other countries In postal union,. 

26a. or SO. ^ - .. -i 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

.liilv 12, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


F E, D I T O 

* ■ ■• " 

i" 1 UPPER mines in Australia are idle on account of 
^- 4 the large stocks of the metal on hand. Only two of 
the larger companies are operating. Meanwhile the 
question is being raised in London as to whether copper 
should be imported into England from the United States 
to the detriment of the mining industry of Australia. It 
is suggested that a subsidy might be paid on Australian 
copper in order to assist competition with the American 
product, but we doubt greatly whether anything of the 
kind will be done, because such uneconomical production 
would be contrary to British ideas of free trade. Once 
the effect of peace has been felt in the re-establishment 
of industrial activity in Europe, the consumption of cop- 
per will provide a normal method of liquidating the 
stocks of metal in Australia and elsewhere. 

/^OLD producers in India, namely, in the Kolar dis- 
*-7 trict, to which the productive mines are confined, 
have been allowed by the Government to make an ar- 
rangement by which they sell about half their output for 
rupees and thereby save the loss in exchange involved in 
remitting the whole of the gold to England and then 
sending back the amount required to cover local expenses. 
On this the 'Financial Times' remarks: "This is a use- 
ful concession so far as it goes, but it tends to confirm 
the fear that the gold mines in general are not going to 
be allowed to make the big profit hoped for at one time 
out of the abnormal prices current in certain directions 
for the relatively small free supply of the yellow metal. 
It is said that in India and the Far East — that sink of 
silver and gold — the last-named metal has been fetching 
£1 to £2 per ounce over its standard price." Yes, a free 
market for gold and silver will best suit the miner, but 
what is spoiling the market for gold, of course, is the 
superabundance of paper money. 

IN the article on 'Progress in Methods of Exploration' 
by Mr. Hugh M. Roberts, of Minneapolis, our readers 
will find an interesting discussion of the value of the 
diamond-drill as an instrument for finding ore and for 
ascertaining the dimensions of an orebody. Undoubted- 
ly this method of exploration has gained in usefulness, 
not only because the tools needed for the purpose have 
been made more efficient, but because the mining en- 
gineer has learned to make correct deductions from the 
information obtained in the course of his drilling. Above 
everything the diamond-drill is a saver of time, which 
means money in enterprises involving large amounts of 
capital and engaging the services of an expensive staff. 

One of the most striking demonstrations of the value of 
the drill in prospecting was made at Ajo, as Mr. Roberts 
points out, quoting Mr. Ira B. Joralemon's account of 
the work. As a sampling implement, the diamond-drill 
has proved useful, particularly in deposits that are low- 
grade and comparatively homogeneous, as in the dis- 
seminated copper orebodies of the South-West, but in 
precious-metal mining the drill remains a dangerous tool 
for sampling, except when used to a prodigal extent. 

"17 ARIOUS plans for restricting immigration are before 
™ Congress. One is the percentage plan for regulat- 
ing the influx of foreigners into the United States. This 
is based on the proposal to permit the entry of only so 
many immigrants of each people or mother-tongue group 
as can be wholesomely Americanized, the number of those 
individuals of each group already Americanized becom- 
ing the basis of measure for the further immigration of 
their compatriots. As against the reasonable anxiety to 
exclude undesirable aliens, particularly anarchists and 
other subverters of orderly government, it is to be noted 
that large numbers of foreigners, that is, non-naturalized 
residents, are returning to Europe. In one day 5000 
Italians left New York in three steamships. The month- 
ly departures now exceed 30,000. It is reported that 
25,000 passports are on file, approved, while the owners 
await space on outgoing steamers. From these depart- 
ing aliens the Government has collected more than a mil- 
lion dollars in income-taxes since April. It is estimated 
that this exodus will include 1,300,000 aliens, who will 
take with them a total of about four billion dollars in 
savings. In the interval between July 1, 1914, and April 
1, 1919 — which covers the period of the War — the excess 
of immigration over emigration was only 514,812 per- 
sons, as compared with an excess coming this way of 
1,764,934 in the two years preceding the War. If the 
earlier rate of immigration had continued we would to- 
day have 3,675,000 more people in this country than 
we have now. The subject is one of great importance. 
The United States was made by immigrants from other 
lands; its industrial prosperity depends largely upon an 
adequate supply of labor ; yet every thoughtful citizen is 
anxious not to lower the standard of living or of life by 
admitting either the pauperized or the unruly elements 
from Europe. Much of our undesirable immigrant popu- 
lation was brought hither in the course of steamship com- 
petition that reduced the rates of passage to a minimum 
permitting the poorest and most ignorant to cross the 
Atlantic. The ordinary tests for political outlaws are 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

worthless, because anarchists and bolshevists find no diffi- 
culty in complying with the requirements of Ellis Island, 
and, unless notorious characters, they cannot be spotted. 
We hope that Congress will go into this matter earnestly 
and carefully with a view not of closing the United States 
to the undeservedly unfortunate of other less favored 
lands but with the purpose of excluding those unable or 
unwilling to assimilate with our people. 

TOURING recent months we have criticized the enter- 
*-* prise of the Colorado Pitchblende Company and 
given reasons for doubting many of the optimistic esti- 
mates contained in the circulars and advertisements 
issued by that company in the course of its stock-ped- 
dling activities. The end has come rather sooner than 
we expected. On May 29 the State Bank Examiner of 
Colorado closed the City Bank & Trust Company's bank 
at Denver because of a shortage caused by the cashing of 
worthless drafts drawn by J. S. Barnhill, the president 
of the Pitchblende company, in collusion with Robert A. 
Brown, the cashier, and other subordinate officers of the 
bank. It appears that through promises of highly sal- 
aried positions in his mining company, Barnhill induced 
three of these officials to join in a scheme that finally 
rendered the bank insolvent. Cashier's checks were 
issued to Barnhill for large sums in return for drafts 
which he presented to a bank at Burley, in Idaho. At 
first these drafts were honored, but finally three of them, 
amounting to $140,000, were protested, and the Denver 
bank was forced to close. The cashier's checks had all 
been made payable to the Western Union Telegraph 
Company and Barnhill had wired the money to some 
banks in Idaho. Warrants for the arrest of Barnhill and 
Brown were issued promptly, but both had gone to parts 
unknown. On June 26 the cashier surrendered to the 
sheriff at Denver. Barnhill is still at large. The metal- 
lurgical operations of the Pitchblende company during 
the interval have proved abortive. This fiasco should 
serve as a warning to the Colorado Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation, which endorsed Barnhill's flamboyant advertise- 
ment and deprecated the criticism of domestic industry, 
even when technical men of good repute had gone out of 
their way to warn the public against buying stock in 
this unfortunate enterprise. 

OEVERAL of our friends have received copy of the 
*-* 'First Financial Report', being a prospectus issued 
by Mr. E. G. Lewis, of Atascadero, California. It is a 
pleasant-sounding address and Mr. Lewis has made a 
number of romantic statements quite in keeping with 
the Spanish names on his letter-head. The "report and 
statement," as it is called, gives "the results of my first 
year in mining," says Mr. Lewis. What is remarkable 
about the ornate and prettily illustrated pamphlet is the 
writer's confidence — after one year of experience — in his 
ability to tell the public what is a good mining venture, 
and, presumably, what is not. He amuses us by quoting 
one of our own remarks on mining speculation as a text 
at the head of his first chapter and by coupling it with 

an aphorism by the late James J. Hill. He is modest 
withal, giving credit for his success in this "first year 
of mining" to Messrs C. E. Gilman and Granville Moore, 
gentlemen^not unknown in San Francisco and Denver 
respectively. This ingenuous report is issued by Mr. 
Lewis for the purpose of selling some $750,000 in bonds, 
on his personal note, in order to finance several projects 
that apparently need financial sustenance. The most 
curious item in the pamphlet is the description of a new 
ozone process, which is one more of those marvelous 
chemical methods which will treat every kind of ore in a 
jiffy and at a trifling cost. "A remarkable thing about 
the action of this new reagent," says Mr. Lewis, "is 
that not only are smelting ores thus treated in a few 
moments, but ores too refractory even for the smelter, 
are treated with equal success." Moreover, according to 
Mr. Gilman, the process "seems to have the power of 
dissociating atoms either chemically or mechanically 
combined." That is a fearsome feat. We do not wonder 
that it has been found necessary to remodel the plant. 
We see no reason why Mr. Lewis and his friends, all of 
whom seem to be honest, should not make experiments 
and even write about them, but until they know more 
about the technique of mining and metallurgy they 
should abstain from persuading an innocent public to 
embark with them in their South Sea enterprises. 


See America thirst! The fateful first of July has 
passed and the water wagon becomes the symbol, the 
triumphal chariot, of a new morality. In those closing 
days of June when two great events were impending, 
peace and prohibition, it must be confessed that in this 
community the imminence of a 'dry' period stimulated 
more earnest conversation than the legal ending of a 
world war. The average man is more sensitive to any- 
thing that touches his personal comfort than to the mean- 
ing of even the most portentous events outside his in- 
dividual experience. Therefore many of our citizens 
were greatly troubled, and in their trouble they talked a 
good deal of nonsense. For instance, they protested 
against the restriction of their personal habits as though 
it were contrary to the Constitution, the Ten Command- 
ments, and the Fourteen Points. Is not the art of living 
in a community based upon all sorts of restraints and in- 
hibitions of such personal conduct as might prove un- 
pleasant or injurious to one's neighbors? Surely the 
whole idea of civilization is founded upon the self-sur- 
render of the privilege to do as he pleased that man 
enjoyed during his jungle existence. He surrendered his 
'natural' rights when he accepted the protection of the 
law. The notion of unrestricted personal liberty leads 
straight back to the unmitigated selfishness of savagery. 
In a democracy, which pre-supposes mutual considera- 
tion and a willingness to sacrifice freedom of individual 
action for the good of the whole body politic, it is absurd 
to exclaim at a restriction that has been approved by the 
representatives of the people after due and careful de- 

July 12, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


liberation. Personally we are prejudiced ;i!_':ii n^t pro 
hibition; as an individual we dislike it, because it debars 
us from beverages that were wholesome and palatable, 
but we bow to the will of the majority in this republic. 
At. the present moment it is being shown again that the 
United States is a country of quiet majorities and vocifer- 
ous minorities. The larger number of the American 
people desired prohibition, and they got it in a proper 
way through their representatives in Congress and in 
the State legislatures. The amendment to the Constitu- 
tion may seem objectionable to some of us, but it will 
stick. No well informed person can imagine for a mo- 
ment that there will be a speedy reaction against the law 
forbidding the sale of intoxicants in this country. The 
experience of the States that 'went dry' in advance of 
Federal prohibition is dead against such a hope. Where 
prohibition has been adopted, it is popular, for several 
reasons; it promotes thrift and increases business; it 
helps the women by preventing the men from squander- 
ing their wages ; it is a factor of safety in the perfor- 
mance of dangerous work ; it increases efficiency in every 
form of labor. These are real gains, against which the 
loss of sociability, the decrease of vivacity, and the de- 
privation of self-indulgence however harmless seem 
trivial indeed. It is true, of course, that to the average 
working-man an occasional drink is a counter-irritant 
when his temper is on edge, and it may be that an in- 
crease of unrest in the ranks of labor may ensue from 
the self-repression imposed by prohibition, but against 
this must be set the stimulation to disorder, especially 
during times of strike, caused by the excessive drinking of 
intoxicants, or, more often, by the moderate drinking of 
the poisonous stuff usually sold in the saloons of a mining 
settlement. New habits are not easily acquired by men 
no longer young, and for this we make due allowance. 
The weakness of the argument against prohibition is ex- 
hibited pathetically in the two articles, for and against, 
appearing in the current issue of 'McClure's' magazine, 
in which so clever a writer as Gertrude Atherton is able 
to present only the feeblest retort to Dr. Prank Crane's 
defence of the new law. The bugaboo of the drug habit 
is being raised by the very people who contend that pro- 
hibition cannot be enforced ; they insist that the lack of 
drink will provoke the use of narcotics and in the same 
breath assert that the law against alcoholic liquor will be 
a dead letter. Our own opinion, backed by statistics, is 
that the decrease in drinking will cause a marked in- 
crease in the consumption of candy, because the human 
system needs some alcohol and will generate this requisite 
from the sugar that is eaten in various forms, such as 
the eau suore, or sugared water, that many elderly 
Frenchmen sip habitually. An excess of candy will 
poison some people, as too much whiskey has poisoned 
others, but the results are not equally harmful, so let it 
go at that. Larger consequences impend. The annual 
expenditure incurred by the American people on account 
of spiritous liquors is about $2,500,000,000. The Gov- 
ernment will lose some $440,000,000 in taxation, but the 
thrift induced by prohibition will render available a 

large volume of capital for nore useful purposes. Again, 
the improvement in credit, when borrowers have ceased 
to yield to the temptation of becoming drank, will be an 
important commercial factor. Next, the cesspools of the 
city — the brothel and the saloon — will become less potent 
factors in the community, for vice thrives upon intoxica- 
tion. Another thought comes to allay our annoyance at 
the thought of a perpetual aridity: we remember the 
bright and capable men, the clever and charming friends, 
that succumbed to intemperance and went to a prema- 
ture grave. We would forego a good deal of wine to have 
some of them back. But, after all, the strongest argu- 
ment for accepting prohibition in a docile temper is the 
fact that a republic is governed by its representatives 
and when a majority of those representatives enact a law 
it is for us to obey it, pending, if we insist, the legalized 
procedure for repeal. To talk about resisting the law or 
to suggest the failure of juries to convict for infractions 
of it is undemocratic. Whether a man may or may not 
take a drink is immaterial as compared with the question 
whether he will behave as a citizen or as an outlaw. We 
feel confident that the people of the United States will 
accept prohibition in good faith, and we anticipate that 
once established the new order of life will persist in- 

Carranza's Mexico 

Signs are multiplying that even the long-suffering 
administration at Washington is becoming vexed with 
the Mexican government of Sefior Venustiano Carranza. 
The policy of watchful waiting was well meant and 
might have succeeded if this leader of the so-called Con- 
stitutional party had made the most of the chance given 
to him, by the American government, to establish law 
and order in Mexico. It is announced that "urgent rep- 
resentations" have been made to the Mexican govern- 
ment for the punishment of those responsible for the 
murder of John W. Correll, an American citizen, the 
maltreatment, of his wife and the attempted murder of 
their son, at their ranch near Colonia, 27 miles north of 
Tampico. The mention of the locality is significant be- 
cause a few days after Correll had been murdered the 
paymaster of the Gulf Refining Company, an American 
enterprise, was 'held up' and robbed of $15,000 in gold 
which he was taking from Tampico to the oilfield; and 
this was done after the local authorities had been notified 
of the route he would take and of the need for protec- 
tion in going about his regular business. This was in 
so-called Carranza territory, that is, a region dominated 
by Federal troops, who, however, not only failed to give 
the proper protection to legitimate industry but, some of 
them, in uniform, actually raided a camp of the National 
Oil Company, at Panuco, and robbed the employees of 
their money and valuables. On top of these items of 
lawlessness, it is reported that the Mexican government 
has prevented American oil-drillers from working on 
land that had been purchased from its Mexican owners 
in the ordinary way, that is, it was not a Government 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

concession, but private property. These incidents are 
in no way remarkable; more than 300 Americans have 
been killed in Mexico during the revolutionary period of 
the last eight years and American properties innumer- 
able have been looted or destroyed; the recent happen- 
ings have fresh significance only because they mark the 
near approach of a limit to the patience with which the 
American people have waited in the friendly hope that 
the Mexican would set his house in order and become a 
respectable neighbor. It is, of course, not a little absurd 
that a government with a mission to assist in the estab- 
lishment of civilized methods in Armenia and Dalmatia 
should shirk obligations at its back door. Apparently — 
and the wish may be father to the thought — the Admin- 
istration at Washington is ready to turn from the con- 
sideration of mandatories far across the seas to the ac- 
ceptance of a more logical and more pressing mandatory 
across the shallow waters of the Rio Grande. It is about 
time. Every intelligent citizen in this country must be 
tired of the opera bouffe varied by blackmail, rapine, and 
massacre that lvis flourished for nine years in Mexico, 
into which American men and American capital were 
cordially invited to come by Porfirio Diaz during the 
more than thirty years of his presidency. These alarums 
and excursions at Columbus, Cananea, and Juarez are 
ceasing to be even picturesque. We understand why a 
filthy brigand like Villa and a crafty desperado like 
Zapata are enabled to continue their depredations year 
after year in mockery alike of the de facto and de jure 
government of the pompous ass who is read}' to ally him- 
self with any enemy of the United States that makes him 
an offer of money. Only recently two American mining 
engineers, Harry White and W. L. Tovote, were killed, 
it is said, by the Taqui Indians, just as if the Taquis 
were not Mexicans, who themselves are Indians. This 
talk of Latin America and Spanish America is mere 
camouflage, the fact being that our southern neighbors are 
Indians with a slight admixture of alien, chiefly Spanish, 
stock; and even that small infusion of European blood 
has become less influential during the disorderly period 
since Diaz resigned, because the larger part of the 
Spanish population has emigrated to a safer domicile, 
shirking their responsibilities and leaving their hap- 
less country to the more ignorant mestizos and the full- 
blooded indios. Mexico today is only 10% white, and, 
what is even more significant, it is 85% illiterate, in this 
respect being comparable with Eussia, which, like 
Mexico, therefore is entirely unprepared for any form of 
representative government. Since Humboldt's visit, in 
1810, the mixed population of Mexico has more than 
doubled. Both Diaz and Huerta belonged to this group. 
Even the undiluted Indian has risen to positions of 
power. We are not dealing with a Spanish colony but 
with a people among whom liberalism works as an ex- 
plosive and to whom the contact with our material civil- 
ization has been the cause of persistent political ferment 
and systematic corruption, such as flourished, say, in the 
time of Louis XIV or Charles II. Mexico is in the 
kindergarten of social evolution. Consider Carranza's 

attempts to administer the country with a combination 
of crazy idealism and sordid craftiness. He is not a 
soldier, he rose to power by means of the military ability 
— at least tor the sort of fighting that obtains in Mexico 
— of Villa, Obregon, and Angeles, all of whom are now 
opposing him. He holds his remaining generals only by 
permitting them to graft at their pleasure. The Federal 
appropriations passed by the Mexican Congress for 1918 
included 120,755,631 pesos for the Department of War 
and Marine ; this was two-thirds of the entire budget and 
nearly all of it went to the army, which nevertheless is 
unable either to drive Villa's band of outlaws into the 
mountains or to make a decent showing when he puts 
up a fight periodically. The reason why the Federal 
troops are so ineffective is because the money voted for 
their maintenance is squandered by the generals in 
riotous living in the City of Mexico and because the 
officers in the field actually sell arms and ammunition to 
such bandits as Villa and Zapata. Although the latter 
is dead, others of his kind are numerous. The military 
authorities have to be bribed in order to get anything, 
from the use of a railroad car to the permission to em- 
ploy labor. The names of 37 defaulting army paymasters 
have been published in the newspapers of Mexico City. 
Carranza's revenue largely exceeds that collected by 
Diaz, and he gets it not by just taxation but by confisca- 
tion, which has paralyzed industry. Much of the rolling 
stock of the railways has been destroyed during the 
guerilla warfare and what has survived is so out of re- 
pair that only two lines, those from Laredo and from 
Vera Cruz to the capital, are able to maintain a regular 
service. The population in the bigger cities, such as the 
capital, Vera Cruz, Guadalajara, and San Luis Potosi, 
has been increased abnormally by thousands of utterly 
destitute people, brought thither largely by the fear of 
living in the country, where they are the victims of re- 
current brigandage. Agriculture is neglected because it 
is unsafe to remain on the farm, the produce of which 
likewise is at the mercy of bands of marauders. The 
officers of the American Red Cross were requested by 
Carranza to leave Mexico in the latter part of 1915 after 
having begun a campaign of benefaction in behalf of the 
suffering poor. In Mexico City alone they fed 26,000 
families daily, and they reported the conditions there, at 
Monterrey, Monclova, and Saltillo as appalling. Yet 
Carranza's adherents were permitted to ship 37,000 tons 
of foodstuffs through the port of Vera Cruz and to en- 
rich themselves thereby. Potatoes have been sold at El 
Paso by the carload from Guerrero while the people liv- 
ing in that district were dying of starvation. In short, 
an incapable politician, supported by a motley group of 
military chiefs whose support is based on the privilege of 
unlimited graft, is at the head of an administration that 
is unable to perform the functions of government, that 
is, to protect its citizens, stabilize industry, and uphold 
the law. Mexico may have a government de facto, it has 
none de jure. It neither possesses the power nor shows 
the inclination to discharge its obligations either to its 
own people or to those of a neighboring country. 

July 12, L919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Considerations on the Treatment of Flotation 



It may be stated as an axiom that flotation has come 
to stay, at least till we find something better. That there 
will be improvements in the process is also true, on ac- 
count of its possibilities and of the large amount of in- 
telligent experimentation that is being carred on. The 
high recovery obtainable with this process is its chief 
recommendation, though it must not be forgotten that a 
higher operating cost is attached to it, and that the total 
extra cost will absorb a quite appreciable percentage of 
the increased value recovered. It is of interest, there- 
fore, to review briefly the new conditions that will arise 
when flotation is adopted as part of the ore-treatment 
process. Or, in other words, what changes, if any, must 
be made in the smelting process and equipment, and 
what differences are to be expected in the results, when 
a considerable proportion of the material to be treated 
consists of flotation concentrate. 

In order to make any differences more apparent, we 
will assume the case of a smelting plant having a concen- 
trator, the whole being in operation, and that the latter 
is about to install flotation. Changes necessitated in the 
milling machinery will not be discussed here, being out- 
side the scope of this article. If the ore is of such char- 
acter (unfortunately rare) that it does not require the 
fine grinding of a large proportion of the mill-feed, the 
amount, of flotation concentrate produced will be small in 
comparison to the whole. Under these conditions, the 
addition of the small amount of flotation concentrate to 
the roaster charge will hardly be noticed. But if the ore 
has its valuable constituents finely disseminated, or if, 
for any reason whatever, a large proportion of it is finely 
ground, so that there is a heavy production of flotation 
concentrate, the effects due to the introduction of flota- 
tion will begin to manifest themselves in various depart- 
ments of the plant. 

The first difficulty is in the thickening of the flotation 
concentrate preparatory to filtering it. The point is, 
that a certain amount of residual froth will usually re- 
main on the surface of the liquid in the thickening-tanks, 
and that this froth is not easily broken. While this 
annoyance is more marked in some cases than in others, 
it is nearly always encountered. Some plants succeed in 
breaking this residual froth by placing a spray-pipe 
around the inside edge of the tank top, so that the radial 
jets of water cut up the froth. 

Assuming the flotation concentrate to have passed 
through the filters and been deposited in a bin, it then 
becomes necessary to get it out of the bin in order to 
feed it to the roasters. The belt-conveyors that worked 

successfully on the coarser material from water concen- 
tration will not handle the wet and gummy flotation con- 
centrate, so that some other device, such as an apron- 
feeder, will have to be used. Having got the material to 
the roaster, the next thing to consider is the roaster 
itself. With the introduction of a considerable amount 
of very fine material, conditions will be changed, calling 
for certain adjustments on the furnace, such as speed, 
depth of charge, temperature regulation, etc., and every 
precaution must be taken against producing dust. Flota- 
tion concentrate is usually fed along with coarser con- 
centrate from the tables and fine jigs, and in some cases 
the feed is very irregular as to size. It would be interest- 
ing to know whether a mixture showing a wide variation 
in size has any adverse effect on the tonnage or operation 
of the roaster. If there is a decided tendency toward 
agglomeration, the introduction of some inert material 
may be necessary. This is not a difficult matter, as fluxes 
are generally put into the roaster to ensure a proper mix- 
ing with the other ingredients of the charge. The liabil- 
ity of forming nasty hearth-accretions must not be over- 
looked. More dust will be produced when roasting flota- 
tion concentrate, which brings up the question of flues, 
and flue-dust handling and treatment. Once the new 
conditions are fairly established, investigation of dust 
losses may have to be undertaken in order to determine 
whether the existing flues are adequate to settle the fine 
dust now being produced. It will probably be found 
that some improved method of dust-catching will have to 
be installed, which naturally brings up the consideration 
of the Cottrell process, with the subsequent handling and 
treatment of the fine light dust resulting therefrom. 

Having roasted the concentrate, the next step is to get 
it to the reverberatory furnace. On account of the fine 
nature of this product, it produces dust easily, so that 
arrangements must be made to prevent inconvenience 
and loss through dusting. The drop from the roaster- 
hopper to the car must be as low as possible, and should 
take place preferably through a pipe or covered chute. 
The car will probably need alteration, as it should be 
covered at the top as much as possible. On reaching the 
reverberatory furnace, a further quantity of dust will 
be produced when the hot material is dumped into the 
charge-hoppers. The covering of the reverberatory feed- 
floor would prevent a lot of dust getting away, hut it 
would also make the place uninhabitable while dumping 
was in progress. About the only way to obviate this 
difficulty is to place light steel housings over the tracks 
on the reverberatory feed-floor. A kind of tunnel is thus 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

formed, large enough to allow the entrance of the roaster- 
cars, which are got at, for dumping, through doors on 
the sides of the tunnel. Assuming that the reverberatory 
furnace is charged along the sides, there will be less pro- 
tection for the walls of the furnace with this very fine 
material, as it will not stand up in a heap along the side- 
walls like a coarser charge. There is also a greater 
tendency for the fine material to flux the brick of which 
the furnace is built. All this may necessitate a thicken- 
ing of the side-walls and roof of the furnace. With a 
charge containing much roasted flotation concentrate, 
there is a chance for the fine dust to enter the slag and 
raise its metal content. See a previous article.* 

When using water concentration only, the plant may 
have been equipped with some slime-settling arrange- 
ment, such as ponds, dams, etc. A change in the scheme 
of treatment will probably be made at this point, the 
slime being thickened in tanks and re-treated by flota- 
tion. This does not necessarily infer a lower cost of 
treatment, although it would obviate excavation and re- 
handling at the dams. 

There has been considered here the case of a smelter 
having reverberatory furnaces, since the roast-plus- 
reverberatory seems to be the logical method of treat- 
ment for flotation concentrate. Another set of conditions 
arises in the case of a plant having blast-fumaces only. 
One plant of this class in the North-West is dumping 
flotation concentrate directly into the furnace in the 
form of thick mud. No figures are available on the en- 
suing dust-losses, but the method is open to criticism. 
However, it is worth mentioning as an expedient. In 
sintering flotation concentrate various difficulties arise 
with the grates, which means decreased draft and lower 
tonnage, even when some coarser material is mixed into 
the charge. Briquettes, even under favorable conditions, 
produce considerable dust in the blast-furnace, and it is 
not to be expected that the addition of flotation concen- 
trate to the briquette-mill charge will lessen this evil. 
Nodulizing possesses some advantages, but there is little 
information available on this process, probably on ac- 
count of its not being widely used. Pot-roasting re- 
quires a preliminary roast, in which the roaster troubles 
mentioned above would be involved, as would be the case 
should a pre-roast be given with sintering. Modifications 
of process will be necessary in any case, and may result 
in the final adoption of some combination method of 
special preparation of the charge going to the furnaces, 
all of which means more trouble and extra cost. 

A custom smelter purchasing flotation concentrate will, 
of course, experience the above difficulties (with the ex- 
ception of those connected with thickening) as well as 
the annoyance incident to unloading and handling a 
■ p 

"Oliver E. Jager, 'Continuous Overflow and Its Effect on 
the Slag Loss o£ Reverberatory Furnaces'. M. & S. P., 
June 28, 1919. 

tT. A. Rickard. 'The Utah Copper Enterprise' — IX. J\I. 
& S. P., Dec. 28, 1918. 

wet and gummy material. t The introduction of any dry- 
ing process means added expense and loss of time. 

In an article of this nature, one has, of course, to deal 
in generalities. While it is not suggested that all these 
effects will be felt at every plant using flotation or han- 
dling flotation concentrate, they are given to show the 
lines along which consideration must be made when there 
is a noticeable increase in the amount of very fine ma- 
terial to be smelted. 

Copper Leaching at Kennecott 

The following data from the operating records of the 
Kennecott Copper Corporation's ammonia-leaching 
plant at Kennecott, Alaska, represent an average taken 
over the period January to April, 1919, both inclusive, 
and cover salient points in current metallurgical prac- 


Assay of leaching-plant heading — carbonate copper. 1.04 
Assay of leaching-plant tailing — carbonate copper. 0.32 

Extraction 79.2 

Average moisture content of heading 4.75 

Averave assay first leaching solution 3.75 Cu. 7.70% NH 3 

Average assay second leaching solution 1.85 Cu. 8.60% NH 3 

Average assay of rich solution to stills 5.54 Cu. 8.37% NH 3 

Average assay of ammonia concentrate made by stills 17.1 NHg 

Average assay of precipitate produced 75.8 Cu 

Average length of first leach (still) 13 hours 

Average length of second leach (circulating) 42 hours 

Average Consumption of Steam 

For tailing wash: Lb. 

Per ton of material leached 108 

Per pound of copper produced 6.4 

For distillation: 

Per ton of material leached 226 

Per pound of copper produced 14 

Total steam: 

Per ton of material leached 334 

Per pound of copper produced 3.04 

Consumption or loss of ammonia: 

Per ton of material leached (100% NH 3 ) 0.55 

Per pound of copper produced (100% NH3) 0.033 

Notes from the St. John Del Rey Report 

During the year ended February 28, 1919, there was 
mined and treated at the property in Brazil 167,854 tons, 
yielding 99,874 oz. of gold. The profit was $570,000. 
Dividends amounted to $326,000. Some of the troubles 
were floods and influenza. The mortality from the 
plague was 2% of the eases; 75% of the population was 
afflicted. There were five fatalities at the property. 
During the past five years, 75.2% of the accidents were 
due to 'blistering' rock. There were 938 people em- 
ployed. 28 being Europeans and 905 natives. Ore-re- 
serves are estimated at 1,209,104 tons. The ventilating 
system was kept in good order, the Sirocco fans being 
stopped only 1 hour 37 minutes during the year. The 
temperature of the rock at a depth of 6100 ft. was 108° 
and the air 99°. This was during the four hot months. 
The initial rock temperature at the time of opening new- 
levels was 98° at 4100 ft. and 116° at 6100 ft. The 
treatment works extracted 91.8% of the gold. Cam- 
shafts broke frequently, due to the poor quality of steel. 
Mine rock was used in the tube-mills, after being partly 
rounded in a rough mill. Assay crucibles and liners for 
graphite crucibles are made at the works. The manga- 
nese deposits were sampled and average from 47.27 to 
51.36% Mn and 7.88 to 11.29% Fe. The hydro-electric 
plants supplied 1 34 motors with 3559 hp. at 2.7c. per day. 

.lulv 12, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


The Chloride^ Volatilization Process 


The idea of extracting metals from ore by a chloridiz- 
ing roast ami the simultaneous volatilization of the chlo- 
rides is due to Stuart Croasdale. 1 His observations of 
the character of deposits in smelter-flues and stacks led 
him to consider the practicability of volatilizing the 
major instead of the minor part of the valuable metallic 
contents by this action. 

It has been known that the haloid compounds of most 
metals volatilize at much lower temperatures than the 
metals themselves, but many of the chlorides were also 
known to be unstable at high temperatures. This and 
other complexities may have previously discouraged 
other metallurgists ; in fact, difficulties still stand in the 
way, but, remembering that cyanidation and flotation 
processes were developed without being well understood 
in theory, the pioneers of the present process are en- 
couraged in their more or less blind endeavors. 

The principal difficulty originally mentioned by Mr. 
Croasdale was the unsatisfactory precipitation of the 
chlorides. E. L. Blossom at that time (May 2, 1903) re- 
ported to the Montana Ore Purchasing Co. of Butte that 
"as applied to Rarus ore, the process is too far from a 
commercial possibility to be worth mentioning." 

The first patent 2 was granted to Edwin C. Pohle and 
Stuart Croasdale in 1903, but by this time Mr. Croas- 
dale already had a plant erected and operating near 
Denver, Colorado, the Metals Volatilization Co. having 
supplied the capital. A. W. Hudson, now of Tyrone, 
New Mexico, was employed in making the practical tests. 

Ben Howe 2 professes to have discovered the process 
some nine years later, and applied it, in Western 
Australia, to the treatment of antimonial gold ores. As 
with Mr. Croasdale, he reports his greatest difficulty to 
have been in dealing with the fumes. 

With the invention of electrical precipitation 4 and its 
application, by F. G. Cottrell, to practical purposes, a 
new hope was opened for the chloride-volatilization proc- 
ess and this was plainly recognized in the discussion 
initiated by Mr. Howe's articles. 

i' Engineering & Mining Journal', Aug. 29, Sept. 19, and 
Oct. 31, 1903. Henry A. Mather, Ibid., Sept. 5, 1903, and 
subsequent issues of the same journal. 

?Pohle & Croasdale No. 741,712, Oct. 20, 1903, and E. C. 
Pohle No. 811,085, Jan. 30, 1906. 

^'Monthly Journal of the West Australian Chamber of 
Mines', Dec. 1912; 'Mining Magazine', March 1913, Dec. 
1913, and March 1914. 

•i'Mining and Scientific Press', March 29, 1913. Trans. 
A. I. M. E., Sept. 1918, and bibliography there given. Par- 
ticulars of the process are also given by the owners, the 
Research Corporation, of New York. The Western rights 
are handled by the Western Precipitation Co., at Los 
Angeles, California. 

In 1906, O. II. Fairchild" described a plant erected at 
Mayer, in Yavapai county, Arizona, having four fur- 
naces of the cement-kiln type 36 ft. long and 5 ft. 6 in. 
to 7 ft. 6 in. diameter of shell. There is no statement of 
the results obtained, but the venture is known not to have 
been a success. 

About 1916 the Weldon Mining Co. of Canada took an 
option on some mining property in Nevada. Looking for 
a method of treatment, Mr. Adams, the president, per- 
suaded O. C. Ralston, then of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, 
to undertake an investigation by the chloride-volatiliza- 
tion process" and experiments have ever since been car- 
ried on at their Salt Lake City station, latterly under the 
superintendence of F. G. Moses; Professor Bradford of 
the University of Utah, where the station is placed, has 
also made some study of the subject. 

G. H. Clevenger of the Colorado Springs station of the 
Bureau of Mines has been especially interested in the 
recovery of potash from ores by a similar process. The 
recovering of the precious metals might, in fact, be com- 
bined with the recovery of potash. 

The process as now applied experimentally consists of 
mixing salt or brine with the ore and roasting it in a 
current of air at a temperature as high as it will stand 
without sintering too much. The fumes are collected by 
the Cottrell electro-static process and may be treated in 
several different ways according to their character, the 
usual method being to mix them with the required 
amount of lime and a small amount of reducing agent 
and melt, recovering the valuable metals as bullion. The 
lime-chloride slag may be used in the roasting of more 
ore, so as to economize salt. 

Owing to the liability of the ore to sinter, it is hardly 
possible to use any form of mechanical-rabbling furnace 
and from the first the cement-kiln type has been used. 
Since the interest of Edison was directed to the cement- 
making art, these furnaces have been made of great 
length, so as to economize heat by minimizing the differ- 
ence in temperature between the gases leaving the fur- 
nace and the pulverzied material entering it at the same 

The chloride-volatilization process, if placed upon a 
practical basis, might be useful in the following cases : 

1. Desert ores, too much oxidized for flotation or other 
means of concentration. 

2. Ores high in zinc and not suitable for smelting. 

3. Ores that cannot be smelted because of the want of 
flux for the formation of a fusible slag or of a collector 

^'Mining and Scientific Press', Sept. 1, 1906. 
oo. C. Ralston, Trans. A. I. M. E., Vol. LVII, p. 648. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

such as lead or copper. Deposits distant from a railroad 
are especially liable to suffer from such deficiencies. 

My first interest in the process was to obtain a satis- 
factory method of treatment of some Mexican silver ores 
that were not amenable to cyanidation. Experiments in 
the muffle-furnace showed that a good proportion of the 
silver could be driven off as chloride in a reasonable time, 
with the temperature below the sintering point. It then 
became necessary to investigate the practice. Accord- 
ingly I visited the Salt Lake City station of the Bureau 
of Mines, the plant erected by J. H. Hirt for an El Paso 
company, headed by a Mr. Biesel, and the plant of the 
Chief Consolidated Mining Co., at Eureka, Utah, in 
charge of G. H. Wigton. 7 

These were the only plants of working size and in 
each case the extraction obtainable by passing a moderate 
tonnage through the furnace was too low to be econom- 
ical. In Mexico, P. A. Babb has conducted extensive ex- 
periments for the Blaisdell Co. at Pachuca, and 6. B. 
Hinton has conducted experiments at his laboratory in 
Mexico City. 

The theory of the chloridizing roast had been previ- 
ously studied by Hofrnan 8 , Greenawalt, and others. They 
were only concerned, however, with the old Washoe and 
lexiviation processes and the volatilization of the chlo- 
rides was simply touched on to the extent that they 
wished to avoid it and therefore keep the temperatures 
of the roasting hearths sufficiently low. 

Croasdale considered that the salt reacted with the 
sulphides of the metals and oxygen to form sodium sul- 
phate and chlorides of the metals, but laboratory ex- 
perience shows that sulphides in quantities are detri- 
mental and that the reaction of the salt on silica is even 
better suited to the formation of the metallic chloride. 

Little is known of the gases formed, but it is evident 
that they must be complex, involving the formation of 
oxi-chlorides and other compounds of which little is 
known. An oxidizing atmosphere is said to be absolutely 
necessary, and apparently the good results usually ob- 
tainable in the laboratory are due to the facility of access 
of air to the thin layer of ore in the muffle. 

The chemists of the Bureau of Mines consider that the 
vapor-pressure of the chloride is very small, and conse- 
quently that the solution of the chlorides in air must be 
very dilute. It is well known, however, that vapor- 
pressures are increased by an important ratio with a 
moderate addition of temperature. But it may be that 
this additional temperature brings about other chemical 
or physical action affecting less volatile compounds, and 
that these prevent the free formation or volatilization of 
the chlorides. If such be the case a certain amount of 
control might be obtained ljy the introduction of other 
reagents than salt, or in addition to the salt. On the 
other hand, if the idea of the Bureau of Mines is not cor- 
rect and the principal practical trouble is in the forma- 
tion, not the volatilization, of the chlorides, the remedy 
would evidently be to pass the ore through a low-temper- 

'G. H. Wigton, Patent No. 1,264.586, April 30, 1918. 
''General Metallurgy', pp. 85 and 414. 

ature roasting-furnaee with plenty of oxidizing surface 
and form solid chlorides before attempting volatilization 
in the high-temperatnre kiln. Whether or not this should 
be done, cffuld be easily determined without the installa- 
tion of furnaces equipped with mechanical rabbles. 

I believe that the process deserves investigation by 
expert chemists, but it may well be that, like many other 
metallurgical problems, it will be first solved by men of 
less scientific education and more of that invaluable com- 
bination of originality and persistence by which so much 
is accomplished in every branch of industry. 

Accidents in Mining 

•Mining is one of the extra-hazardous industries, em- 
ploying more than 1,000,000 men in the United States of 
whom three or more out of every 1000 men employed are 
killed each year by reason of some accident. While com- 
plete data relating to non-fatal injuries are not available, 
yet reports to the Bureau of Mines for all metal mines in 
the United States, show that at least 250 men per 1000 
per year are injured sufficiently to cause a loss of time. 
Approximately the same rate will apply to other branches 
of the mining industry. 

In all industries there are a certain number of acci- 
dents that are inherent, for which it is impossible to place 
the blame on anyone. These equal about 50% in the 
mining industry. The responsibility for the remainder 
may be placed about equally on the operator and the 

The campaign of education for employees in the vari- 
ous industries has also been extended to the mining in- 
dustry to the extent that many of the larger operators 
are making special efforts to educate their workmen in 
various ways. So far as accidents are concerned prob- 
ably the principal thing that can be done along educa- 
tional lines is to see that the employees are thoroughly 
instructed in the English language, and as to the dangers 
which they encounter when they enter the mine, and to 
furnish them, through their superintendents and shift- 
bosses, instructions as to how to avoid accidents and to 
take care of themselves. Much of this educational work 
may be done through safety committees, consisting in 
part of members from the various occupations in and 
about the mines, giving the miner an opportunity to 
make suggestions that he considers will prevent accidents 
in his particular working place. Many of the companies 
have these committees actively at work, and they are 
meeting with gratifying results. 

All waste broken in development in the United 
Eastern gold mine at Oatman, Arizona, is used for stope- 
filling, and additional waste required is broken in a 
waste-stope started for that purpose. This waste-stope 
is supplying filling at lower cost than that extracted 
from raises in the walls. 

♦Abstract of address by Albert H. Fay, U. S. Bureau of 
Mines, before the Mine Safety Conference at Duluth on June 

.Ink 12, l!M!t 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


A Metallurgical Journey to Shasta, California— III 


Sulphide Ores. The Kennett chlorination plant has 
suuk into decay, and a copper smelter has taken its place. 
The mule-team has made way for the steam-locomotive, 
the wagon for the train of cars. Instead of the minute 
working of an occasional 'jag' of ore or concentrate, a 
daily supply of more than a thousand tons comes to the 
big smelter, whose activities affect the life of remote 
mining communities. And with these changes has come 
also such a reduction in the cost of treatment that those 
ores which had been worked in a small way and fre- 
quently at a loss when $20 per ton was paid therefor, go 
through the big furnaces for $3 per ton, and even less. 
It will be worth while to examine into the developments 
which made such revolutionary changes possible. 

Along the hills that border the Sacramento river on 
its west side, in the region between Redding and the 
mouth of the Pit river, is a mineralized belt in which, at 
intervals, lie immense bodies of base sulphides. The 
rocks that hold them, older than those in which the 
quartz veins are found, are themselves peculiar, but their 
characteristics in only one respect have a metallurgical 
significance. They are acid lavas, containing 70%, of 
silica, and it is not a little strange that ores situated 
wholly within them and from which they are unques- 
tionably derived, should prove so devoid of that con- 
stituent. This' fact has made it necessary to go outside 
for a supply of acid flux and has stimulated the gold- 
quartz mines of the surrounding region into unwonted 
activity. The furnishing of flux for the smelters has be- 
come a business of vast importance, while the stamp- 
mills have relapsed into idleness. 

This base-metal region does not end at the mouth, of 
the Pit, for isolated lenses of ore are found east of the 
Sacramento, clustering about Bully Hill and Ingot, many 
miles from what may be called the heart of the district. 
Discovery has succeeded discovery until hundreds of ore- 
bodies have been revealed, among which are some now 
ranked among California's great mines; orebodies reach- 
ing a width of 300 ft., and others whose known length 
surpasses 1000 ft., have been worked, enabling the ex- 
traction of six million tons of ore containing 300,000 tons 
of copper, and worth, with the precious metals, more than 

These results have been obtained mainly from ores 
that at an earlier epoch would have been classed as low- 
grade, and now rank among the poorest that are treated 
by smelting. "While at first a good deal of the ore con- 
tained much copper, rising to 7% in the case of the Iron 
Mountain deposit, the average material now handled does 
not assay above 3%. Concentration has come to the aid 
of smelting, but it cannot displace it, as smelting dis- 
placed amalgamation, chlorination, and cyanidation. 

What influence these processes have had upon each other 
will appear in the course of this writing. 

I have spoken of these extraordinary ore deposits as 
valuable for their base metals. Let us examine into their 
composition, in view of the course of treatment now con- 
sidered advisable, and endeavor to anticipate what, in 
the course of natural evolution, is likely to be done in the 
future. In the first place, the ores remaining are almost 
exclusively sulphides, the metals contained in them being 
iron, copper, and zinc, with smaller proportions of lead, 
arsenic, silver, and gold. The minerals in evidence are 
pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, and 
sphalerite, with others of less importance. The upper 
portion of the orebodies, at the surface and to a little 
depth, consist largely of limonite in an impure condition. 
None of the minerals is pure ; all contain impurities, even 
those which are crystallized and apparently unmixed. 
Thus, the pyrite of the Hornet mine, when assayed, 
shows a small content of silver and gold, very small, to 
be sure, but invariable. The average precious-metal con- 
tent of the pyritic masses is not far from $2 per ton, and 
this value does not seem to increase when the pyrite is 
intermixed with other primary sulphides. It is a fact, 
however, that certain surficially enriched ores show, as 
would be expected, a concentration of silver and espe- 
cially of gold, and several instances are recorded of cop- 
per showing parallel enrichment. Surficial enrichment 
extends also to the gossan, in which there is not only no 
sulphur, but no copper or zinc. This is to be expected, 
and brings us to consider what the orebodies really are, 
and what variations have followed naturally from their 
decomposition. Speaking generally, there are three 
classes of ore, discriminated as follows : First, beginning 
at the bottom, there are the unaltered sulphides of iron, 
zinc, and copper, together with more or less gangue, of 
which I will speak hereafter. The sulphides are closely 
intermixed, as a rule, so closely that sorting is imprac- 
ticable, the different minerals not being detectable by 
the eye. This statement, however, admits of some quali- 
fication because there are exceptions enough where a 
good selection is regularly made, as, for example, in the 
Mammoth mine, where an ore averaging 20% zine (and 
therefore 30% sphalerite) is mined and sorted to give 
a 40% zinc product, which is shipped. The remainder, 
being average ore, was smelted for the copper, gold, and 
silver, at the Kennett works. Again, the Rising Star 
mine at Bully Hill produces ore of an average grade of 
3% copper, but by careful sorting it can be divided into 
two classes, the first of which averages 6% copper, with 
perhaps $1.50 in precious metals. This also is sent to 
Kennett for smelting, the poorer material being reserved 
for concentration. Of the first class over 20,000 tons was 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

shipped last year. The sorting did not by any means get 
rid of all the zinc, but simply raised the grade in copper. 
Sorting has been carried on at all the large copper mines, 
to improve the shipping product, and likewise consider- 
able masses of sulphides, comparatively rich in one or the 
other metal, have been discovered in the course of min- 
ing. For example, there existed in- 1895 in the Iron 
Mountain mine a mass of chaleopyrite, of the kind typical 
of that mine, many thousand tons in weight, which av- 
eraged not less than 15% copper. Within it a chamber 
had been cut, the size of a bedroom, the walls of which 
showed absolutely nothing but solid ore. The After- 
thought system of veins also has produced ore of this 
character in considerable quantity, although the un- 
altered sulphides carry only 3% copper, with 6 oz. silver 
and a little gold. A conspicuous example of surficial en- 
richment was seen in the Bully Hill mine, from which 
Capt. De Lamar drew great quantities of ore averaging 
10% copper, and which in certain places carried $20 in 
gold. From this ore he made handsome profits, having 
his own smelter and converter plant. Before his time 
the mine produced secondarily enriched ores of the ox- 
idized class, which were silver-milled with some success, 
but which changed at a moderate depth into complex sul- 
phides of lower tenor and more refractory character, 
bringing operations to a standstill. Still earlier in the 
'seventies the placer miners found rich gravel on the 
flanks of the hill and in ravines leading therefrom, from 
which they took much wealth, all derived from the crop- 
pings of the ore-lenses close-by. Altogether it is doubt- 
ful if there exists a better illustration of the various 
phenomena of surficial enrichment than in the mines of 
Bully Hill. The present workings, now 500 ft. deep, 
have reached the zone of unaltered sulphides, of which 
great quantities are exposed. 

Inspection of the mines covered by an 'iron hat' shows 
their triplex character, since they invariably show the 
gossan or oxidized portion, the underlying enriched sul- 
phides, and the unaltered sulphides beneath. The gos- 
san is sometimes of present value and of greater pros- 
pective value, since it contains at least a little of the 
precious metals, and is basic in character, holding more 
of the oxides than of silica, and hence affording a valu- 
able flux for smelting purposes. Except for its impuri- 
ties, by which the percentage of iron is too much dimin- 
ished, the gossan might be looked upon as an iron ore, 
likely at some future time to be worked as such. For the 
present there is little likelihood of this use being made 
of it. Enormous quantities exist; in the Iron Mountain 
mine, for example, one finds it exposed on a great scale, 
a long adit penetrating such ore for several hundred feet, 
assaying about $2 per ton in gold and silver, and almost 
devoid of sulphur. 

The various sulphides are far more regular in their 
distribution. In some mines, the Iron Mountain, for 
example, pyritie iron (by which both pyrite and pyrrho- 
tite are meant) constitutes by far the larger part of the 
mass. In this mine, speaking of its great sulphide lens, 
now exhausted, pyrite must have made up fully three- 

tourths the 1,750,000 tons of ore upon which first smelt- 
ing operations were based. We may say now of this ore- 
body that it averaged 7.4% copper, 80c. in gold, and 2 
oz. silver per ton. Certain parts were extremely rich in 
chalcopyrit^, while other parts were correspondingly 
poor. Large masses, aggregating hundreds of thousands 
of tons, carried only 1 or 2% of copper, and were only 
fit for making acid. The same thing is measurably true 
of other deposits in this district. In the eastern part 
there seems to be less pyrite, and consequently less sul- 
phur. Sphalerite also is distributed irregularly. There 
was scarcely any in the Iron Mountain lens, while in the 
northern and eastern parts of the base-metal range it is 
extremely abundant. The charge of the Mammoth blast- 
furnaces averages almost 4% zinc, which corresponds to 
6% sphalerite. It has been so abundant in the Bully 
Hill ores as to prove a deterrent to smelting, and has de- 
feated the efforts of the Afterthought smelter to run 
successfully, whereby that great property has been 
driven to apply other methods, as we shall see. 

Masses of Pyrite. At several points in the base- 
metal range there exist bodies of comparatively pure 
pyrite, which being poor in copper and the precious 
metals, have not been utilized as yet by the smelters. 
Their exceptional freedom from arsenic or other in- 
jurious constituents, and their high sulphur content, 
makes them peculiarly adapted to the manufacture of 
sulphuric acid; relatively small quantities have been 
shipped to the neighborhood of San Francisco, and 
bumed for that, purpose. The Hornet mine, near Iron 
mountain, the property of the Mountain Copper Co., is 
such a pyritie orebody, and within its bounds a com- 
pact mass weighing no less than 6,000,000 tons has been 
explored. In other parts of the range similar, but 
smaller, bodies of this nature exist, in particular in the 
Rising Star mine, at Bully Hill. A little copper is in- 
variably found in these pyritie ores, but only a little. 
The Hornet ore is supposed to average about 1.5% cop- 
per, with a little over a dollar in precious metals. It 
carries also a trifle of zinc, and a few percentages of 
silica, etc. This ore, on being burned at the acid-works, 
leaves a residue, called 'cinder', which is of some in- 
terest. A pile containing 60,000 tons lies at the works 
of the Mountain Copper Co., near Martinez ; it has been 
leached with water to recover that part of the copper 
which exists in the soluble form, that is, as sulphate, 
formed during roasting. An average analysis of this 
leached material shows : 


Copper 0.45 

Sulphur 186 

Silica 3.85 

Iron 63.37 

Zinc 159 

It contains also, 0.02 oz. gold and 0.9 oz. silver per ton. 

Pyritic Cinder. The proper disposal of this accumu- 
lation presents some pretty metallurgical problems. In 
other countries there would be no difficulty in disposing 
of it profitably, but conditions in California are such as 
to make it almost a waste product. Pyritie cinder else- 

•luly ]•_'. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


where is smelted direcl into pis-iron, as it constitutes a 
ricli iron ore, in which respect the Hornet cinder is as 
good as any. The fine-grained condition and the high 
content of sulphur, however, render it of less value than 
ordinary run-of-mine ore, and it is generally used in 
small proportion along with coarse ore, in making a 
comparatively cheap iron, suitable mainly tor purposes 
where strength is not particularly demanded. But even 
this use is denied it in this State, since we have no fur- 
naces for smelting it. It may also be used as flux in 
smelting more silieious copper and lead ores, and some 
Mountain Copper cinder has been shipped for that pur- 
pose as far as Salt Lake City, although one cannot. 
imagine much profit accruing to the purchasers. It is 

acid, sulphurous acid, chlorine, and hydrochloric acid. 

anil adding the add waters I.. Il alci 1 material. 

when seine insoluble copper compounds, such a.s CUpric 
chloride and oxide, are also taken up, as well as the gold 
and silver. The two precious metals are precipitated by 
means of zinc iodide and free iodine, and then separated 
by filtration. The copper is precipitated by iron scrap, 
or preferably by sponge-iron, and is collected as cement 
copper. This process has been in use for more than 50 
years, and has added greatly to the world's store of 
metals. It might be initiated profitably here if a market 
could be found for the final residue of iron, which con- 
stitutes an important source of revenue in England, 
■where the process has its largest scope. 



^hasta] \mammoth\ 

L_L/ l_R.ii 




Coram 4 

l fr/HO *°° 

Mountain aj 
^Copper CoJ ° LD oieeiNes 
f Worka " 


Two gold dredges are operating on Clear I S 
Creelf six miles south of Redding. 4 

) Redding) 

$110 // O 1 

\S Mors. Mtn A|^ Bull. M. II . 

1 ***<> fjr *••* 4 






M Copper City« 

JJ, Heroult f *rf**» 

,u^°" r *y 


t^ ""7 



Works * # 

Oak Run 




useless to the smelters in Shasta comity, since they are 
over-stocked with basic material, and need silica rather 
than iron. Similar material is treated in large quanti- 
ties in Europe by processes designed first to extract the 
gold, silver, and copper, after which the oxide of iron 
left (and in that condition called 'blue billy') is run 
down in the iron-furnace. The experience of years has 
led the metallurgists of Europe to prefer the so-called 
Longmaid-Henderson process for extracting the gold, 
silver, and copper, since by it, with some additions, all 
three metals may he won in satisfactory proportion. It 
consists, briefly, in calcining the cinder with from 10 to 
20% of common salt, for several hours (5 to 10) whereby 
the silver and copper are converted, the first wholly, the 
latter partly, into chlorides, which are soluble in brine, 
and still more so in a solution obtained by catching the 
evolved gases in a 'tower', they containing sulphuric 

Other processes have been suggested for the treatment 
of pyritic cinder, among them is lixiviation with sul- 
phuric acid. This, however, does not dissolve the silver 
or the gold, which therefore are lost. Neither will the 
dilute acid attack the sulphide of copper, a little of 
which always remains after calcination, and this too is 
lost. It should be borne in mind that the result of cal- 
cining copper-bearing sulphides in general is to convert 
a part of the copper into the sulphate, another part into 
oxide through the decomposition of some of the sulphate, 
while, as just- remarked, still another portion retains its 
original form of sulphide. An analysis shows that of 
100 parts of copper in a certain ore that had been cal- 
cined for making vitriol, 54 parts existed as sulphate 
(and therefore soluble in water), 38 parts as oxide (solu- 
ble in weak sulphuric acid), and 8 parts as sulphide 
(soluble only in nitric acid). By skilful manipulation 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

the parts soluble in water can be much increased ; but 
such manipulation is not practicable in kiln-roasting, 
nor generally when the ores are being calcined for their 
sulphur content. 

Making Acid. The problem of the proper treatment 
of pyritic cinder must give way to the more important 
ore of the treatment of the raw sulphide as it comes 
from the, mine. Assuming, which is true, that the heavy 
pyrite, such as we are now considering, is valuable 
mainly from its content of sulphur, and that it does not 
carry enough of copper, gold, and silver to pay for their 
extraction solely, the question is what process should be 
employed to render them as well as the sulphur simul- 
taneously available for the market. The answer is not 
far to seek. At Duektown, in Tennessee, a large copper 
smelter has attached to it the largest sulphuric acid 
plant in the world, capable of making 1000 tons of 60° 
acid in a day. The smelting method is the pyritic, the 
same process that has given Shasta county its eminence 
in copper production. The ore, like those of Shasta, car- 
ries about 3% copper, but without gold or silver. It 
averages 30% in sulphur, which, in the course of smelt- 
ing, is discharged from the furnaces in the form of sul- 
phur di-oxide, as elsewhere, but instead of being al- 
lowed to pass into the atmosphere the fume is conducted 
into lead chambers and converted into acid. The process, 
of course, is practicable wherever sulphide ores exist, 
and it is applied successfully, for example, both at Trail, 
Anaconda, and Douglas.* The method differs from that 
commonly pursued only in the manner of getting the 
di-oxide; for the ordinary way is to roast the pyrite in 
a kiln or mechanical furnace, without smelting the ore. 
In this case a residue of iron oxide is left. At Duektown 
the residue is smelted into slag and matte, the latter con- 
taining the copper. Did the ores there carry gold and 
silver, these two would go into the matte and be saved. 
It will be seen that the sulphuric acid process supple- 
ments the smelting operation beautifully, not only by 
suppressing the fume, which, as we shall see, has been a 
great drawback to metallurgical projects, but absolutely 
turning into money what was formerly a nuisance. 

"While this method is applicable to the conditions ex- 
isting in California, there are many economic considera- 
tions to be reckoned with. Although these deposits are 
at a distance of 300 miles from the acid works, such are 
the facilities for mining, and so low the freight-rates, 
that the ore is delivered to the burners in or near San 
Francisco at a cost that will meet the competition of 
nearer 'sulphur ore', of as good character. The pre-war 
price averaged about $5 per ton delivered for an ore 
carrying from 45 to 48% sulphur. These facts are sig- 
nificant in their relation to the mining industry of 

"Working on a scale of 100 tons of pyrite daily, equiva- 
lent to the production of about 120 tons of 66° acid, the 
cost of crushing and calcining the ore would reach, in a 
■well arranged and well conducted plant, about $1 per 

♦'Calumet & Arizona Sulphuric Acid Plant', by Courtenay 
De Kalb. M. & S. P., March 30, 1918. 

ton, if mechanical furnaces were used, while it might be 
done for a little less if kilns were employed. To this 
amount the loss in valuable metals must be added in 
order to obtain an idea as to the relative advantages of 
the methods. This loss is the sum of the values of the cop- 
per and precious metals, less the customary losses in 
smelting, which might be 2 or 3% of the gold, 4 or 5% 
of the silver, and one-third of the copper. The last item 
is large, because ore of low tenor loses proportionally 
more than the high-grade. The actual yield of copper 
from an ore carrying 1.5% copper would not exceed 22 
lb. per ton, which, being in the form of matte, would have 
to be re-smelted and refined, and submitted to deduc- 
tions, so that with the gold and silver (say $1.60) added, 
the net yield would be about $3 per ton. But vast quan- 
tities of sulphide ore of hardly higher grade than this 
have been smelted in Shasta county at a profit. The 
average charge to the furnace contains but 3% copper, 
with an average of 90e. in gold, and 1.25 oz. of silver; 
but because it contains an average of 4% zinc it is more 
difficult to smelt than the comparatively pure pyrite of 
which we are now speaking. These ores require silicious 
flux to the extent of about one-fourth of the charge ; and 
while richer quartz is desired for this purpose, the smelt- 
ers have to take large quantities of vein-quartz that may 
carry no more than a dollar or two per ton. A certain 
property has delivered to a Shasta county smelter with- 
in the past year several thousand tons of quartz assay- 
ing only $2.50 per ton in gold and silver, and has 
achieved a profit after mining, transporting, and paying 
treatment-charges upon it. It is a wonder that it can be 
done at all, in view of the high cost of coke and labor. 

Not only have the quartz mines of Shasta county been 
put under contribution for supplies of acid flux, but 
silicious ores in considerable quantity have been im- 
ported from distant regions. These ores, however, are 
of much higher tenor and have to bear much heavier 
freight-charges. On the other hand, much basic ore, the 
ordinary mixed sulphides of the district, has been ex- 
ported to points so distant as Salt Lake. This shuffling 
about of ores of different characters according to the 
exigencies of the metallurgical process is one of the most 
interesting characteristics of modern practice, and illus- 
trates better than anything else the special advantages 
of smelting methods. The Mountain Copper Co. has the 
distinction of being the first to adopt thorough methods 
of mitigating the fume evil, and of utilizing to the utmost 
the sulphur content of Shasta ores. Its complete plant 
at Bull's Head, near Martinez, in Contra Costa county, 
California, was designed not only to manufacture sul- 
phuric acid from the fumes of smelting and roasting fur- 
naces, but to convert the acid to industrial uses, through 
the manufacture of a fertilizer, familiar to agriculturists 
under the name of Mocoeo, the base of which is super- 
phosphate of lime. The process consists in roasting the 
ore, receiving the smoke therefrom in suitable apparatus, 
by which it is made into acid, and then treating pul- 
verized native lime phosphate with it. by which a portion 
of the phosphoric acid is set free, but still left in ad- 

July 12, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


mixture with the calcium sulphate coincidently formed. 
The addition of Bubstances containing potasaium and 

assimilable nitrogen converts the Buper-phosphate into 
wluit is styled a 'complete fertiliser'. The scarcity of 
native phosphates in this stale compels the company to 
go as far afield as Idaho, where it has acquired deposits, 

and whence it draws large supplies. 

The accompanying photographs show the extent of 
plant necessary, with wharf facilities, slag-dumps, and 
the smokestack, which is 225 ft. high and is constructed 
of reinforeed concrete. An interesting item is the old 
sheet-iron stack, in its crumpled condition, resulting from 
the action of sulphur gases through a series of years. 

Methods at the Afterthought. This mine, 20 miles 
north-east of Redding, ever since its discovery by C. M. 
Peck in 1S72, has been one of the most noted mines in 
the State, not by reason of its magnitude, lor there are 
many larger, nor for its production, for there are many 
more productive, but chiefly because there is always 
something doing at the Afterthought — something novel 
in a metallurgical way. It has been the scene of numer- 
ous experiments, chiefly on account of the refractory 
character of the ore, which consists of a mixture of 
chalcopyrite, pyrite, blende, and barite, with some of the 
usual derivatives of the country-rock, and is therefore 
similar to that of other deposits in the base-metal range. 
The contents in gold, silver, and copper are sufficiently 
generous to encourage extensive mining operations, which 
have not done so well. The earliest attempt to reduce 
the Afterthought ore took place soon after the discovery, 
when a 10-stamp silver-mill was erected. Success was 
not achieved, owing to the scarcity of oxidized material, 
which, however, seems to have been of good grade. Roast- 
ing was soon tried, but apparently without success, since 
the unusual step was taken of smelting the roasted and 
also the naturally oxidized material in a reverberatory 
furnace, using wood as fuel. This was a commendable 
step, resting on good metallurgical precedents, and, given 
sufficient skill and experience, it should have succeeded. 
It is true, wood is not a good fuel for reverberatory 
smelting, being surpassed by bituminous coal, and far- 
surpassed by petroleum and producer gas, but the re- 
verberatory furnace is superior to the blast-furnace in 
treating zinky ores, and especially those containing 
barite, as at the Afterthought. At that time wood was 
being used on a large scale in the reverberatories at 
Black Hawk, in Colorado, whence, no doubt, the local 
practice was derived. The settlement of Afterthought 
is embedded in a sea of trees, mainly fir and pine, whose 
wood, when seasoned, heats the furnace to the smelting 
temperature with fair readiness, but they are consumed 
with rapidity, it having required nearly a cord of dry 
fir to smelt a ton of ore in the old and ill-designed re- 
verberatories at Butte. A furnace of modern design 
would use hardly more than one-third that, and might 
therefore perform its work with an economy comparable 
with that of the oil-burning [now powdered coal] fur- 
naces at Ely, or those at Butte, which are heated by 
powdered coal. It is a great pity that this well-meant 

attempt was nut continued, for although the abundant 
/.inc in the Afterthought Hie would have proved a serious 
obstacle, this method even now is far preferable, under 

the ciroumstai s, to the blast-furnace process thai 

ceeded it. The liisi blast-furnace, 1 am told, was put up 
to use lead as a collector — a seemingly incredible thing 
in view of the presence of ample amounts of copper sul- 
phide in the ore, but not incredible when we consider tin; 
condition of metallurgy in that day, when common 
opinion held that lead, and lead alone, could extract the 
precious metals. This erroneous view was widely held, 
and prevailed for many years thereafter. Some unim- 
portant deposits of galena in the neighborhood may have 
instigated the attempt, which came to nothing, and not 
long after a larger cupola furnace was erected, the 
locality becoming known as Furnaceville. Some ore was 
shipped to Swansea, it is said, and the respectable sum 
of $450,000 was reported to have been received for it, the 
total sales having been 11,000 tons. Various spasms of 
activity followed, and three or four other furnaces were 
set up, of which sundry relics survive. 

It was my fortune to have examined this district over 
20 years ago. Samples were taken from every working 
breast and from the small heaps of roasted ore scattered 
on the hillside. The property was in the hands of Joseph 
Enright, widely known as the builder of traction-engines, 
of the Shasta county lumber-flume, and of the Anderson- 
Bella Vista railroad. The assays will show the character 
of the ore handled during those early years. 

Gold Silver Copper 

Oz. Oz. % 

Average ot main dump trace 9.64 5.2 

Other samples, No. 1 0.04 32.16 

No. 2 trace 5.1 1U.S 

No. 3 trace 2.2 12.0 

No. 4 trace 5.44 7.0 

No. 5 trace 9.64 5.2 

No. 6 trace 40.15 6.0 

From similar ores the first smelter produced three car- 
loads of matte, which was sold in San Francisco. The 
three carloads assayed from 0.33 to 0.92 oz. gold, 72 to 
83 oz. silver, and from 49 to 60% copper. It is interest- 
ing to know that the railway charges were $7 per ton, 
the treatment charge $20.50, that the gold brought $20 
per ounce, the silver 95% of the New York quotation, 
and that the whole shipment, amounting to 54 tons, the 
sum of $5757 was received. These terms compare well 
with the present, excepting that the treatment-charge has 
been reduced to $3 or $4 per ton. 

After many efforts the managers came reluctantly to 
the conclusion that the zinc content was too high to ad- 
mit of smelting by either the pyritic process as later 
practised, or the roasting-smelting method as carried on 
at first. The comparatively high-grade material had 
been measurably exhausted, but, development continu- 
ing, they had to face the problem of reducing ore car- 
rying 2.8% copper, 11.6% iron, 15% zinc, 18%: sulphur, 
11%. silica, 7.4% barite, and 5.6% alumina, with $4 to 
$5 in precious metals. Of this material immense quanti- 
ties exist and are well opened up, and provided with a 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

railway one mile long for transport to the site of the 
works, which is upon the left bank of Cow creek, and 
upon a steep side-hill. A little calculation will show 
that rather more than half the ore consists of sulphides, 
and that serious obstacles to reduction exist. This being 
the case, it is not surprising that much experiment and 
research have been given to other processes, in the hope 
that some way would be found to overcome the various 
difficulties. It is apparent, at once, that no method of 
dressing would be applicable, since the concentration 
could not extend beyond the removal of the gangue, 
which constitutes less than half the weight whereby a 
ton of product would be obtained from two tons or less 
of ore. The enriched product, therefore, could not con- 
tain more than 6% of copper, with six or eight dollars 
in gold and silver, and might not pay either to ship or to 
smelt. The zinc having previously been a waste product, 
its recovery in commercial form became a matter of great 
interest and absorbed the attention of the operators, in 
view of the fact that the mine contains many millions of 
dollars worth of that metal, whose presence makes the 
associated metals valueless. Herbert Haas, formerly 
metallurgist to the company, and introducer of the 
pyritic method there, after prolonged study, gave his 
opinion in the following words: "All attempts at con- 
centration failed, the ore being a very intimate mixture 
of blende and pyrite, which resisted electro-static and 
magnetic concentration. Hand-picking and wet concen- 
tration were equally unsuccessful, for even the finest 
particles showed the intimacy of the blending. It was 
noted that the zinc concentrate contained more of the 
copper and silver of the original ore than the pyrite con- 
centrate held, while the latter could never be obtained 
even reasonably free from blende." Mr. Haas at that 
time looked forward to a chemical separation of the zinc, 
prior to smelting the residue for its copper, gold, and 
silver. Other tests followed, and various processes for 
extracting the zinc were suggested, but nothing came of 
it beyond the co-ordination of ideas, and the mine laid 
practically idle until taken over by the present company, 
styled the Afterthought Copper Mining Co., composed of 
Eastern people, who, supplied with ample funds, are now 
carrying on a prodigious experiment in flotation, which 
is attracting great attention, both from the novelty of its 
principles, and from the costliness of its plant. The 
method is a form of selective flotation, in which it is de- 
signed to form three products, two of which, the zinc 
concentrate and the copper concentrate, are valuable, the 
other, the waste, valueless, by means of two successive 
applications. The plant has a daily capacity of 300 tons 
of ore, and has cost to date more than $500,000. The 
work is interesting indeed, and merits a full descrip- 
tion, f 

Some special characteristics of the Afterthought prop- 
erty demand notice. The distance to the railway is 13 
miles, the wagon-road is far from good, and connection 
is made with the main line of the Southern Pacific rail- 
way by means of a branch line. These artificial disad- 

tWhich will be published in this paper shortly. — Editor. 

vantages are offset by certain natural advantages, among 
which are the propinquity of fuel supplies — wood and 
coal — of water, and incidentally of a flume, which, pass- 
ing immediately in front of the works, enables timbers 
and sawea lumber to be delivered at low rates and in 
large quantities. To this may be added the advantage of 
cheap and abundant supplies of electricity from power- 
plants not far away. 

An important feature of the treatment at Ingot (as 
the mill-site is called) consists in roasting and then 
smelting the copper concentrate, which is deemed too 
low-grade to stand the cost of shipment. The smelting 
process is to be carried out in a reverberatory furnace, 
patterned after those used at Garfield, Butte, Ely, and 
other copper-smelting centres. It is 60 ft. in length of 
hearth by 18 ft. in width. Such a furnace should smelt 
about 250 tons daily of an average charge, and so will 
prove ample for all probable requirements. The fuel is 
to be petroleum; which will cost about $3 per barrel, and 
one barrel or a little less should smelt a ton of charge. 
Oil, of course, is a convenient and effective fuel, which 
every furnace-superintendent likes to use, but it is perti- 
nent to inquire if, considering the abundance of other 
fuels at that point, a cheaper one could not be used. By 
the aid of the flume, which is right at hand and no more 
than 100 ft. from the furnace, an ample supply of good 
wood can be secured, at a cost probably much below that 
of an equivalent amount of oil. A cord of wood is worth 
two barrels of oil, but the cost of firing is greater. Direct 
firing with wood may not answer on so large a furnace, 
but if not, then it may be converted into gas by means 
of a producer, with results as good as oil can give. The 
apparatus might be less convenient, but economy and not 
the convenience of operators is the object. Producer- 
gas from resinous woods can be made to contain 125 to 
135 heat-units per cubic foot, thereby equalling that 
made from coal. It would seem that if there were a 
really favorable opportunity to make use of the gas-pro- 
ducer it is at Ingot ; for not only is wood found there in 
immense quantities, but there is a coal mine within a 
few miles, which should have a great influence on the 
metallurgy of the local ores. 

[See illustrations on pp. 59 and 60] 

Cost of producing silver at the Nipissing mine at 
Cobalt, Ontario, is as follows, according to the annual 
report : 

Per ton 

Exploration SI. 329 

Drillinr 0.246 

Development 0.897 

Stoping 1.282 

Hauling dumps.... 0.082 
Shipping: residue. 

etc 0.041 

Assaying-, etc 0.122 

Management 0.525 

Camp 0.112 

Insurance, taxes . . 4.713 

The total cost of production was 35.75% of the gross 
value of the output. 

Development of vein 109 in the Nipissing has opened 
a long shoot of 3000-oz. ore, adding considerably to the 


Per oz.. 


Per ton 






High-grade mill 

. . 1.778 



Low-gTade mill 

. . 5.037 



. . 0.725 



. . 0.826 


Corporation, etc. 

. . 0.254 







Less sundries 





July 12, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Oxy-Acetylenc Welding of Large 


One of the bis steel-rolling mill engines at the Parrel] 
works of the Carnegie Steel Co., at Farrell. Pennsyl- 
vania, that had been doing its full share in helping to 
win the War broke down two weeks alter the signing of 
the Armistiee, having worked constantly up to then on 
100% war orders. In the accident, besides other parts, 
the left-hand low-pressure steam-cylinder, 70 in. inside 
diameter, of an Allis-Chalmers twin-tandem compound- 
reversing engine was badly fractured, in consequence of 
the breaking of a connecting rod at the moment of re- 

A serious situation confronted the officials of the Car- 
negie Steel Co., as it would have taken at least three to 
three and a half months to obtain a new cylinder, in ease 
the broken one could not be repaired in a shorter time ; 
360 men were thrown out of employment. The broken 
cylinder was of such size and the damage done was of 
such character that a decision whether the cylinder was 
to be renewed or repaired involved a risk on the part of 
the management. Although considerations of expense as 
between the cost of purchasing a new cylinder and re- 
pairing the old one were of secondary importance, the 
cost of repairing was estimated to be about one-third 
that of a new cylinder. 

The officials of the company, after careful investiga- 
tion, decided in favor of oxy-acetylene welding. They 
called upon the job-welding shop of the Oxweld Acety- 
lene Co., at Chicago, to meet the emergency. Three ex- 
pert welders, accompanied by all the necessary equip- 
ment, went immediately to Farrell and completed the 
job under my direction. The total time consumed in re- 
pairing the low-pressure cylinder, including chipping, 
pre-heating, and welding, was 72 hours. While dis- 
mantling the engine, a fracture was discovered in the 
right-hand, 42 in. diam., high-pressure cylinder. This 
fracture also was repaired in about 18 hours. It took 
just seven days, from the time the order was given to 
complete the entire job. 

The data covering this work are given in detail below : 

low-PresBUte Steam-Cylinder 

5000 hp. Allis-Chalmers twin-compound reversing- engine. The horse- 
power given is the maximum developed while rolling and running' at about 
100 to 110 r.p.m. 

Cylinder bore 5 ft. 10 in. 

Stroke 4 It. 6 in. 

Weight of cylinder 13 tons 

Thickness of iron casting' 2% to 3% in. 

Number of cracks (See Fig. 1) 7 

Total length of all cracks 22 ft. 2 in. 

Preparing and pre-heating casting 27 hours 

Welding casting 45 hours 

Iiinde oxygen consumed 2850 cu. ft. 

Prest-O-Lite acetylene consumed 2845 cu. ft. 

Oxweld cast-iron welding-rods 390 lb. 

Oxweld 'Ferro' flux 25 lb. 

Number of welders 3 

Period of welding shifts 10 and 30 min. 

High-Pressure Steam-Cylinder 
5000 hp. Allis-Chalmers twin-compound reversing engine. 

Cylinder bore 3 ft. 6 in. 

Stroke 4 ft. 6 in. 

Weight of cylinder 5 tone 

Tnlckneea <>f Iron .Msim^ to 't in 

Piece "I ll.iMW' broken ofl >l 

Total lenath oi weld in-. 

Preparing and pre-heatlne* caatlng B ' • I 

Welding coating 8 1 -.. I <>\jk,-n consumed cu. It. 

I'rrst-O-Lite acetyleno consumed 050 CQ. It. 

Oxweld 'i in. caaMran welding-rods iiii lb. 

Oxweld 'Ferro' flux 10 lb. 

.> of welders 3 

Period oi welding shifts 10 and 30 min. 

While welding inside the cylinder castings, the men 
relieved one another every 10 minutes because of the ex- 
treme heat deflected back on them during the operation. 
On the outside welding, however, the heat was not so 
intense and the men relieved one another every 30 

After the engine-cylinders were machined, it was al- 
most impossible to determine where the cracks had been. 
The total cost of this repair represents but a small frac- 
tion of the replacement cost, but even this saving is in- 
significant when compared with the disorganization that 
would have resulted from the laying off of a large body 
of trained workmen and with the enormous loss that 
would have been entailed in a stoppage of production. 
[See illustrations on pp. 61 and 62] 

Recovery of Zinc From Ores 

Zinc recovered from sulphide ores in Utah and ad- 
jacent States is mostly from mixtures of lead and zinc 
sulphides. The usual milling treatment for such ores is 
to crush, size, and classify the ores, and then separate as 
cleanly as possible the gangue from the sulphides with 
jigs and tables. By this separation of a mixed sulphide 
ore, a lead product and a zinc product are obtained. 
Sometimes the lead contains as much as 10% zinc, or even 
more, and the zinc contains a considerable quantity of 
lead. The zinc that accompanies any lead ore sent to the 
lead smelter is not recovered. Therefore the problems 
connected with the milling of a zinc sulphide ore are as 
follows : (1) effecting a better separation of the lead and 
zinc materials; and (2) preventing losses of zine or of 
lead and zine in the tailing. 

If an ore cannot be rendered marketable by concen- 
tration processes the next step is to devise a process for 
treating the ore locally, that is, near where the ore is 
mined, so as to do away with the costs connected with 
transporting the ore and the subsequent smelting of it. 
In general, if an ore cannot be treated at a profit by a 
smelting process a hydro-metallurgical process is de- 
vised. Hydro-metallurgical treatment of zine sulphide 
ores has been proposed in many different forms during 
the past half century, but has in general failed to he 
adopted, on account of the peculiar chemical properties 
of zinc and the low value of the products that can be 
made. Zinc requires more chemical or electrical energy, 
in comparison with its value after recovery, than almost 
any other major metal on the market ; and the high con- 
sumption of chemicals or of electric energy involved in 
its recovery has usually made hydro-metallurgical proc- 
esses of questionable value. — D. A. Lyon and O. C 
Ralston in Bulletin 158 of U. S. Bureau of Mines. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

Briquetting Magnetite Concentrate 


It is becoming generally accepted that the establish- 
ment of an iron and steel industry is exceedingly de- 
sirable if not absolutely essential to the well-being of 
other industries that were established during the War 
on the northern Pacific Coast. The difficulty, however. 
has been that, while there appears to be plenty of both 
coal and iron available, most of the iron ores are of the 
magnetite variety, which are not by themselves suitable 
for smelting in the blast-furnace. The British Colum- 
bian government, realizing this, employed Alfred Stans- 
field, professor of metallurgy at McGill University, to 
investigate conditions and make a report on the feasi- 
bility of smelting British Columbian magnetite in an 
electric furnace. While Mr. Stansfield's report has left 
things pretty much in statu quo, the perusal of it re- 
minded me of some experiments that I made over twenty 
years ago on the magnetic sand that occurs at a number 
of points along the coast of Quebec and Labrador, and it 
struck me that the final result of these experiments might 
be of assistance in evolving a plan for the smelting of 
magnetite in the North-West. 

This magnetic sand was composed principally of 
magnetite mixed with ilmenite, garnet, and silica, and 
it was found that by magnetic concentration they could 
be enriched up to about 66% of iron. The difficulty, 
however, was the briquetting of the concentrate into a 
form sufficiently solid to stand the burden of other ores 
in the blast-furnace without crumbling, for the idea at 
the time was to smelt them together with the hematites 
and limonites that occur in Nova Scotia, and any metal- 
lurgist will realize the danger of introducing structurally 
weak briquettes into the blast-furnace. It occurred to a 
client of mine, whose name, if I remember rightly, was 
Armstrong, that the difficulty might be overcome by 
mixing the concentrate with a strongly caking coal in a 
coarsely powdered form and coking the coal, thus em- 
bodying the concentrate within the coke. In carrying 
out this idea I selected washed coal from the Intercolonial 
Coal Co.'s Drummond mine, at Westville, Nova Scotia, 
which was about the most strongly caking coal in the 
Province. It produced a remarkably tough coke. This 
I mixed in varying quantity with the concentrate and 
coked it in the crucible of a wind-furnace, the object 
being to find the least quantity of coal that could be used 
and still produce a strong coke. I found that with 
Drummond coal it was possible to use as much as two 
and a half parts by weight of concentrate to one part of 
powdered coal and obtain a ferruginous coke that would 
be capable of bearing the burden of other ores in a blast- 
furnace. The crucible was allowed to remain in a re- 
ducing atmosphere in the furnace for some time after 
the hydro-carbon gases had been burned off, and this 
undoubtedly reduced some of the magnetite to metallic 
iron, and contributed toward the strength of the result- 
ing coke. 

Having apparently solved the problem, we found to 

our chagrin that someone else had thought the scheme 
out ahead of us and patented it. The Wabana mine on 
Belle island, Newfoundland, was being opened up at 
this time, and, soon after, ore from it was being put on 
board ship for*29 cents per ton, so interest in Labrador 
sand flagged, and the matter was allowed to drop. 

Looking at those experiments in connection with the 
treatment of magnetites on this Coast, they have an 
entirely new significance. For his report the British 
Columbian Department of Mines provided Mr. Stans- 
field with the information that there would be no diffi- 
culty in providing 50,000 tons per year of magnetite run- 
ning 50 to 55% of metallic iron. If it were possible by 
crushing and magnetic concentration to increase the iron 
content of such ore to between 65 and 70% without se- 
rious loss in the tailing, the decreased quantity of ma- 
terial to be smelted would go a long way toward covering 
the cost of crushing and concentration, if it did not en- 
tirely do so, and the magnetite would be in exactly the 
right form to mix with powdered coal. To prevent the 
magnetite by reason of its greater density from becom- 
ing separated from the coal and falling to the bottom 
while being charged into the coke-ovens, probably it 
would be necessary to add sufficient tar or crude oil or 
other binder to make the whole sticky. 

During the process of coking, the magnetite would be 
in an incandescent state and in intimate contact with 
hydro-carbon gases and coke produced from the coal, and 
thus undoubtedly would be reduced wholly to spongy 
iron. While the coke and iron sponge was being pro- 
jected from the ovens and quenched in the usual way, a 
portion of the iron sponge would become re-oxidized, 
but this oxide, of course, would be reduced again easily 
in subsequent operations. The product thus obtained 
would consist of carbon, spongy iron, and any impurities 
contained in the original concentrate and coal, and it 
could be melted in the blast-furnace or by other means. 

The foregoing is offered, of course, only as a nucleus 
from which by experimenting a process may be evolved. 
The patents must have lapsed before this, so the idea, 
such as it is, is at the disposal of the metallurgical pro- 

Zinc sulphide resists most ordinary solvents, not being 
dissolved with sufficient rapidity by any of the com- 
mercial acids, hence requires roasting before the majority 
of the proposed hydro-metallurgical processes can be 
applied. Sulphide of zinc is one of the most refractory 
sulphides to roast, on that account the cost of zinc roast- 
ing is higher than that for any other major metal. In 
order to get the zinc into solution after roasting, it may 
be converted into a sulphate or a sulphide, or hydro- 
chloric acid may be used as a solvent for the leaching of 
zinc sulphide ores in localities having industrial plants 
where acid is a useless by-product. Hydro-fluosilicic acid 
is also recommended [it is used at Trail, B. C] as 
being a desirable solvent for roasted zinc ores, on account 
of the ease of precipitating zinc from solutions by electro- 
lytic methods. — D. A. Lyon and O. C. Ralston in Bulletin 
168 of U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

.Inlv 1L>. l!»l!l 

MhNING and Scientific PRKSS 

Progress in Methods of Exploration 


Methods of mineral exploration in recent years have 
undergone developments thai are on a par with those in 
other branches of the mining industry. This progress 
has not been so generally realized nor has it received so 
much attention as the refinements that have taken place 
in the art of fine grinding or the innovations in oil-flota- 
tion. "While the decline of prospecting has been dis- 
cussed continuously in mining periodicals, but few of 
these discussions have touched upon the modern practice 
of mineral exploration which has grown up in its place. 
The subject is important because the continuance of 
every mining enterprise is ultimately dependent upon 
the finding of new orebodies. The day has gone by when 
ore deposits were disclosed by the chance removal of 
turf or by the sinking of a shallow test-pit. These were 
the opportunities of a past generation. The restriction 
of these opportunities has led to a keen study of the 
principles of economic gelogy and the development of 
better practice in exploration. 

In particular, it is the purpose of this article to trace 
the increasing effectiveness of the diamond-drill as an 
exploring instrument. Not only have there been me- 
chanical improvements in the drilling process, such as 
the increased efficiency of drilling-engines, the introduc- 
tion of special devices for recovering core as the double 
tube-core barrel and the invention of the Maas compass 
for the surveying of drill holes, but on the more strictly 
mining engineering side, new methods of securing ac- 
curate results in sampling have been devised by the 
combining of the assays of core and cuttings. Also, by 
the introduction of the core-splitter, it is now possible to 
preserve a complete uncrushed sample of ore for geo- 
logical purposes without interfering with the accuracy 
of the analysis. A carefully taken diamond-drill sample 
is, thus, superior in accuracy, convenience and usefulness 
to any other type of ore-sample. The matter of differen- 
tial selection in sampling is largely eliminated, for the 
diamond-bit cuts through everything in its path with 
rigorous impartiality; but a diamond-drill sample must 
be recovered by experienced drill-men who are capable 
of applying some degree of ingenuity to meet conditions. 
The design of an effectual sampling process to fit any 
particular set of conditions usually requires the science 
of the mining engineer in addition to the mechanical 
ingenuity of the drill-man. The nature of the rock- 
formations surrounding an orebody, as well as the char- 
acter of the ore itself, is a determining factor in the 
choice of the size of bits, methods of core recovery, 
varieties of casing, and the means for the recovery of 
cuttings. As various types of oil-flotation are adapted to 
particular kinds of ore, so must drilling methods be 

varied for the particular conditions under which the 
gold ores, iron ores, copper ores, and coal are found to 

After all, even the sampling process must be preceded 
by the finding of an ore deposit. For unraveling prob- 
lems of general geology and ore deposition, the diamond- 
drill is the weapon above all others. As the knife to the 
surgeon, it is useful for the revealing of facts and for the 
elimination of barren ground. It furnishes systematic 
geologic specimens which may be taken at any angle from 
any position underground or on surface. In the scope of 
its possible moves, the diamond-drill may be likened to 
a chessman which moves in any direction, and for any 
distance between 10 and 3000 ft., taking whatever lies 
in its path. An exploratory campaign is singularly like 
chess in that any possible move may be made at the be- 
ginning, but as the game grows, the facts point out and 
compel the subsequent positions. Used as a scout, that 
is, in the form of a light portable outfit, suitable for 
rapid shifting from place to place, the diamond-drill may 
be made an extension of the prospecting pick for the 
purpose of gathering rock specimens which will permit 
the working out of areal geology in drift-covered dis- 
tricts, and in areas where the wash of mountain streams 
has concealed the underlying formations ; also, in regions 
where the productive horizons are covered unconform- 
ably by later flat-lying strata of no consequence. 

By utilizing the diamond-drill, it is possible for a min- 
ing organization to test many properties that have been 
turned down by reason of insufficient evidence. It is 
possible to go one step beyond the ore 'in sight' and deal 
with the uncertainties of ore deposition in an effective 
but not costly manner. Thus, by actual initiative, the 
opportunities for developing valuable orebodies may be 
greatly increased and their discovery not be left merely 
to chance and sporadic efforts on the part of the vision- 
ary, or of accident in connection with old mine-workings. 

One swallow does not make a summer, nor will one 
diamond-drill hole determine the grade and tonnage of 
an orebody. Neither will one moil-sample in a drift de- 
termine the grade and tonnage of an orebody. A suffi- 
cient number of holes must be drilled to furnish the facts 
for thorough going decisions on the basis of average re- 
sults. The work must be carefully planned for the par- 
ticular problem in hand. 

In the speed and facility with which definite results 
can be obtained, diamond-drilling excels any other known 
method of getting the facts. The rock must be exceed- 
ingly tough or troublesome because of caving in which 
it is not possible to advance the bit 10 or 20 ft. per shift. 
By using several drills, it is possible to attack the prob- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

lem from different sides simultaneously. Thus, true con- 
ceptions of the nature of the orebody may be speedily 
obtained and plans made at once for mining methods and 
metallurgical processes. As time is of the essence of a 
contract, so in many mining enterprises, time is the chief 
factor. The use of the diamond-drill makes it possible to 
get results while the irons are hot. 

Again, the portability of the diamond-drill permits it 
to be taken into inaccessible country, in fact, anywhere 
that a canoe or mule can go. The machine can be taken 
to pieces and transported in small parts. The growing 
use of the gasoline engine for power, solves the problem 
of fuel in many desert regions. Ore deposits may be de- 
veloped in advance of roads and railways. In the Pas 
region of northern Manitoba, the railroad is being pro- 
jected into the ore-bearing district because diamond- 
drilling has shown the existence of large tonnage of cop- 
per-bearing sulphides. 

The diamond-drill has perhaps attained its widest field 
of iisefulness in the Lake Superior region. At present, 
in this district, nearly every large mine keeps at least one 
drill constantly at work in advance of development. The 
drill has played a prominent part in the discovery of the 
iron ore deposits of Michigan and Minnesota. As a 
means of working out the complicated synclinal struc- 
tures of the Menominee, Marquette, and Vermilion 
ranges, where high-grade deposits of iron ore are found, 
the diamond-drill has been most useful. The dike-eon- 
trolled orebodies of the Gogebic range have been searched 
in many instances by drilling. On the Mesabi, many 
mines would, no doubt, still be today merely cut-over 
cedar swamps were it not for the application of system- 
atic drilling methods. The Cuyuna range was developed 
by drilling in connection with magnetic attractions that 
gave a clue to the presence of the iron formations, which 
occur beneath glacial drift. 

The copper deposits of the amygdaloidal flows and 
conglomerate beds of Keeweenaw Point in northern 
Michigan have been successfully explored by long hori- 
zontal and deep angle holes sometimes extending for 
distances of 2000 to 3000 feet. Many of the large nickel- 
copper sulphide masses of the Sudbury region of Canada 
have been found by the use of the diamond-drill, and 
mine development is directed on the basis of systematic 
drilling. In the Porcupine district of northern Ontario, 
the soft serpentines and gold-quartz lodes are all care- 
fully explored by the diamond-drill in advance of mine- 
workings. The positions of many of the narrow silver 
veins of Cobalt have been determined by drill-holes. 
Many of the deposits in the districts mentioned are con- 
cealed by Glacial drift and occur in connection with 
rocks of intricate geologic structure. For this reason, 
the direction of exploratory work»has become specialized 
and has gradually devolved upon mining engineers and 
economic geologists who have given their whole attention 
to this branch of technology. 

As an example of the efficacy of the diamond-drill in 
the exploration of the disseminated copper deposits, the 
work at Ajo, in Arizona, for the New Cornelia Copper 

Co., is of particular interest in that it shows two results : 
the nature of the orebody was proved both quickly and 
accurately. As described by Ira B. Joralemon* the work 
began in the fajl of 1911 and continued up to September, 
1913. He says: 

"The Calumet & Arizona Mining Co. developed the 
disseminated orebody on the New Cornelia property by 
diamond-drill holes and by test-pits. The probable ore- 
bearing ground was co-ordinated with east-west and 
north-south lines at 200-ft. intervals, and drill-holes were 
sunk at the intersections of co-ordinate lines. The drill- 
ing was done under contract by the E. J. Longyear Co., 
of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Sampling was under the 
direction of representatives of the Calumet & Arizona 
Mining Co. Drill-holes were sampled in 5-ft. sections. 
All of the flow of sludge was caught in barrels and set- 
tled. When the end of the 5-ft. section was reached the 
water in the barrels was decanted off and the sludge- 
sample was dried and quartered down to three or four 
pounds. The rods were pulled at least every 5 ft., and 
core-samples were taken at even 5-ft. intervals where 
possible. Both core and sludge samples were sent to the 
assay-office of the Calumet & Arizona Mining Co., at 
Bisbee, for analysis. Small portions of both core and 
sludge for every 5 ft. of drilling were kept for future 
reference in labeled tin boxes. Owing to the thoroughly 
fractured, uneven nature of the rock, the recovery of 
core was low, and neither core nor sludge samples alone 
were satisfactory. To obtain an accurate assay-value for 
the ore developed, the length of core for every 5-ft. ad- 
vance was measured, and on the basis of this length of 
core the sludge and core assays were combined to give a 
final value which represented all the material removed 
from the hole during the 5-ft. advance. The E. J. Long- 
year Co. furnished a chart which greatly simplified the 
work of combining core and sludge samples. Up to Sep- 
tember, 1913, when development work was stopped, 84 
diamond-drill holes had been sunk, varying in depth 
from 200 to 1000 ft. The total footage of diamond-drill- 
ing was 23,097 ft. Nineteen drill holes were stopped in 
ore. In all, 77 test-pits were sunk, with a total footage 
of 3955 ft. Of this test-pitting, 3606 ft. were in car- 
bonate ore, and 349 ft. in sulphide ore; 1059 ft. of test- 
pitting cheeked drill-holes in carbonate ore, 175 ft. check- 
ed drill-holes in sulphide ore, and 2721 ft. were in ad- 
vance of drilling. The total amount of drifting in sul- 
phide ore was 1513 ft. The combined sinking and rais- 
ing on drill-holes in sulphide ore amounted to 317 ft. 
The sinking, drifting, and raising proved that the value 
of ore indicated by drilling was very accurate. The 
channel-samples of test-pits in carbonate ore averaged 
0.005% lower than corresponding diamond-drill sam- 
ples; the test-pits and raises in sulphide ore averaged 
0.05% lower than corresponding diamond-drill samples; 
and the drifts in sulphide ore averaged 0.26% higher 
than the assay-value of blocks of ore through which the 
drifts were run, as indicated by drill-holes at the corners 

*Ira B. Joralemon: 'Ajo Copper Mining District'; Trans. 
A. I. M. E., 19t4, Vol. 49, pp. 593-609. 

.luU V2. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

of the blocks. In making the ore-estimate, diamond-drill 
samples were accepted wherever drilling was done, and 
channel-samples of test-pits were accepted where sink- 
ing was done in advance of drilling." 

Later exploration in connection with this orebody has 
been done largely by diamond-drilling. 

In many other mining districts throughout the world, 
the diamond-drill has been useful in the discovery of ore. 
However, it is not intended to multiply instances. Those 
which have already been cited are sufficient to show that 
the diamond-drill has developed into an exploring in- 

enhance thai fearlessness which must always ai apany 

the search for new mini's. 

Magnesite in Washington 

Extensive deposits of magnesite in this State were 
discovered during 1916. They are in Stevens county, a 
few miles west of Valley, on the Great Northern railway, 
and 50 miles north-west of Spokane. The enclosing rocks 
are slate, schist, and quartzite, and represent the replace- 
ment of dolomite by magnesite, according to F. M. 


strument of the utmost flexibility and precision, equally 
useful in the earliest stages of an exploration and in the 
final mathematical determination of grades and tonnage. 
It is also not difficult to see that the decadence of sur- 
face prospecting is inevitably in line with the trend of 
the times, because the opportunities for getting results 
by primitive methods no longer exist. Modern methods 
of ore-finding by the use of the diamond-drill will take 
the place of surface prospecting in greater degree. The 
increasing hazards of the future must be met by handling 
exploratory ventures on a scale commensurate with other 
modern undertakings, nor should these projects be car- 
ried out with timidity. If great discoveries are to be 
made, exploring campaigns must not be tied to the apron- 
strings of operating mines but must reach out and cover 
new country. Surely the development of effective meth- 
ods of work does not necessarily work a curtailment of 
initiative. On the contrary, this development should 

Handy. There are 12 known deposits beginning at a 
point 5 miles due west of Chewelah and running 10 miles 
nearly due south-west. Six of these deposits contain 
large bodies of good magnesite. The ore is quarried by 
open-cut methods. 

The three principal operators are the American Min- 
eral Production Co., the Northwest Magnesite Co., and 
the Valley Magnesite Co. These have spent large sums 
on development and equipment, the Northwest company 
alone spending $700,000 in erecting a plant at Chewelah. 
During 1918 the output from this company's mine was 
80,432 tons of crude ore, mostly converted into dead- 
burned sintered magnesite used by the steel trade for 
refractory purposes. The monthly capacity of the plant 
is 10,000 tons of calcined magnesite. There are six 125 
by 7-J-ft. rotary kilns, grinding machinery, etc. The ore 
is of the crystalline variety, similar to the deposits in 
Austria, according to Roy N. Bishop, the manager. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 12, 19*9 

There is sufficient ore opened to supply the United 
States for many years. 

Whether the property can operate successfully after 
the War will probably depend upon the attitude of the 
Government toward a tariff on this mineral, as the 
freight-rate from Washington to the Eastern seaboard 
at present is $16.50 per ton, compared with the pre-war 
ocean rate of $2 from Austria. 

A Device for Excluding Excess Air 
From Roasting- Furnaces 


In the zinc-roasting department of the Anaconda re- 
duction works, MacDougall furnaces, 20 ft. in diameter, 
are used to treat flotation concentrate carrying from 8 
to 10% of moisture. The accompanying sketch gives an 
outline of the feeding equipment, in which an apron- 
feeder takes the material from the hopper and discharges 

it directly into the furnace. Prior to the adoption of 
the present contrivance, the apron-feeder discharged 
into a covered chute, or hood, which was always giving 
trouble, as it extended from the top of the furnace to the 
apron, preventing proper observation of the latter. The 
hood also allowed excess air to enter the furnace, causing 
draft troubles elsewhere in the roasting-plant. With the 
device here shown, much of the excess air is excluded and 
an improvement in draft has been noticed ; the apron- 
feeder is now accessible and exposed to view, so that its 
operation can be observed by the furnace-man. 

The revolving door operates on the same principle as 
the door at a hotel entrance, from which, it is said, the 
idea was first obtained. As the apron-feeder travels, it 
discharges a panful of material at regular intervals onto 
the revolving door, the impact being sufficient to cause 
the door to spin around a half-turn or more, thus drop- 
ping the material into the furnace through the hole in 

the roof. The revolving door is enclosed on four sides 
by light steel plate suitably attached to convenient fram- 
ing. In the sketch, the curved side-casing only is shown, 
the covers for the ends not appearing. As little clearance 
as possible is allowed for the door to revolve in its casing. 

The present construction of the revolving door is as 
follows: a piece of 1^-in. pipe has six ribs welded onto it; 
vanes made of f-in. plate, 2 ft. 6 in. long by 9 in. wide, 
are bolted onto the ribs, and a piece of lf-in. shafting 
is inserted into the pipe. This shaft projects at both 
ends, and is made fast to suitable supports so that the 
pipe will turn on the shaft. As it is important that the 
revolving door may spin easily on the shaft, the latter is 
tapped for a grease-cup, which, when screwed down, 
forces lubricant between the shaft and the inside of the 
pipe. A cast-iron spider has been proposed as a better 
form of construction to carry the vanes, and will be 
adopted in the future. 

Before actually trying this contrivance, it was antici- 
pated that wet material would stick to the vanes till the 
door eventually clogged. This objection did not ma- 
terialize, for the reason that the apparatus is kept hot 
and dry by being exposed to the gases inside the furnace. 
The originator of this clever device is George Lynn, 
machinist at the zinc-roaster. 

Costs at the United Eastern 

During 1918, this company, operating at Oatman, Ari- 
zona, produced 97,827 oz. of gold and 52,485 oz. of silver 
from 92,339 tons of ore, at a cost of $8,501 per ton and 
$8.02 per ounce of gold. The report of the general 
manager. J. A. Burgess, states that: 

Mining costs were higher by 59 cents than in the year 
previous. This was eaused by increases in power, labor, 
and supplies, amounting to 28 cents per ton ; and by the 
increased amount of development done, which cost 50 
cents per ton in excess of 1917. Decreased labor effi- 
ciency had a marked effect, on costs, but it is difficult to 
give an accurate estimate of its importance in dollars 
and cents. 

Milling costs increased 5 cents. This is more than 
accounted for by the increase in cost of labor and power, 
amounting to 8 cents per ton. 

In indirect costs, the largest increase was in State 
taxes, which now amount to 69 cents per ton, an increase 
of 50 cents above last year's figure. 

The principal adverse conditions that affected costs 
during 1918 were: (1) Increase in wages of approxi- 
mately 10%, effective July 1, 1918; (2) increase in price 
of general supplies, approximately 10%; (3) increase 
in cost of electric power, 15J%, effective after May 1. 
1918; (4) increase in State taxes, 300%.; and (5) de- 
crease in efficiency of labor. 

The resultant of all cost variations was an increase of 
$1.39 per ton in operating costs, but the foregoing 
analysis shows that there would have been a decrease in 
costs for 1918, had conditions remained as they were in 

July 12, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 






MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 




Julv 12, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Fig. 2. the welding 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

Fig. 3. a nearer view of the operation 

Fig. 4. the result 

July 12. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




A surveying party, under T. W. Seerist, has taken the 
field to continue location of the railway in the Broad 
Pass region. Rails are laid to Talkeetna, and grading is 
85% completed from Talkeetna to Indian river. Progress 
is delayed by lack of funds, the filibuster in the last 
Congress having held up the appropriation. An emer- 
gency sum of $2,000,000 was asked of Congress by the 
Secretary of the Interior to continue work till the end of 
the fiscal year— June 30— when it is expected that an 
appropriation of $13,000,000 will be made sufficient to 
complete the road. This is $9,000,000 more than the 
original estimate. [As published in the 'Press' of June 
14, the House voted for $1,964,350 to carry on the work.] 

Considerable activity is indicated for the coming sea- 
son. Many men are going to the hills to prospect, and 
companies holding claims upon which little was done 
during the "War, are preparing to do exploratory work. 
The "Willow Creek district will be especially active, with 
a number of new companies in the field. 

Cache Creek will be stimulated by a wagon-road to be 
built from Talkeetna by the Alaska Road Commission, 
under jurisdiction of the "War Department, if Congress 
grants the requested appropriation. The Cache Creek 
dredge will hot operate this summer. T. D. Harris is on 
the ground superintending a change in the power system 
— from coal to hydro-electric. 

M. A. Ellis of Seattle is operating a hydraulic plant on 
Cache creek. 

Roads and trails are also planned from Talkeetna to 
the Iron Creek district ; and the Broad Pass region, one 
of great possibilities, is being brought into more promi- 
nence as the railroad progresses. Completion of the line 
will see the beginning of a healthy development of the 
mineral resources of this large and promising region. 

The discoverer, Joe Morris of Spokane, of the Le Roi 
mines at Rossland, British Columbia, in the late 'eighties, 
representing a company composed of himself, "W. J. C. 
Wakefield, H. H. Boomer, A. "Witherspoon, and "W. A. 
Monroe, has commenced work on the Copper King and 
Talkeetna claims on Iron creek. They will do surface 
prospecting during the summer months, and propose to 
prospect the ground with a diamond-drill next winter. 

"William Martin of Seattle will continue to operate the 
mine and mill of the Alaska Free Gold Mining Co. in the 
"Willow Creek district. The snowfall was exceptionally 
light during the past winter, and the season is two weeks 
earlier than usual on that account. 

The Gold Bullion mill commenced operations on May 
17. After many vicissitudes this property has been a 
marked success, largely due to competent management. 
N. D. Bothwell continues in charge. 

W. F. Rock of Denver has taken over the Talkeetna 
claims, and will do 600 ft. of development. He will in- 
stall a compressor and drills. Power will be derived 
from water. 

The Mabel mine and mill has been sold to Loveland, 
Colorado, people. It will be known as the Loveland- 
Alaska Mining Co. Development is under way. A 


Quartz dlorite Porphyn tic granite Strikeanddip 

of principal lodes 


cyanide plant to treat accumulated tailing is planned. 
H. M. Fickenger will manage the property. 

A copper prospect on the west side of Cooks inlet, at 
Kamishak bay, will be explored this summer by Charles 
H. McNeil, who brought a large outfit, including horses, 
from Seattle, unloading at Seldovia. From Seldovia a 
small boat will transport the material across the inlet. 
Mr. McNeil was prospecting in this region when Mt. 
Katmai erupted in 1913. The ground was covered with 
ash, which lay on the snow and prevented its thawing 
during the entire summer. The party was in grave dan- 
ger and suffered from sulphurous fumes and volcanic 
dust and lack of air. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

James Girdwood will employ 60 men at the Crow 
Creek placer mine in the Turnagaiu Arm district. The 
mine did not operate in 1917, due to disturbed economic 

The Hope district promises unusual activity in both 
quartz and placer mining. 

An interesting prospect is being developed at Bird 
point on Turnagain arm, where a gold-bearing vein is ex- 
posed at low tide. A coffer-dam was constructed, and a 
shaft sunk on the vein to a depth of 45 ft., when an un- 
usually high tide, accompanied by heavy ice-floes, took 
the dam out and flooded the shaft. An incline was then 
started above the high-tide level, and cut the vein at a 
depth of 80 ft., where it is 12 to 18 in. wide and shows 
good gold content. 



The following list contains the companies incorporated 
to operate at Divide, and includes the principal prop- 
erties in the district. Nearly all of them were registered 
during 1919. in the State of Nevada. The Belcher was 
formed in 1916, the Brougher in 1918, the East Divide in 
1918, the Gold Reef in 1908, the Gold Reef and Gold 
Wedge in 1918, the Midway in 1912, the Nevada in 1917, 
the Tonopah Divide in 1912, and the Tenopah Hasbrouck 
in 1918. 

Number Par 

Name of company Claims of shares value 

Ajax Divide Mining- 4 1,500.000 SO. 10 

Allied Divide Mining- 4 " 0.10 

Alto Divide Mining- 3 

Apex Divide Mining- 13 " 0.10 

Argentine Div. Mining- 2 " 1.00 

Belcher Divide Mining 3 • " 0.01 

Belcher Exln. Div. Mining- 5 " 0.10 

Ben Hur Divide Mining 6 1,000,000 0.10 

Bevis Divide Minuig - 1.500.000 0.10 

Brougher Divide Mining- 8 1.000.000 

Bullion Divide Mining- 4 1,500,000 0.10 

Butte Divide Mining- 3 " 0.10 

Calumet Divide Mining - 4 " 0.10 

Chariot Divide MiniDg- 6 " 0.10 

Combination Divide Mining- 3 " 0.10 

Congress Divide Mining- 3 " 0.10 

Crown Divide Mining- 6 '■ 0.10 

Divide Annex Mining 1 1.000.000 

Divide Charter Mining 1.500.000 0.20 

Divide City Mining- 6 " 0.10 

Divide Cons'd Mining- 8 1,500.000 0.10 

Divide Extension Mining- 1 1,000.000 

Divide Fraction Mining 4 1,500.000 0.10 

Divide Syndicate Mining- 3 " 0.10 

East Divide Mining 8 " 0.10 

EaBt Div. Extension Mining- 9 " 0.10 

Eureka Divide Mining 7 " 0.10 

Frisco Divide Mining 6 " 0.10 

Florence Divide Mining 4 " 0.10 

Giant Divide Mining- 3 " 1.00 

Gold Reef Divide Mining- 5 " 1.00 

Gold Wedge Divide Mining 4 " ... 

Gold Zone Divide Mining 9 " 0.10 

Goldsmith Divide Mining 1 " 0.10 

Grimes Divide Mining 5 " 0.10 

Harmill Divide Mining 2 " 0.10 

Hennessy Divide Mining- 3 1.000.000 

Hercules Divide Mining 4 1.500.000 0.10 

High Divide Extension 6 " 0.10 

High Divide Mining 16 " 1.00 

Homestake Divide Mining 6 1,000.000 0.10 

Horseshoe Divide Mining 5 1.500.000 0.20 

Hull City Divide Mining '. 7 1,000.000 

Jim's Divide Mining 3 1.500.000 0.10 

Kernick Divide Mining 3 " 0.10 

Keystone Divide Mining 4 " 0.10 

Knox Divide Mining 10 " 0.10 

Liberty Divide Mining 3 " ... 

Lucky Boy Divide Mining 2 1.000.000 0.10 

Mammoth Divide Mining 5 1 .500.000 

Midway Divide Mining 5 " 0.10 

Mizpah Divide Mining " 0.1Q 

Name of company Claims 

Mohawk Divide Mining 6 

Myra Divide Mining 

Nevada Divide Mining 6 

North Divide Mining fi 

Northwest Divide Mining 7 

Operator Divide %lining 4 

Pyramid Divide Mines 11 

Reno Divide Mining 5 

Revert Divide Mining 4 

Rosetta Divide Mining 4 

Royal Divide Mining 13 

Silver Divide Mines Co 6 

Silver King Divide Mining 2 

Silver Star Divide Mining 5 

Smuggler Divide Mining 3 

• Sunbeam Divide Mining 7 

Sutherland Divide Mining fi 

Toggery Divide Mining 12 

Thomson Divide Mining 7 

Tonopah Divide Mining -. , . . 11 

Tonopah Divide Jr. Mining 3 

Tonopah Dividend Mining 6 

Tonopah Hasbrouck Mining 5 

Treadwell Divide Mining 

Trilby Divide Mining 4 

Verdi Divide Mining 6 

Victory Divide Mining 5 

West Divide Mining 5 

West'n Divide Mng. & Mlg 5 

Wilson Divide Mining 4 

Wonder Divide Mining 2 

of shares 


















































Three important discoveries have been made by the 
Vindicator company during the past two weeks, accord- 
ing to the statement by the general manager, George 
Stahl. The first at the 1900-ft. level of No. 1 or main 
shaft of the Vindicator, is in ground south-east of the 
Lillie mine, formerly owned by the Lillie (C. C.) Gold 
Mining Co. of England, since defunct. The new vein is- 
10 ft. between walls, carries ore that will make screenings 
worth $30 per ton, while the coarse rock will mill close 
to $10 per ton. The second discovery was made at the 
1700-ft. level of the Golden Cycle shaft, corresponding 
to the 1900-ft. of Vindicator No. 1. The vein is believed 
to be the same, but the ore was found 500 ft. east of the 
original discovery. The third orebody has been found on 
the 1400-f t. level, north of Vindicator No. 1 shaft, where 
one of the so-called 'townsite' veins, lying under the town 
of Independence, has been encountered, north-west of the 
shaft. All three discoveries are in virgin ground, with 
no work above or below, or hear to these points. Vindi- 
cator shares have been active during the past week, and 
advanced 20 cents. 




The feeling of unrest that has prevailed for some time 
among miners of northern Ontario fields culminated on 
June 12 in a strike at Kirkland Lake, where about 500 of 
the Union miners walked out on the refusal of the mine- 
owners to yield to their demands. These included a 
minimum wage of $4.50 per day to underground work- 
ers, a 44-hour week, and recognition of the Union. Prog- 
ress in the strike has been chronicled in the M. & S. P. 
The strike has also affected the Boston Creek district 
where work has been largely suspended. There is little 
danger of its being extended to other centres. Cobalt 

July 12, MIS) 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


miners, who had made similar demands, and threatened a 
walk-out, have agreed to remain at work until the Sen, 
G. D. Robertson, Federal Minister of Labor, has full op- 
portunity to bring about a settlement. Porcupine miners 
have asked for a conference with managers, and intimated 
that they will not demand increased wages provided that 
the cost of living can be reduced. ■ The proposed method 
of doing this is establishment of a company store. The 
influx of unemployed men from Sudbury, Kirkland Lake, 
and other points into Porcupine and Gobalt makes it 
highly improbable that any further strikes will be called. 
Cobalt. — Litigation that has been under way for over 
two years, between the Peterson Lake Mining Co. and 
the Dominion Reduction Co., over the ownership of slime 
from the Dominion Reduction mill on Peterson Lake 
ground, has resulted in a judgment by the Supreme Court 
of Canada confirming decisions of the lower courts in 
favor of the Peterson Lake. The slime is estimated to 
amount to 220,000 tons, and the silver content from 500,- 
000 to 2,000,000 ounces. 



Returns received by the Ontario Bureau of Mines for 
the three months ended March 31, are tabulated below, 
compared with the corresponding period of 1918 : 

Gold, oz 

Silver, oz < 

Copper, blister, lb 

•Copper in matte, tone .... 
•Nickel in matte, tons. . . . 
tlron ore exported, tons. . . 

llron, pie, tons 

Cobalt, metallic, lb 

Cobalt oxide, lb 

Nickel oxide, lb 

Nickel, metallic, lb 

Other nickel and cobalt 

compounds, lb 

Lead. pig\ lb 

Molybdenite. concentrates, 















































Total S14.297.905 S10.182.479 

•Copper in matte was valued at 18 Vj cents and nickel at 30 cents per 
pound in 1918. For 1919 the values have been placed at 11 and 24 cents, 

tlncludiiur briquettes. Total shipments of iron ore to both foreign and 
domestic points in 1919 were 32.376 tons valued at S146.741. 

JTotal output of pigr-iron was 170.325 tons worth S4.807.614. Fig-ures 
in the table represent proportional product from Ontario ore. 

The value of the mineral output of the Province for 
the first quarter of the year reflects the after effects of 
the "War. Nickel and copper show a marked decline both 
in quantity and value. The position is expected to im- 
prove gradually. Silver production has decreased by 
over a million ounces, but the effect in valuation is not 
so great owing to the present high price of the metal. 
Cobalt and nickel oxides, metallic nickel, and lead show 
an increase in value over the 1918 figures. Fuller ex- 
planations are offered under the separate headings. 

Gold. Although the gold output shows a decrease of 
24,104 oz., the outlook is such that a substantial increase 
may be expected for the full year. With the Dome mill 
now in operation at Porcupine and the Kirkland Lake 
and Tough-Oakes mills at Kirkland Lake, an improve- 
ment is anticipated for the half-yearly report. A great 

deal of interest is being shown in the goldfields of north- 
ern Ontario, and much prospecting and development of 
now properties is going on. During the period, with the 
exception of a few days at the end of March, only two 
mills were operating at Porcupine, namely the Hollinger 
and Mclntyre. At Kirkland Lake the Lake Shore and 
Teek-Hughea were the only mills at work. For the 
quarter 206,603 tons of ore were milled as compared with 
262,577 tons in 1918. Of the total 94.5% was treated at 
Porcupine. In addition, 18,620 oz. of silver was recov- 
ered from gold ores. 

Silver. Silver from Cobalt and outlying centres was 
marketed to the extent of 3,080,104 oz. In addition, 
24,878 oz. was recovered from the refining of gold ores 
and nickel-copper matte. Mines producing over 250,000 
oz. are given in order: Nipissing, Mining Corpora- 
tion of Canada, Kerr Lake, and McKinley-Darragh- 
Savage. Of these, Nipissing marketed over 1,000,000 oz. 
Some ore assaying over 8000 oz. per ton has been taken 
from the Foster mine, under lease to Campbell and Fair- 

Southern Ontario refineries treated 1257 tons of ore 
and concentrates, and 919 tons of residues, recovering 
therefrom 1,354,441 oz. of silver in addition to the cobalt 
and nickel compounds, as enumerated in the table. Al- 
though 170,478 lb. of metallic nickel were produced only 
16,284 lb. were marketed. 

The market for stellite, used for high-speed cutting 
tools, has fallen off since the War ended. New uses, how- 
ever, are being found and a market developed for this 
product, which is an alloy of the metal cobalt. 

Nickel and Copper. There was 229,822 tons of nickel- 
copper ore raised and 226,954 tons smelted, compared 
with 354,689 and 325,386 tons, respectively, for the first 
quarter of 1918. The cessation of hostilities immediately 
resulted in a decreased nickel demand, and the period of 
reconstruction has not yet provided a market sufficiently 
large to absorb the war basis output. In consequence, 
there has been a great curtailment in production both by 
the International and Mond companies. The prices also 
have dropped appreciably, notably in the case of copper. 
Out of a total output of 12,529 tons of Bessemer matte, 
2960 tons was refined at the Port Colborne plant of the 
International Nickel Co. of Canada, the products being 
metallic nickel, blister copper, silver, and gold. The last 
two mentioned are present in small proportion. Hereto- 
fore the only metallic nickel recovered in Ontario was 
the small quantity obtained by the several refineries 
which treat the silver-cobalt-nickel ores of Cobalt. Since 
Port Colborne plant commenced in July of last year 
metallic nickel has been produced within the Province 
from nickel-copper ores. 

Molybdenite and Lead. As a result of decreased de- 
mand for molybdenum and a marked decline in price, it 
has not been profitable to operate molybdenite mines 
since the close of the War. 

The entire production of pig lead comes from the mine 
and smelter operated at Galetta by the James Robertson 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12. 1919 


Clifton. — The Stargo Syndicate has made payment to the 
owners of the Stargo Silver Belt Mining Co. for their 26 
claims, which are 1J miles from Morenci. This property 
has shipped 1100 carloads of silver ore in the past, when 
worked by Mexicans. M. J. Hannon reported favorably on 
the property for the purchasers six months ago. 

Coui-tland. — Twenty-five men are working on the O. T. 
Smith lease at No. 2 shaft of the Leadville Mining Co. It is 
reported that a good' body of ore has been opened. A few 
lessees are working on other parts of the Leadville property. 

Kingman. — The dry concentrating plant of the McCracken 
Silver Lead Mines Co. is now operating. Concentrate is 
said to carry 54% lead and 3 5 oz. silver. A large orebody 
ha3 been opened, part of which is shipping ore. 

J. A. Hammer is making preparations to start the Fay 
mine and mill. This property is 8 miles south of Kingman. 
There is said to be a considerable tonnage of $40 ore avail- 

Twenty-five men are now being employed at the Rural 
Mines Co.'s property. A new road is being built, and prep- 
arations made to put up a 100-hp. double-drum electric 
hoist and compressor. A 100-ton mill is to be erected as 
soon as development opens sufficient ore. 

Foundations for machinery necessary to sink the shaft to 
the 500-ft. level are being put in at the United American 
mine. Several veins outcrop on the surface and it is pro- 
posed to cross-cut these at the 500-ft. level. W. K. Redenour 
is general manager. 

Miami. — Inspiration Consolidated pays $1.50 per share 
on July 28. This amounts to $1,772,950, and makes $5 per 
share, $5,909,835, for 1919, and $31,305,915 to date. 

Oatman. — The United Eastern Mining Co. has issued its 
report for 1918, the following being abstracted therefrom: 

The operating officials are J. A. Burgess, general man- 
ager; W. O. North, assistant; B. D. Boalen, mine foreman; 
B. M. Bagley, mill foreman; L. E. Ward, master mechanic; 
B. C. Staiger, mining engineer; R. G. Davies, geologist; 
Wallace Keith, purchasing agent; and J. W. Bradley, chief 

The gross income was $2,080,923, and charges against 
same $940,902, leaving an operating profit of $1,140,021. 
Adding the previous balance of $966,866, there was avail- 
able $2,106,887. Of this, $713,343 was paid in dividends 
and $540,617 as capital distributions, leaving $852,927 to 
be carried forward to 1919. Current assets amount to 
$872,775, and liabilities $283,580. 

Underground exploration totaled 3692 ft. Ore-reserves 
are larger than they were a year ago, and total 265,663 tons 
averaging $24.34 per ton. The main shaft is to be deep- 
ened from the bottom — 1177 ft. On account of the heat and 
high humidity of the air in the mine forced ventilation is 
necessary. Underground work cost $4,728 per ton milled, 
of which $2,818 was for labor. 

The mill operated most satisfactorily, treating 253 tons 
per day (92,339 tons in all), extracting 96.95%. Improve- 
ments to classification have increased the capacity to 283 
tons. The Crowe vacuum precipitation system effected a de- 
crease of nearly 50% in consumption of zinc-dust. The cost 

of treatment was $2,216 per ton. Gold extracted amounted 
to 97,827 oz., and silver 52,485 oz. The ore averaged 
$23,158 per ton. Operating costs totaled $8,501 per ton, 
equal to $8.02 per ounce of gold recovered. 

Superior. — It is rumored that $100,000, to be spent in 
development of the Queen Creek Copper Co.'s property, has 
been voted by shareholders. This sum will not be available 
until after peace is ratified, when it is expected that the 
British government will raise the present restrictions on 
raising capital for foreign enterprises. 

Tucson. — After closing his option on the Purcell property 
at Tucson Buttes, 10 miles from Tucson, T. E. Kelso, has 
organized the Arizona-Tucson Mining Co., which will take 
over the claims. A considerable quantity of high-grade cop- 
per ore has been accumulated on the dump, awaiting a bet- 
ter market. This property is claimed to have a large area 
of high-grade ore extending over several claims, the ore 
being almost on the surface. Development at present is 
being carried on by hand. This property adjoins the Sagi- 
naw, which was drilled a few years ago by the Calumet & 
Arizona Copper Company. 

S. D. Keeny, one of the directors of the Cababi Mining Co. 
and the Stratton Consolidated Copper Co. is making an in- 
spection of the properties in the Old Hat district. The latter 
company expects to resume development in August, but will 
not be working full force till the road from Oracle has been 


Alleghany. — An electric hoist recently put in 600 ft. from 
the mouth of the tunnel at the Mariposa mine, is in opera- 
tion, and the company intends sinking 500 ft., and prospect- 
ing the ground from that point. 

Caliente. — The Cove district of Kern county, 42 miles 
north of this place by wagon-road, is to receive attention 
from the Big Hill Mining Co., which is to develop the Lady 
Belle, Bull Run, and Jeff Davis claims. According to G. C. 
Brown, of the State Accident Commission, in the Los An- 
geles Chamber of Mines 'Bulletin' for June, in the last re- 
port of the State Mining Bureau, on Kern county, the Cove 
district is described as one of the famous mining regions of 
the county. The altitude ranges from 2600 to 5000 ft. The 
natural amphitheatre occupied by this territory is the char- 
acteristic which gives it its name. The formation consists 
of granite and slate, the former predimonating. Nine lodes 
can be traced on the surface for a considerable distance, as 
the outcrops are bold. Large treatment plants will make 
this one of the big producing districts of Kern county, as an 
abundance of water from the Kern river for power purposes, 
topography suitable for open-cut mining, and ideal climatic 
conditions should afford low costs. 

There are 12 patented claims in the district that were 
active gold producers 40 years ago, and have been worked 
spasmodically since then. The district is credited with a 
monthly production in the early days of $75,000, with none 
of the workings more than 400 ft. deep. Production of some 
of the mines are: Lady Belle, over $1,000,000 in gold; Bull 
Run, $450,000, deepest workings 360 ft.; and Jeff Davis 
with $200,000 from 200 ft. depth. The milling average was 
$40 per ton, with high-grade ore yielding at times as high 

'July 12, 191M 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


as $150 on plates, and concentrate $400 per ton. The largo 
low-grade lodes known to exist In the district, in addition 
to the possibilities of developing high-grade ore under ideal 
mining conditions, undoubtedly merit the attention of 

Colfax. — Pacific Gas & Electric Co. engineers are at the 
Spauldlng dam above Emigrant Gap. In Nevada county, 
where preparations are being made to add 15 ft. to the 
260-ft. structure that holds back the waters of the South 
Yuba. This is the third addition to its height, and. when 
completed, will increase the storage capacity over 10.000 
acre-feet. There will be no increase in electric energy, the 
object of the company being to guard against a dry season. 
Four smaller dams at gorges on the edge of the lake will 
be raised proportionately. 

Forest Hill — A number of men are hauling chromite from 
this place to rail at Colfax. They say that returns on present 
low prices are satisfactory. 

Nevada City. — Under the superintendency of A. Hoge the 
California Mining Co. continues to advance the tunnel into 
Harmony ridge from a point in Willow valley, close to 
town. This ridge, 20 miles long, has been famous as a gold 
producer by drift-mining. The company controls a tract of 
land four miles long and two wide, but the channel, judging 
from older workings, it is not believed will exceed 200 ft. 
in width. The tunnel is 6 by 8 ft. in the clear, in hard 
granite, and has reached a point 650 ft. in the mountain. 
The underground work is in charge of Charles Kistle and 
with light machinery is driving the tunnel ahead at the rate 
of 110 ft. per month. All the machinery is electrically 

Grass Valley. — All the mines resumed work on July 1, in 
accordance with the agreement of June 28. The Empire 
and North Star mines have greatly reduced forces, and will 
not be able to operate, except at a disadvantage, for some 
time. Large quantities of water had accumulated during 
the 15 days of enforced idleness, and it is now a question of 
draining the lower levels in order to extract ore. The basis 
of settlement is substantially the same as heretofore made 
public, as follows: (1) no bonus; (2) free market; (3) con- 
ferences before any proposed strike; (5) one-half pay dur- 
ing time lost on this strike. Section 4 reads: "We propose 
a percentage increase along the lines suggested by some 
members of your committee as follows: At the end of a 
year from date we will pay 10% of the total wages earned 
by every man who has worked for us continuously through- 
out the year." This was amended to read: "continuously 
on the pay-roll," thus protecting men on leave or sick. J. B. 
Bennett, chairman of the Mine Workers Protective League, 
will name a committee to close up all details of the strike 
and to have the agreement, as finally adopted, drawn up 
and signed by the respective parties. How the free-market 
idea — goods and supplies at cost — is going to work out is a 
problem for the future. 

The Murchie property, a mile east of town, once famous 
as a gold producer, was sold on June 27 by the tax collector 
on account of delinquent taxes. R. E. Steele of San Fran- 
cisco was purchaser, paying nearly $6500. C. F. Humphrey 
of Pescadera is an associate owner. No definite plans have 

as yet been made public. The West Point claims in the 

Rough and Ready district have been bought by T. S. Dorsey 

of Grass Valley. The H. H. Noble mineral rights within 

the Nevada City limits were bid in by David Wildin. 

Plymouth. — The Plymouth Consolidated in May treated 
10,500 tons of ore, yielding $61,100. The net profit was 
$14,500. The main shaft was cleaned down from 1500 to 
2600 ft., preparatory to sinking. On the 1600-ft. level the 
south foot-wall drift advanced to 770 ft., where the quartz 
pinched. The shoot was 136 ft. long, averaging $10.25 
across 144 inches. 

Randsburg. — An extensive silver-gold deposit has been 

discovered by H. Williams on the flats between the Rand 
mountains. 1} miles east of the Yellow Aster mine and 3 
miles north of Atolia. The lode has been traced for 6 miles 
and Is from 60 to 80 ft. wide. Two shipments, assaying 64 
oz. silver and $17 gold, have been sent out. John W. Kelley, 
former sheriff of Uakersfield, and associates, have acquired 
the Williams property, and started exploration. Numerous 
claims have been located on the strike of the lode. 


Ouruy. — The Camp Bird company's quarterly report shows 
that new work covered 718 ft. The total length of drive 
east from the tunnel intersection of vein is now 2035 ft. 
The tunnel-level east extended from the end of the ventilat- 
ing drift, a distance of 206 ft., is in vein of no commercial 
value, although containing irregular small shoots ranging in 
value from a few dollars to $19 — silver largely predomi- 
nating. At a point 1800 ft. from the tunnel intersection a 
cross-cut was driven south a distance of 200 ft. before the 
basic andesite-breccia was disclosed, there being for the 
entire distance alternate quartz streaks and the altered 
andeslte found in the vein and in close proximity through- 
out the mine. A cross-cut opposite to the north passed into 
basic andesite in a few feet, confirming the limit of vein in 
that direction. No value of consequence was disclosed in 
either of these cross-cuts. Conditions east of these cross- 
cuts have not been defined, nor will further attempt be 
made until natural ventilation can be obtained through a 
connecting raise of about 450 ft. with the ninth level, now in 
course by the tunnel company. Similar vein conditions per- 
tain on No. 9 level over this point, where the vein splits, the 
value following the south branch. For that reason an effort 
was made to disclose this branch on the tunnel-level and 
raise in it for ventilation, but the disadvantages going with 
forced ventilation over a ntretch of 2J miles restrain further 
prospecting until this obstacle is removed. It is considered 
that vein widths are no\ ' identified with cross-cuts between 
points 1400 and 1800 ft. east of tunnel vein intersection, 
disclosing various widths, ranging from 6 ft. to 19 ft. The 
greatest width and best value centre at about 1500 ft. from 
the intersection, where for a short stretch there is a width 
of 19 ft., of which 10 ft. returns 0.06 oz. gold and 15 oz. 
silver. The remainder of the vein does not contain com- 
mercial ore. Raises at co-ordinates 1150 and 1185 have 
been advanced 21 and 26 ft., respectively. In the former, 
gold is negligible with 10 oz. of silver. The latter, while 
not exposing the full width of vein, is in a stratum 5 ft. 
in width, that returns 12 oz. in silver, but no gold of conse- 
quence. The ventilating raise is on the vein at co-ordinate 
1410, and but recently started. The Tunnel company will 
now vigorously prosecute the work to a connection with 
the No. 9 level, and, owing to mechanical ventilating con- 
ditions, there will be little opportunity afforded the Camp 
Bird company to promote further development until after 
completion of this raise. The flow of water at the mouth 
of the tunnel is about 1075 g.p.m., making mostly along 
the line of the tunnel, there being little in tunnel-level 
east. There is a fair supply of labor, but wages in this dis- 
trict have again been advanced 50 cents per day, making 
$4.50 the minimum wage scale. 


Grangeville. — The Unity Gold Mines Co., in the Warren 
district, has opened 16 in. of high-grade ore on its 900-ft 
level. The property is 49 miles from rail. J. H. Hawley is 
president and J. A. Czizek of Boise is manager. 

Mullaii. — The Consolidated Interstate-Callahan company 
is to resume operations at an early date. 


Houghton. — Seven mines in the Copper Country are pro- 
ducing metal as close to normal as their working force will 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

permit. They are: Quincy, Mohawk, Wolverine, Victoria, 
Baltic, Trimountain, and Champion. Eight mines are pro- 
ducing copper at approximately half of normal. They fol- 
low: Calumet & Hecla, Isle Royale, Allouez, Centennial, 
Ahmeek, Osceola, Superior, and Mass. Fifteen active or- 
ganizations have their properties closed down: Lake Cop- 
per, White Pine, La Salle, Franklin, New Baltic, New Ar- 
cadian, Hancock Consolidated, Winona, Whie Pine, Cass 
Copper, Wyandot, South Lake, North Lake, Cherokee, and 
Indiana. Five exploration properties are continuing de- 
velopment: Seneca, Mayflower, Old Colony, Naumkeag, and 
Michigan. With reference to the properties that have sus- 
pended, it should be understood that mines like the Han- 
cock, Franklin, La Salle, and White Pine are keeping pumps 
at work, and could be re-opened and become factors, in 
copper output in a small way, on short notice. The Michi- 
gan is included in the list of exploration properties. It is a 
regular producer, but has a most important future possi- 
bility from an exploratory standpoint. More new ground 
was opened in the lower levels of the mines during June 
than in any month for two years. The most noteworthy fact 
in connection therewith is that the general physical con- 
dition is better than the average. This applies mostly to 
the lower levels of the older mines; it is equally applicable 
to the newer mines, or those working along new lines. 


Duluth. — At the meeting of safety engineers here on June 
20, Albert H. Fay, of the Bureau of Mines, addressed the 
assemblage on 'The Safety Engineer and Accident Statistics'. 
The total number of men employed in mines of the Lake 
Superior district during 1917 was 58,152 and in 1916, 


The mining industry, particularly in the Rocky Mountain 
region, with prices of metal increasing, has a bright future, 
according to A. E. Spriggs, former acting-governor of Mon- 
tana, who was at Salt Lake City recently, and is now chair- 
man of the State Industrial Accident Board. For some time 
business in Montana underwent a depression because of the 
low price of metals, but with copper increasing in value, 
conditions are improving. It is the opinion of a great many 
that the price of copper has gone as low as it will for some 
time. There is a feeling that much of the talk of immense 
copper stocks to a certain extent was propaganda. This, of 
course, has done a great deal of good, in that it caused a cut 
in the production of the red metal which is sure to help the 
price of copper. There is little doubt that copper will come 
back and that nothing can stop it. The increased value of 
silver and its assured future is causing many of the old 
properties in Montana to resume operations. Records show 
that at present, of the 74,000 men employed in the State of 
Montana, 50,000 are at the mines. These figures demon- 
strate the value of the mining industry to the State and the 
fact that conditions are improving. 

Butte. — The different unions at Butte are to present de- 
mands to the companies for increased wages and changes 
in working conditions. Most contracts expired on July 1. 


Austin. — The Austin Dakota company is contemplating 
erection of a mill at an early date. Large reserves of silver 
ore are exposed. C. F. Littrell is manager. 

The Austin Nevada Consolidatad's Hiawatha tunnel has 
opened shipping ore. The general manager, H. G. Richard- 
son, is to erect a mill soon. 

Goldfield. — The Goldfleld Development Co. expects to 
start the Consolidated mill early in August. The Red Top 
mine is ready to supply 1200 tons of ore daily. When the 
property is in full operating condition, up to 300 men will 
be employed. 

A cross-cut on the 700-ft. level of the Silver Pick has 
entered the Silver Pick vein in ground sub-leased from the 
Goldfield Development Co. and a. drift has been driven a 
short distance south-east. The vein is 6 ft. wide and, while 
regarded as promising, the material in which the drift is 
being driven ft of no value. 

A mild boom is in progress in the Cactus silver district. 
The Cactus Nevada shaft is down 160 ft. in $46 ore. A 
winze below this level assays $35 to $160 per ton. Build- 
ings have been erected and machinery put in. A. L. 

Minter is sinking a shaft nearby in $100 ore. 

Mina. — The Gold Pen mine in the Rand district has been 
sold to W. W. Wantland of Los Angeles and J. C. Bray of 
Reno, who have organized the Gold Pen Mines Co., with a 
capital of $1,566,666 in $1 shares. The mine is five miles 
north-west of the Simon lead mine. About 2066 ft. of work 
has been done, including a 258-ft. shaft. Since 1907, ever 
$172,000 in gold has been extracted from high-grade ore- 


shoots. An electric hoist and compressor, pumps for water- 
supply, and a 100-ton cyanide mill are to be erected. 

Goodsprings. — The Yellow Pine company's new power- 
plant has been started and hoisting ore is again under way. 

Sprucemont. — The Bullshead Mining Co. has purchased 
a 50-ton smelter and is erecting it at the property in the 
Spruce Mountain district in Elko county. It is officially 
stated large bodies of ore averaging 28 oz. silver and 4% 
lead are blocked out, with an additional 10,000 tons assay- 
ing 27 oz. silver and 3% lead. 

Tonopah. — The Tonopah Mining Co. during May produced 
63,375 oz. of silver and 690 oz. of gold from 4395 tons of 
ore. The profit was $29,200. 

The Pacific States M. & M. Co. has purchased the Corn- 
forth silver mine at Bellehelen, 50 miles from Tonopah. 
During the past two years intermittent shipments to smelter 
realized $125,000, the ore being worth $70 per ton. The 

July 12, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


cost of mining, transport, and treatment was over $30 per 

Wianemacca. — The Reco Divide company, of Divide, has 
purchased the Paradise Valley mines at Spring City, In the 
Santa Rosa range, 60 miles north of Winnemucca. This 
property was first located in 1878, and after being worked 
for some time, was closed in 1891. Mining was done mainly 
by tunnels. The total output of silver and gold is placed 
at $3,000,000, of which $1,000,000 was paid in dividends. 
Dumps are said to contain 8000 tons of $16 ore. J. B. 
Kendall is president, and M. A. Kendall is secretary-treas- 


Medford. — The War Eagle Mining Co. was recently in- 
corporated and taken over by local people, who are: C. M. 
Kid, president; A. L. Hill, secretary and treasurer; Sam 
Bertelson and Ed Skewis, directors. The property consists 
of a group of quicksilver claims on upper Evans creek, 25 
miles north of Medford. It has been known for many years 
that cinnabar existed in a considerable area in this region. 
Some prospecting was done with variable results until Mr. 
Bertelson and associates opened a vein that, according to 
the management, has been tapped with a cross-cut tunnel 
75 ft. long, driven east and west 275 ft. and raised to the 
surface 85 ft., and is now sinking to a depth of 280 ft. The 
vein averages 5J ft. in width, and carries 3.5 to 4% mer- 
cury. There are two batteries of 12 Johnson and McKey 
retorts. During 1918, August 1 to January 15, they pro- 
duced 17,425 lb. of metal. At present one battery of re- 
torts is treating three tons of ore daily, saving a little over 
100 lb. of mercury. This is not satisfactory, and a change 
to other methods of extraction is contemplated. 

The Dr. Chisholm group adjoins the War Eagle on the 
south and the Mountain King mine is still farther south by 
three miles; these have some good exposures of cinnabar. 


Alta. — The Greater Consolidated Mining Co. proposes to 
drive a tunnel from below the Maxfield mine in Big Cotton- 
wood canyon, on up through the canyon into the Alta dis- 
trict, cutting under such properties as the Maxfield, Dolly 
Varden, the Carbonates, Kennebec, Gypsy Blair, Flagstaff, 
Emma, Alta Con., Prince of Wales, City Rocks, Black Bess, 
Woodlawn, and other mines, some of which produced ore in 
the early days. 

According to W. Clegg Butt from England, who recently 
examined this region, the Big Cottonwoods district has a 
promising future, provided properties are developed along 
modern lines. Both surface and deep workings indicate that 
payable deposits exist. The metalliferous rock that is found 
on the surface in well-defined strata, though badly broken 
up in places, and the whole geological aspect of the country, 
justify the mining man in believing that the old workings, 
as well as the new, could be made to pay dividends if worked 
with efficient methods. There are a large number of low- 
grade deposits, which, when graded up with the high-grade 
galena ore found in this district, would pay well for the 
working. Of course, there are drawbacks in development of 
the Cottonwood. One of these is that the strata in places 
are pretty badly faulted. However, experienced mining men 
would be able to trace the metalliferous bodies which have 
been displaced, for by aid of the Zimmerman law, Mr. Butt 
was enabled to find a lode that had been broken up by a 

Tintic. — Ore shipments from this district are totaling 
around 120 carloads per week. The Tintic Milling Co. last 
week dispatched 32 tons of bullion, valued at $90,000 to 

The Tintic Drainage Tunnel is in 3000 ft., with daily prog- 
ress of 10 ft. At present no timbering is necessary. The 
tunnel will eventually be six miles long, connecting with the 

Iron Blossom. Colorado Consolidated, 
Godiva, and Chief Consolidated. 

Yankee, May Day, 

British r 'oiiimiiiii 

Alice Arm. — The Alice Arm district premises to become 
an important producer of silver within a few months. The 
Dolly Varden and Wolf mines, now operated by the Taylor 
Mining Co., will commence shipping ore at an early date. 
The Taylor Engineering Co., of Vancouver, has resumed 
work on the railroad from tidewater to the Dolly Varden 
mine. At the time of discontinuing work last season the 
road was completed for a distance of 16 miles from the 
wharf, to within two miles of the tram. Other properties 
are being exploited, some showing good veins. 

The Alice Arm Commercial Club was recently formed by 
local people, with H. F. Gordon as secretary, to further de- 
velopment of the district. 

The Provincial government has men working on trails. 
This will place some of the mines that have high-grade ore, 
but situated farther in the interior, on a shipping basis. The- 
present appropriation for this work is entirely inadequate; 
however, it is believed that the rapid development shown- 
this season will compel better recognition from the Depart- 
ment and action taken to repair old trails and construct new 
ones at an early date. 

The case of Stewart v. Molybdenum Mining & Reduction* 
Co. has been occupying the attention of the Supreme Court 
for a week. The plaintiff claims $35,000 under a bond given 
to himself and partners for two claims at Alice Arm. It was 
alleged that after a bond had been given to a party named 
Riel, the claims were allowed to lapse through failure to do 
the necessary assessment work, that Riel re-located them in 
his own name, and transferred them to the Molybdenum 
company, which spent $100,000 in development and plant. 
The case finally was settled out of Court, Stewart and part- 
ners receiving one-third and the company two-thirds interest 
in the mine and plant. 

Nelson. — On June 19 the International Mining Conven- 
tion gathered here, about 200 strong. The delegates on this 
day organized a branch of the Canadian Mining Institute for 
the British Columbia interior. S. S. Fowler was elected 
chairman, and W. G. Wilson, secretary. On the 20th the 
delegates were welcomed by the mayor, J. A. McDonald. 
He was followed by the Hon. John Keen, speaker in the 
Provincial legislature, who was a pioneer of the Slocan dis- 
trict. L. K. Armstrong, secretary of the A. I. M. & M. E. 
at Spokane, expressed appreciation for the reception given 
members. L. O. Howard, of the College of Mines at Pull- 
man, Washington, spoke briefly, saying that he was there to 
learn something. In the afternoon there was a joint meet- 
ing of the A. I. M. & M. E. and the C. M. I., Mr. Fowler 
occupying the chair. Three interesting papers were read, 
as follows: 'Mining Methods at the Granby Mines, Phoenix', 
by C. M. Campbell; 'Nodulizing Copper Concentrate', by 
Oscar Lachmund; and 'Tunneling Reminiscences', by Major 
Angus W. Davis. 

As chairman of the committee oppointed to investigate 
the alleged high smelting charges of the Consolidated M. & 
S. Co. at Trail, Mr. Fowler said that the conclusion reached 
had been that the company was justified in the increases 
enforced at that time. It had been justified in the commit- 
tee's opinion, because it was shown that the smelter had 
not been making a profit; what profits were made were 
coming, not from the smelter but from the mines, the prop- 
erty of the company. T. W. Bingay and J.' J. Warren, of 
this company, briefly covered the points at issue. Nicol 
Thompson and R. R. Bruce commended the committee's 

On the 21st, Charles Camsell, of the Dominion Geological 
Survey, gave a talk on the geologic features of British Co- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

lumbian gold deposits. The Hon. William Sloan, Minister 
of Mines, was present, and talked about capital and labor, 
establishment of an ore-testing plant, iron and steel pro- 
duction, and mining generally in the Province. 'Revival of 
Local Treatment as Regards Flotation' was the subject of an 
address by F. A. Thomson, dean of the College of Mines at 
Moscow, Idaho. He was followed by T. Hodge, professor of 
geology in the University of Vancouver, who discussed iron 
and steel in British Columbia. L. K. Armstrong of Spokane 
joined in the ensuing discussion. William Tomlinson talked 
about platinum and other minerals found in ultra-basic 
rocks, including chromite, molybdenite, and tungsten. J. J. 
Mulholland, a pioneer prospector, gave a 'straight talk' 
about the unexplored north-west region of the Province. A 
'Summary Review of Mining and the Distribution of Min- 

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erals in the Kootenays' was the subject of an address by 
A. G. Langley, district engineer for Mineral Survey District 
No. 5. A paper on the mineralization of northern Mani- 
toba by R. C. Wallace, of The Pas, Manitoba, was read by 
Mr. Armstrong, who explained that the address had been 
placed in his hands for submission to the Convention. 

Sheep Creek. — At the Queen mine, a tunnel is being 
driven to open a vein of free-milling gold ore 30 ft. wide on 
the 700-ft. level. About $100,000 is to be spent in de- 
velopment, in charge of A. W. McCune of Salt Lake City. 
The mine has been opened by an 800-ft. shaft. 


Cobalt. — The Buffalo Mines company during the year 
ended April 30, 1919, produced 625,786 oz. of silver, a de- 
crease of 140,000. Sales totaled 803,738 oz. at $1.01 per 
ounce. The year's profit was $171,238. Reserves are 
valued at $288,700 net. 

The Nipissiug during May extracted silver worth $347,751 
from 6829 tons of ore. This is an increase of $127,824 
over the April yield. Vein 99 now shows 60 ft. of ore 5 in. 
wide, assaying over 5000 oz. per ton. Vein 109 has been 
opened for 230 ft., of which 130 ft. carries over 5000 oz. 
across a width of 2 inches. 


Note. The Bditor invites members of the profession to send particular! 
of their work and appointments. The information is interesting: to ow 

J. Parke Channing is at Miami. 

Arthur R. Weigall is in London. 

G. D. Delprat is at Philadelphia. 

J. E. (Tennell has gone to London. 

L. S. Austin has returned to Salt Lake City. 

F. L. Cole sailed from Vancouver for Siberia on the 10th 

D. P. Hynes, of the H. L. Hollis company, Chicago, was 
in San Francisco this week. 

John Daniell, of Calumet, Michigan, has been in southern 
Oregon examining the Almeda Mines Co. and other prop- 

Ellsworth Y. Dougherty has been appointed mining geolo- 
gist in southern Oregon, for the Oregon Bureau of Mines 
and Geology. 

Arthur W. Jenks has returned to New York from Namtu, 
Burma, where he was smelter manager for the Burma 
Mines, Limited. 

S. Herbert Williams has returned to Ely. as manager for 
the newly re-organized Boston & Ely Consolidated Mining 
Co., of New York. 

Philip N. Moore is at the Fairmont hotel with the other 
members of the Minerals Relief Commission, which is now 
in session in San Francisco. 

Ralph Arnold has completed his government service and 
has resumed his practice as consulting petroleum geologist 
and engineer with offices in Los Angeles and New York. 

George Kislingbury has been examining mines in the old 
Damascus district, in Placer county, California, and his son, 
George D. Kislingbury, is examining a mine at Dyke, Nevada. 

M. W. von Bernewitz has resigned as Assistant Editor of 
the 'Mining and Scientific Press' and has gone to New York 
to collaborate with Walter H. Weed on the 'Mines Hand- 

William Robertson, smelter superintendent for the Broken 
Hill Proprietary Co., is visiting various metallurgical plants 
in the West. He is now at Salt Lake City and will go later 
to Butte. 

Lewis A. Parsons, after six years of service with the 
International Nickel Company of Canada as Mine Engineer, 
has resigned in order to accept appointment as Associate 
Editor of the 'Mining and Scientific Press'. 

Harold A. Linke has completed his war-time service with 
the U. S. Housing Corporation, Department of Labor, in 
construction of an industrial town for the Mare Island Navy 
Yard, at Vallejo, California, and has returned to Salt Lake 
City, where he has opened offices at 416 Boston Bdg. 

The U. S. Bureau of Mines makes the following announce- 
ments: Roy E. Collom has resigned his position as chief 
deputy oil and gas supervisor of the State of California, to 
accept a position with the Bureau as petroleum technologist. 
His headquarters will be at San Francisco. F. B. Tough, 
formerly petroleum technologist of the Bureau, with head- 
quarters at San Francisco, who is now in charge of the co- 
operative work being carried on by the Bureau with the 
Midwest Refining Co. and the Ohio Oil Co., at Casper, Wyo- 
ming, spent several days during June in California. He has 
returned to Denver, where headquarters will be maintained. 
Thomas Curtin, formerly expert driller for the Bureau, with 
headquarters at the Bartlesville station, has resigned to 
accept a position as general field manager for the Interna- 
tional Petroleum Co., with offices at San Antonio, Texas. 

ihflv 12. 191!) 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



San Francisco, July 8 

Alunimuni-dust, cents per pound 50 00 

Antimony, cents per pound , , , , 8 50 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound 20.00 

Lead, pig, cents per pound ....,.,. 5 65— 11 65 

Platinum, pure, per ounce , . . $105 

Platinum, 10% iridium, per ounce S115 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb $100 

Spelter, cents per pound 8.50 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound ......'!!! 10.00 12^50 


(By wire from New York) 
July 8. — Copper is stronger and higher. Lead is quiet but Arm. Spelter 
is dull though steady. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations, in cents per ounce of silver 
900 Ana. Prom April 23. 1918, the United States government paid SI 
per ounce for all silver purchased by it, fixing a maximum of SI 01 >. on 
August 15. 1918. and will continue to pay SI until the quantity specified 
under the Act is purchased, probably extending over several years. On 
May 5, 1919. all restrictions on the metal were removed, resulting in 
fluctuations. During the restricted period, the British government fixed the 
maximum price five times, the last being on March 25, 1919, on account of 
the low rate of sterling exchange, but removed all restrictions on May 10 
The equivalent of dollar silver (1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 
pence per ounce (926 fine), calculated at the normal rate of exchange 



New York 

2 107.87 

3 107.60 

4 Holiday 

5 107.25 

6 Sunday 

7 107.62 

8 107.37 






Average week ending 
27 106.44 

3 108.90 

10 109.43 

17 111.98 

24 111.62 

1 108.83 

8 107.52 


Monthly averages 


Jan 75.14 

Feb 77.64 

Meh 74.13 

Apr 72.51 

May 74.61 

June 76.44 




July 78.92 

Aug 85.40 

Sept 100.73 

Oct 87.38 

Nov 85.97 

Dec 85.97 


Federal Assay-Offices have been instructed by the Director of the Mint 
to pay market prices hereafter for silver in gold bullion purchased by 
them. Before July 1 the Government paid SI per ounce for such silver. 
The Government is not in the market for silver at present, but buys all 
the silver separated in refining gold. The market rate was not paid 
hitherto, as it was desired to wait until the new fiscal year began. 

China continues to be a weak factor, and there has been a decline in 
the rates both at Shanghai and Hongkong. The political situation and the 
paucity of exports are contributing to the decline in rates. The Indian 
position is still unsatisfactory, owing to lack of rain and consequent 


Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 


4 Holiday 

5 Holiday 

6 Sunday 



Jan 29.53 

Feb 34.57 

Mch 36.00 

Apr 33.16 

May 31.69 

June 32.57 


. .18.62 
Monthly averages 

Average week ending 

May 27 16.46 

June 3 16.37 

10 16.81 

17 17.58 

24 17.89 

1 18.37 

8 18.53 




July 29.67 

Aug 27.42 

Sept 25.11 

Oct 23.50 

Nov 23.50 

Dec 23.50 



The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds: 


June 10 92.00 

17 95.00 


24 95.00 

1 95.00 

8 100.00 


Jan 81.00 

Feb 126.25 

Mch 113.75 

Apr 114.60 

May 104.00 

June 86.50 


Monthly averages 



July 102.00 

Aug .115.0a 

Sept 112.00 

Oct 102.00 

Nov 102.60 

Dec 117.42 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 


4 Holiday 

5 Holiday 

6 Sunday 





Average week ending 







Monthly averages 


Jan 7.64 

Feb 9.10 

Mch 10.07 

Apr 9.38 

May 10.29 

June 11.74 




July 10.93 

Aug 10,76 

Sept 9.07 

Oct 6.97 

Nov 6.38 

Dec 6.49 


Lead ore at Joplin last week averaged S60 per ton, basis 80% metal 
The Tri-State output was 1264 tons. 

Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery. 

in cents per pound: 



4 Holiday 

5 Holiday 

6 Sunday 






Average week ending 








Monthly averages 


Jan 9.75 

Feb 10.45 

Mch 10.78 

Apr 10.20 

May 9.41 

June 9.63 







Zinc ore at Joplin last week averaged S45 per ton. basis 60% metal 
The Tri-State output was 8764 tons. 

Prices in New York, in cents per pound: 

Monthly averages 


Jan 44.10 

Feb 51.47 

Mch 54.27 

Apr 55.63 

May 63.21 

June 61.93 




July 62.60 

Aug 62.53 

Sept 61.54 

Oct 62.24 

Nov 74.18 

Dec 86.00 



Tungsten and other producers are becoming anxious over the delay in 
the decision of the U. S. Railway Administration as to the policy to be 
pursued in rating these substances. What threatened to develop into a 
general re-classification of rates in the West was given publicity through 
a request from the Denver District Freight Traffic Committee for the pro- 
mulgation of an order apparently affecting only Colorado shippers. The 
Committee proposed to cancel released values exceeding S100 per ton, and. 
in lieu thereof, to increase the rates by 1% per ton of ore, ferro tungsten 
or blue powder, for every S100 increase in value, being an increase of SI 
per ton in freight-rate for every increase in value of S100 per ton or frac- 
tion thereof. This ruling would have issued in May but for a lively pro- 
test by the American Mining Congress, which held that the precarious con- 
dition of the rare-metal industry made further burdens dangerous. A final 
hearing in Chicago on June 13 was attended by a number of Colorado 
mining operators, by James F. Callbreath, secretary, and Clifford Thome, 
attorney for the Mining Congress. A majority of the members of the 
Western Freight Traffic Committee and officials of the Railroad Adminis- 
tration heard the arguments made by Mr. Callbreath and Mr. Thome, the 
former depicting graphically the destructive resultB of the order that would 
close a large number of Colorado mines and de-populate several mining 
towns. The latter showed that the principle of basing rates upon released 
value has been voluntarily recognized by the railroads for over a genera- 
tion, and had been authorized by Act of Congress and approved by the 
Inter-State Commerce Commission. Both warned against the adoption of 
such proposed new basic rate throughout the west. During the hearing a 
number of the Traffic Committeemen expressed themselves as favorable to 
using the value of the ore at point of origin without adding either trans- 
portation or treatment charges, when rates are based on value. They 
agreed with the shippers that it was wrong to pay freight charged on 
freight — as is now the practice. That the determination to spread a gen- 
eral order for advanced rates on ores had been agreed upon is now made 
manifest by a request just filed for increases in rates on base bullion and 
smelter products from Black Eagle. Anaconda. Basin, Butte, Fuller. Helena. 
Monarch, Silver, and Wolf Creek, Montana, and Tacoma, Seattle, and North- 
port, Washington, to Eastern destinations. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 191» 

r~i ' 

Eastern Metal Market 


New York, July 2. 

The markets are not particularly active because of the 
tjrn of the half-year and the approaching holidays incident 
to July 4. Prices, however, are all strong and some are 

Copper prices continue to increase, but demand and sales 
are not as heavy as recently. 

The tin market is disappointingly quiet, although most of 
the restrictions have been removed. 

Demand for lead is moderate, but prices are strong and 
some expect an advance. 

Zinc prices are firm and tending to advance, but demand 
and sales have fallen off. 

Antimony is unchanged. 


The turn in the steel industry is revealed as definite by 
the June pig-iron output. The rate per day was 70,495 
tons, or 2,114,863 tons for the month, as against 68,002 
tons per day or 2,108,056 tons in May, according to 'The 
Iron Age'. This gain in output was the first check to a 
steady decline in the daily average from the high point 
reached in September 1918, at 113,942 tons. There was a 
gain of five furnaces in the month, 17 blowing in and 12 
blowing out. It is estimated by Pittsburgh producers that 
new orders for rolling in June and June specifications 
against contracts were 50% heavier than in May, while in 
wire and tubular products they were nearly double. A 
labor shortage is threatened in many sections, and this may 
interfere with fuller operation expected in the fall. June 
was the best month in the sheet trade since last October. 


The market continues to develop unusual strength. Prices 
have advanced almost each day during the last week, al- 
though the demand has not been large enough to develop 
into heavy sales. This is not so much due to lack of interest 
on the part of consumers as to the disinclination of pro- 
ducers to sell far ahead. It seems not at all improbable 
now that Judge Gary's prediction that copper would sell at 
20c. in the near future, would be verified within a few 
weeks, perhaps before the end of July, although at that 
time his optimistic expectations were not shared by the 
majority of the large copper interests. Already electrolytic 
copper is quoted and selling today at 19c, New York, July 
delivery, with some sellers insisting that it can't be bought 
under 19.25c, while for August delivery 19.25 to 19.50c is 
asked and obtained. Lake copper is J to Jc. above these 
levels. While inquiry has developed for delivery as far 
ahead as the first quarter there is little selling beyond 
August, producers generally being sure of a higher market 
as time goes on and disinclined to commit themselves for 
the future beyond necessity. Japan continues a buyer, and 
some other foreign business has developed, hut nothing 
definite has been made known yet as to the needs or inten- 
tions of the Germanic countries. 


The market is narrow, restricted, and somewhat dis- 
appointing. It is probable that there will be but little trad- 
ing until normal supplies are the rule as a result of im- 
portations and large stocks. Import licenses are being 
granted for Straits tin for July-August shipment at 50.75c. 
and for English tin at 50.25c For Straits tin from England 
51.50c is quoted for shipments as soon as restrictions will 

permit, this not being metal from point of origin. It is 
pointed out that in August, besides American tin which is 
now about 68c, New York, there will also be on the market 
English tin as well as stocks of Straits metal. The general 
market the last week has been quiet and the total of trans- 
actions has been small. Some consumers low in Straits tin 
have been endeavoring to purchase metal as stocks in the 
hands of other consumers or what has been known as the 
'allocated' tin and some sales have been made at 70 to 
70.50c, New York, for spot delivery. On the whole, buying 
as a result of the lesser restrictions has been less than ex- 
pected, but interesting developments are looked for when 
the market broadens and conditions approach normal. 


A quiet tone generally prevails, but prices are firm at 
5.40c, New York, or 5.15c, St. Louis, the quotation of the 
American Smelting & Refining Co. There are those who 
state that as high as 5.45c has been done, but it is believed 
by some that this applies to only limited amounts. The fact 
that the leading interest is understood to be taking no busi- 
ness at all now is said to indicate an advance soon. Demand 
is not heavy. 


There has been a lull in the buying of zinc from all 
sources, but prices show no sign of weakening; on the con- 
trary, they are higher and prime Western for early July 
delivery today is quoted at 7.10c, St. Louis, or 6.45c, New 
York, with five points higher for August and September. 
As in copper, however, sellers are not eager to sell beyond 
early months and the tone of the market is strong and con- 
fident as to the future of prices. Ore prices are also firm and 
high, which reacts, of course, on zinc. Japan is still a 
buyer and other export business is good. 


There is no change and the market is quiet at 8.37* to 
8.624c, duty paid, for wholesale lots for early delivery. 


No. 1 virgin metal, 98 to 99% pure, continues unchanged 
at 33c, New York, duty paid, for wholesale lots for early 


Manganese: Imports in May were 19,6 44 gross tons as 
compared with 29,837 tons in May 1918. The total for the 
11 months ended May 31 this year was 440,902 tons as com- 
pared with 519,591 tons for the same period in 1918. 

Manganese-Iron Alloys: About 6000 tons of American 
ferro-manganese was sold a week ago in the scramble to 
take orders at the lower price of $ 110, delivered. There are 
now no inquiries before the market and domestic producers 
are asking $125, delivered. British prices are again lower 
at $115, seaboard. Spiegeleisen is quoted at $30 to $35, 

Molybdenum: The market is very quiet and prices are 
nominal at last week's levels of 75 to 85c. per pound of 
MoS, in 90% concentrate. 

Tungsten: One seller reports considerable activity dur- 
ing the week. Inquiries for high-grade ore are now numer- 
ous and frequent. Prices are nominal at $7 to $10 per unit 
in 60% conoentrate. No reported reliable list of the ferro- 
tungsten market has been brought to light. In Great Britain 
the low-carbon alloy, 75 to 80% tungsten, is quoted at 3s. 
per pound, with the metal 96 to 98% at 3s:6d. per pound. 

July 12, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



" l """"" '«"»""iii"iu»ununiununu '"" " ii.iiihi. uuiuiiuiiilliuiiuiuiiiunuiuuiiiuiiuiiiu niiim mum iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini iiiiiniiii unit nun mi iiiiiiiinii 


What is probably the largest gyratory crusher in existence 
was recently built by the Traylor Engineering & Manufac- 
turing Co. at Allentown, Pennesylvania, for a large com- 
pany in Michigan. 

The giant, which is of the Traylor 'Bulldog' type, has 
two receiving openings, each 5 by 15 by 10 in., and a ca- 
pacity of 2500 tons per hour. Some idea of the size of this 
crusher may be gained from the fact that the shafting alone 
weighs over 62 tons. The accompanying illustration, show- 
ing a man standing beside this shafting, affords a striking 
comparison. The total weight of the crusher, exclusive of 
driving pulley, delivery chutes, and foundation, is more 
than 23 7 tons. 

The development of gyratory-crushers does not show as 
rapid progress as does that of other mining machinery. The 
first gyratory was built about 40 years ago. It had receiv- 
ing openings of 7 by 28 in. and a capacity of 10 tons per 
hour. Many years passed before capacities had advanced to 
50 tons; and another decade elapsed before a 200-ton gyra- 
tory was finally built. It is a far cry from that compara- 
tively small capacity to the 2500 tons per hour of the new 
60-in. 'Bulldog'. 

Credit for the design of this crusher goes to Richard 
Bernhard and L. J. Hewes, of the Traylor company. Both 
men have been identified with the development of gyra- 
tories since their inception, Mr. Hewes having helped con- 
struct the original crusher mentioned, while Mr. Bernhard 
designed and built the first 200-ton machine. 

The Traylor company manufactures a complete line of 
crushing equipment including rolls and jaw-crushers, for 
practically any required capacity. Notice the 'baby' gyra- 
tory set upon the pulley of the giant 'Bulldog' in the 
accompanying illustration. 


A remarkable new fastener, designed for heavy belting 
and made in sizes for belts varying from g in. upward in 
thickness, is being manufactured by the Flexible Steel 
Lacing Co. of Chicago. The term given to it is the 'High 
Duty' fastener. 

This appliance embodies a new application of the com- 
pression principle as applied to belt fasteners. It consists 
of two rectangular steel plates, which clamp on either side 
of the belt and are connected by bolts that go through the 
belt. The top plate has two round holes, which are counter- 

Shaft and Head or Crusher — 21 ft. Long, 6% ft. Diameter, 65 Tons 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 12, 1919 

sunk to hold the special cone-shaped nuts; while the bottom 
plate has two special square seats which fit around the 
square heads of the bolts. 

The tendency toward increasing thickness in conveyor- 
belts has demanded a new type of joint, as no satisfactory 
heavy fastener was available. The high duty joint is simple 
to apply; it takes only a reasonable time in proportion to 
the size of the belt. The strength of the joint makes its 


Sullivan single stage belt-driven compressors, type WG-6, 
and the corresponding steam-driven type, WA-6, are now 
being supplied with the new improved plate valves, devel- 
oped by the Company's engineers at Claremont, New Hamp- 
shire works. This valve, known as the Sullivan 'Wafer' 
valve, is shown in the accompanying illustration. The small 


modest cost a desirable insurance on the life of the belt. 
The sizes of the high duty fasteners are proportioned to the 
thickness of the belt for which they are designed. The 
illustration shown herewith is from a photograph of the 
fastener, and shows the construction of the upper and 
lower plates, as well as the special bolt and nut. 

The Flexible Steel Lacing Co. is also the maker of the 
well-known and popular 'Alligator' belt lacing, Flexco lamp 
guard, Flexco-Lok lamp-guard, and the Split-Handle port- 
able lamp-guard. 


Valve "1,^1^ Guard 

Sullivan 'Wafer' Discharge Valve 


The accompanying pictures show the installation of a 
Hardinge mill and Dorr classifier at 
the Empresa Minera Parcoy, Parcoy, 
Peru, South America. The manager 
of this plant — Mr. Tarnawiecki — has 
shown considerable ingenuity in get- 
ting around a difficult matter. Ap- 
parently there must have been con- 
siderable trouble with leather belts, 
and, as water is much cheaper than 
leather, he attached some buckets to 
the pulley on the Hardinge mill, thus 
converting it into a water-wheel. 
These buckets were made of steel 
sleepers taken from a narrow-gauge 

size, light weight, and compactness of the valve, also its 
spring and seat are illustrated. 

The 'Wafer' valves seat in cages arranged radially to the 
axis of the cylinder and close to the two ends of the cylinder, 
the inlet valve being situated at the bottom and the dis- 
charge valve at the top. These valves are held to their seats 
by flat annular springs of the same material as the valve 
themselves, which is the finest tempered spring steel obtain- 
able. The valves open against specially designed guard- 
plates, intended to give a wide 
port-opening with a minimum 
of clearance-volume, and with- 
out restricting the admission or 
charge of the air to or from the 
cylinder. The valve, spring, 
and guard are easily accessible 
by the removal of a screw-plug. 
The simple and short con- 
struction of the springs permits 
the valves to be placed closer to 
the here of the cylinder than 
is generally permissible with 
valves of this type, with a cor- 
responding reduction in clear- 
ance losses. The light weight 
of the valves and the superior 
quality of the material give 
long life. The question of re- 
pair stock is simplified because 
the same valves, springs, and 
guards are used for both inlet 
and discharge. 

The valves are employed in 
multiples of relatively small 
size, in place of one or two 
valves of large diameter, the 
objection to the large valves being the large clearance- 
pockets required and the likelihood of more noisy action 
and greater breakage. 

railroad track, 
for some time. 

This plant has been in successful operation 

The Smith-Booth-Usher Co. of Los Angeles has opened 
offices in the Rialto Bdg., San Francisco. H. A. Olds and 
J. A. Kinkead will be in charge of the San Francisco house. 
It is the intention of the company to give a larger and more 
complete service along the line of contractors', mining, and 
oilfield equipment. 

Machinery that heretofore has been used almost en- 
tirely for the recovery of minerals from their ores is now 
being applied by the National Smelting Corporation of San 
Francisco to the reclamation of the metallic contents of 
various industrial refuse. Floor-sweepings, tumbler-barrel 
mud, emery grindings, broken crucibles, skimmings, oxidized 
metals, sawings, and other metallic residues, are now being 
successfully reclaimed at this company's plant. The equip- 
ment in present use includes classifiers, jigs, and a Deister- 
Overstrom sand-table. 



Mining s-c Press 


T. A. RlCKARO. eoitoh 
L. A PARSONS. Associate Coitoh 


Ptibt inlint nl i£0 Market St.. San Francinca, 

bv tiif Prtt'tv Pulilifiiiinu Company 

C.T. Hutchinson, manaccr 


~. I J 1 1 M t 1 1 - 1 ] 1 1 1 H I ) t J r 1 M 1 i I M h 4 L J I ■ 1 1 ) M 1 1 J Ill 1 1 1 1 ) [ 1 4 1 4 L d 1 1 J ■ 1 1 1 h ] I ■ I h ] I M J 1 1 1 1 ■ I r J I ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 n U r h ■ I IJ Ml I H 1 1 1 H I J » 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 k 1 1 ■ 1 M I ■ 1 IM I b 1 1 1 ( U H 1 » 1 1 H K I ( 1 1 1 1 Mir] t 1 1 ■ j [ I , 


Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 19, 1919 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 






Restricting compensation to claimants able to 
prove personal solicitation to produce the minerals 
covered by the Act. The Attorney-General's rul- 
ing. A blunder and a scandal. M. & S. P., July 
19, 1919. 


Reference to a letter from the firm of Sulman & 
Picard in same issue. The Wolf case. What Min- 
erals Separation has done to develop flotation prac- 
tice. The modern process probably originated 
from the series of experiments made in the Central 
mill, at Broken Hill, in 1902, 1903, and 1904. 
Testimony of James Hebbard and others. M. & S, 
P., July 19, 1919. 


Review of the status of this litigation. The dis- 
carding of the agitating devices since October 
1915. The opinions of the judges in the divided 
decision of the Third Circuit Court. The difference 
between the Miami and Hyde cases. The need for 
a special court to try disputes over patents. M. & 
S. P., July 19, 1919. 



By Sulman & Picard 79 

A reply to our editorial of March 22. British cus- 
tom to refrain from discussing an issue still 'sub 
judice'. The judgment of Mr. Justice Buckley. 
Minerals Separation and Mr. Wolf. The Elmores. 
Difference between Mr. Wolf's patent and that of 
Minerals Separation. M. & S. P., July 19, 1919. 


By Walter G. Perkins 70 

Comment on the article of Mr. O. E. Jager. The 
comparison of fuel cost for blast-furnaces and re- 
verberatories. Pyritic smelting. Fine that cannot 
be smelted by blast-furnace. Reverberatory tem- 
peratures. Work at Copper Queen. Pulverized 
fuel. Heat-balance of reverberatories. The re- 
generative furnace. Design of the writer. M. & 
S. P., July 19, 1919. 


By J. C. Metger 

Mr. Nye's article. The labor problem. Method of 
reducing the labor turn-over. Importance of pro- 
viding outside interests for the men. M. & S. P., 
July 19, 1919. 


By E. M. Hamilton ■ ■ ■ ■ • • • ■ • • • — ■ ■_ • 8 * 

Two aspects of the question. 


Definition in Web- 

ster's dictionary. The problem of concentration. 
M. & S. P., July 19, 1919. 




By Oliver E. Jager 85 

Present construction at Anaconda. Ribs and brick- 
work. Method of filling between the ribs. Flux- 
ing action of fine. Construction of the ribs. M. & 
S. P., July 19, 1919. 


The judgment of Mr. Justice Buckley. Three parts 
of the plaintiffs' claim. Substantial contest arises 
upon the counter-claim. The Cattermole process. 
Differences between the two processes. Object of 
Wolf's patent. Judgment for the plaintiffs. M. & 
S. P., July 19, 1919. 


Staff Correspondence 90 

Disadvantages of steel stairways. A grid type that 
is efficient. M. & S. P., July 19, 1919. 



Preamble. The original members. The Assembly 
and its functions. The Council and its functions. 
The Secretariat. The seat of the League. Reduc- 
tion of armaments. Territorial integrity. War. 
Court of international justice. Disputes with 
States not members. Colonies and territories. 
Other functions of the League. Amendments. Sig- 
natories. M. & S. P., July 19, 1919. 



By J. C. Pickering 86 

Necessity of accurate cost-keeping. Some of the 
difficulties. M. & S. P., July 19, 1919. 


Some of the methods by which Germany obtained 
this necessity. M. & S. P., July 19, 1919. 


An outline of tests carried out by the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines. M. & S. P., July 19, 1919. 



Colorado; Michigan; Nevada; Ontaj-io; British 
Columbia; Mexico. 





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20 of the same year to Mining- and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

Millions of dollars' worth of valuable material, which could easily 
be recovered by electrical precipitation, is now lost in the air. 

Save Values Now Lost Up the Stack 

The Cottrell electrical precipitation process will 


acid from mist liberated by sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric and other acid 
plants ; zinc oxide from brass furnaces ; cement and potash from cement mills ; 
dust from drying, sintering and roasting kilns and from buffing and grinding 
operations; cinders, smoke, etc. 

gases from producers, blast furnaces, etc. 

The General Electric Company manufactures electrical apparatus for 
generating, transforming and regulating current for use in the operation of 
the Cottrell electrical precipitation process. 

Further information will be promptly supplied by the 


General Office ^<% ^^ 


Schenectady, N.Y. 


July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRtSS 

TjBTE have ascertained that, although the League of 
" Nations is the all-absorbing subject of political dis- 
cussion, not many of our friends have actually read the 
text of the Covenant; therefore we print the full text 
of the revised form of the Covenant in this issue, hoping 
that our readers will find it useful in following the forth- 
coming debate in Congress and in the daily press. 

Tp RAVEL by aeroplane has been brought within the 
-*- domain of real life by the successful flight, to and 
fro across the Atlantic, of the British dirigible balloon, 
the R 34. It is just ten years since Bleriot flew across 
the English Channel and thereby proved man's conquest 
of the air. This latest achievement of Captain Scott 
and his crew is far the most significant event since the 
feat of the French aviator in 1909. 

T TNDER "Discussion' we print a letter from Mr. E. M. 
*-^ Hamilton criticizing our effort to discriminate be> 
tween 'recovery' and 'extraction'. We are glad to pub- 
lisk this letter because Mr. Hamilton himself is a careful, 
and therefore effective, writer. It is far less important 
that any two or three of us should agree in the use we 
make of technical terms than that we should use them 
intelligently and thoughtfully. We appreciate the fact 
that his argument has some validity, even if it fails to be 
conclusive. The distinction between the two terms un- 
der discussion is made more easily when describing a 
concentrating process than when describing leaching 
operations, yet even in the latter case it can, we think, 
be maintained usefully, as illustrated in the foot-note we 
append to Mr. Hamilton's letter. The introduction of 
'abstract' into the context is inadvisable because that 
word is already burdened with other significations. 

T\ANGEROUS, it seems to us, is the plan to place the 
*-* Kaiser on trial in London. Not that he should go 
unpunished, but the kings of England and of Belgium 
are his cousins, and kingship reduced to felony will 
scarce survive another regicide. Justice calls the Kaiser 
to an accounting — he and his dishonored sons. We would 
also like to see Von Tirpitz and others responsible for 
piracy brought to the bar. Shall we make a martyr of 
William of Hohenzollern or let him live in dreary exile? 
He is no longer dangerous ; his part in the War was too 
unheroic ; let us put him and his consort in a hut in Ice- 
land to end their days there forgotten. Whatever is done 
must be done not in a revengeful spirit but justly and as 

a deterrent for other ambitious men in the days to be, so 
"that neither schools nor priests, nor kings may build 
again a people with the heart of beasts made wise con- 
cerning men ; whereby our dead shall sleep in honor, 
unbetrayed, and we in faith and honor keep that peace 
for which they paid." 

T> EVERBERATORY smelting practice, as against the 
■*■*• use of the blast-furnace, is the subject of an inter- 
esting contribution to our 'Discussion' columns by Mr. 
Walter G. Perkins, whose experience includes British 
Columbia, Nevada, and Siberia, among the many eoun- 
tries in which he has done professional work. His letter 
is a sequel to a recent article on the subject by Mr. 0. E. 
Jager, who speaks from observation at Anaconda. Mr. 
Perkins has expressed definite conclusions and he has 
based them upon smelting operations on a large scale, 
so that we hope his opinions so frankly stated will be 
the means of eliciting further valuable information. 

r PHE House of Representatives declined to over-ride 
-*- the President's veto on the repeal of the Daylight 
Saving Act and we are glad of it, for not only is the 
saving of daylight a useful regulation, but the method 
of attempting to end it is thoroughly vicious, namely, by 
tacking the repeal in the form of a rider to an important 
appropriation bill and ^hereby preventing a vote on the 
merits of the measure. This was done by the Senate ; it 
is a device used by legislators in order to pass laws that 
they do not wish debated or put to the vote ; it is a bad 
trick and thoroughly opposed to the first principles of 
representative government. We are heartily in support 
of the President's veto of the Agricultural Appropria- 
tion bill, which should be separated from its rider, the 
repeal of the Daylight Saving Act, a law much too im- 
portant to be so lightly treated. The two legislative 
measures have nothing to do with each other and should 
be considered separately on their respective merits. We 
were among those adverse to the moving backward of the 
clock in 1918, but the experience of the past year kas 
amply demonstrated the utility of the artifice and we 
hope to see it perpetuated. 

CT. JOHN DEL REY is the deepest gold mine, and 
^ also the deepest metal mine, in the world; therefore 
its annual report is of general interest to the profession. 
The latest report is the 88th, for the St. John del Rey 
Mining Company was organized in 1834. The enterprise 
is British, but the mine is in the State of Minas Gernps. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

in Brazil. Last year the output of gold was worth 
£423,029, or about $2,000,000 in American money. The 
average yield from 165,000 tons was $13.27. The profit 
was $590,244, which was $90,000 less than in 1917, the 
decrease being due chiefly to the adverse conditions 
created by the "War. A dividend of 10%, was paid for 
hie year 1918. The workings have reached a vertical 
depth of 6326 feet. At the bottom the temperature is 
116°F. when the ground is first penetrated, and even the 
mean temperature of the air underground during the 
summer is close to 100°, so that particular pains has to 
be taken to ventilate the mine with a view to rendering 
working conditions tolerable. The natural increase of 
temperature is one degree per 126 feet of descent. A 
large Sirocco fan is used and it is proposed to supple- 
ment this with an air-cooling plant. The deeper portion 
of the mine, below 1940 ft., has been opened up in a most 
unusual way, by means of a steplike system of winzes 
and levels, each winze being 1200 feet long and con- 
nected with four levels at intervals of 300 feet, so that, 
as a Cornishman would say, "the h'ore is pulled out by 
the 'air of the 'ead." The scheme of development de- 
pends upon the fact that the workings follow not the dip 
of the lode but the pitch of the orebody, which stands at 
an angle of 40°. It is pleasing to note that the size of the 
orebody and the quality of the ore have shown improve- 
ment on the lowest 'horizons', as they are called, al- 
though the showing is not so good as it was in the younger 
days of the mine, the dimensions of the orebody at 5800 
feet being about 15 feet by 1000 feet, as against a width 
of 45 feet and a length of 600 feet in the upper work- 
ings. The reserve of ore amounts to 1,209,104 tons. The 
management is conservative. Mr. George Chalmers has 
been manager during the life of the mine, and his son, 
Mr. A. G. W. Chalmers, has recently been appointed 
assistant manager. "We take the opportunity of congratu- 
lating the father and of wishing success to the son. Most 
men outlive most mines ; it should cheer the miner to hear 
about a mine that seems likely to last the time of two 

ThelWar Minerals Relief Scandal 

From a telegram sent by the Secretary of the Ameri- 
can Mining Congress to one of our local newspapers we 
learn that the Attorney-General at "Washington has ruled 
that, under the "War Minerals Relief Act, "no claims 
based upon general appeal or solicitation will be con- 
sidered, and claimants must have been asked specifically 
by one of the five Government agencies named in the 
Bill." "We regret greatly that the Attorney-General 
should have made such a ruling and that the Secretary 
of the Interior should have 'passed the buck' by asking 
him for an interpretation, because the consequence will 
be nothing short of a breach of good faith. Let us sup- 
pose that a miner or mine-operator was approached by 
one of the young engineers on the staff of our friend Mr. 
Albert Burch here in San Francisco when he was acting 
for the U. S. Bureau of Mines in the effort to stimulate 

the production of the minerals needed by the Govern- 
ment in the waging of war, and let us suppose that in 
consequence of such personal solicitation this miner or 
operator, whtun we will name A, was induced to engage 
in the mining of chrome, manganese, tungsten, or pyrite 
in California. Next, let us imagine the equally likely 
contingency of B, another miner or mine-operator, see- 
ing one of the circulars of the Bureau of Mines, in a 
newspaper, urging upon good citizens of our mining dis- 
tricts to engage intensively in the production of the 
needed minerals, or, to be more specific, let us suppose 
C, a mining engineer, finding in the 'Mining and Scien- 
tific Press' of March 9, 1918, an editorial paragraph 
stating that Mr. Franklin K. Lane, the Secretary of the 
Interior, had issued a circular entitled 'How to Save 
Ships' in which this member of the President's cabinet 
urged "the energetic exploration and intensive develop- 
ment of certain needed mineral resources," the idea 
being that if these minerals were produced in the United 
States it would be possible to release ships then engaged 
in the foreign mineral trade and use them in the trans- 
portation of soldiers and supplies to France during the 
most critical period of the War. Mr. C, it may be taken 
for granted, believed what the Editor had written and 
believed that Mr. Lane was authorized to speak for the 
Government; to him the message urging the production 
of chrome or manganese was just as authentic whether it 
came verbally from a junior member of the staff of the 
U. S. Bureau of Mines or whether it came in print 
through a reputable publication ; indeed we can imagine 
Mr. C already starting to work when Mr. A told him 
about the 'hurry-up call' for war minerals and Mr. C 
telling Mr. A that he knew all about it already, having 
read the message of Secretary Lane in the 'Mining and 
Scientific Press. ' Congress has passed a bill to compen- 
sate those who went to work to produce the needed min- 
erals in response to the Government's call, that is, to 
compensate them for loss caused by the collapse of the 
market as soon as peace became imminent, but the At- 
torney-General rules that A is entitled to compensation, 
but B and C are not. Is this just or reasonable? "We 
think not, and we regret what seems to us a great blunder ; 
for the unfairness, if not stupidity, of the distinction 
established by the Attorney-General smacks of sharp 
practice. Of course, it is well and honorably meant, but 
the effect of it will be to besmirch the good name of the 
Government — not the administration of President Wil- 
son alone, but the Government of the United States, 
which is more important. What are two or three mil- 
lion dollars compared with the honor of the Government? 
At any time, but particularly in these days, when we are 
trying "to make the world safe for democracy," it is of 
the utmost importance that every form of representative 
authority — of the City, of the State, of the Federal Gov- 
ernment — should set an example not only in honesty, but 
in honor, in maintaining a code of conduct that shall be 
emulated by the citizens in their dealings with one another. 
If those high in authority, if the highest authority of all, 
the Federal Government, plays fast and loose or side- 

July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Btepa its obligations, il is :i moral calamity do less lament 
able than the physical loss of a battleship or the but 
render of a battalion in battle. Moreover, this is a poor 
return for all the publicity cheerfully and gratuitously 
given by the press of the country to the Government's 
admonitions and messages during the period of the War, 
It was wholly impracticable for the officials at the head 
of the various Federal departments to reach every citizen 
by letter or circular, therefore it became the practice to 
send notices to the editors, asking them to draw the at- 
tention of their readers to the various calls made by the 
Government on the people. Newspaper publicity was an 
essential factor hi selling Liberty bonds and in making 
known the President's endorsement of the campaign for 
Red Cross funds, and similar propaganda. The press 
became to the Nation what the town crier was to the 
village community. Having sent a circular to the editors 
of the technical press asking them to urge the production 
of sundry minerals, does the Secretary of the Interior go 
back upon his responsibility for the ensuing production 
merely because the appeal was not made personally by 
him or by one of his employees? We note with pleasure 
that the American Mining Congress is to take the matter 
in hand and intends to importune Congress to correct the 
injustice threatened against the very men whom the War 
Minerals Relief Act was intended to compensate for per- 
forming a service of national importance during the 
critical period of the War. 

The Discovery of Froth'Flotation 

On another page we publish a letter from the firm of 
Sulman & Picard, metallurgists to the Minerals Sep- 
aration company and sponsors of several of the more 
important patents on flotation. They enter a not un- 
reasonable protest against sundry remarks of ours on the 
Wolf patent appearing in our issue of March 22. First 
we are chided for discussing a matter that is still sub 
judice; and we enter a plea of guilty to this infraction 
of what we are told is British custom. If we had waited 
until the controversial features of the flotation process 
had ceased to be sub judice we would have been silent 
for many years past, and that is a contingency we hate 
to contemplate, however well it might have suited the 
friends of Minerals Separation. Even now the subject 
remains sub judice, for the Butte & Superior case is in the 
hands of the District Court of Montana and the Miami 
case is still before the Third Circuit Court of Appeals at 
Philadelphia. However, we shall not upbraid Mr. H. 
Livingstone Sulman or Mr. Hugh F. K. Picard for dis- 
cussing matters still sub judice in the United States, be- 
cause in this country the public ventilation of such mat- 
ters is not deemed improper. Our correspondents send 
us the transcript of the judgment in the Sulman & 
Picard v. Wolf case as pronounced by Mr. Justice Buck- 
ley in 1905. but they say that they hardly expect us to 
reproduce it in full. Our readers will find these gentle- 
men to have been too modest in their expectations, for we 
take pleasure in reproducing the judgment verbatim, re- 

alizing the difficulty of giving the gist of il satisfactorily. 
We might make some further remarks on the Wolf oaae, 
but we deem it fairer to let. Messrs. Sulman & Picard 
have the last word as far as we are concerned Mr. 
Wolf may feel inclined to reply. We believe that he is 
still in New York, where we discussed the subject with 
4iim in February. It is not necessary to respond to the 
further strictures from the gentlemen in London. Our 
reputation for "technical knowledge and business recti- 
tude" calls for no defence at this time. There may be 
room, it is true, for disagreement as to the rightness of 
the policy we have adopted in combatting the exactions 
and inquisitions of the Minerals Separation people. Our 
attitude has been based upon the conviction that whereas 
Messrs. Ballot, Sulman, and Picard have contributed 
largely to the development of the flotation process, they 
share that honor with many others, for we believe that 
their supposed discovery of the basic principle was the 
result of haphazard practice in the Central mill at 
Broken Hill in 1903 and 1904, not upon the discovery 
claimed to have been made in the Minerals Separation 
laboratory in London in 1905. We refer the reader, 
again, to the paper by Mr. James Hebbard in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Australasian Institute of Mining En- 
gineers, read by him on November 10, 1913, in which the 
origin of froth-flotation is, it seems to us, clearly in- 
timated. Mr. Hebbard says: "In the course of ordinary 
operations, it had long been observed that a froth was 
formed containing high metallic values, in silver and lead 
particularly, whenever conditions were favorable, as, for 
instance, where the rotation of trommels, or the splash 
of the elevators or raff-wheels, or the motion of the jig- 
plungers, produced a violent agitation of the mill-water 
containing slime. Early in 1901 a series of experiments 
was carried out for the purpose of reproducing and 
accentuating the conditions responsible for this valuable 
float-concentrate. Experiments and tests extending over 
several months, were made on slimes of varying degrees 
of fineness. ... It was thus early recognized that 
the bubbles of froth noticed in the wet-concentration 
operations were due to the aeration produced by violent 
agitation, resulting from mechanical implements moving 
rapidly in water. In these experiments a metallic froth 
or scum could be produced and recovered assaying 26 
oz. silver, 30% lead, and 22%, zinc." In December 
1904, says Mr. Hebbard, further tests in the Central mill, 
using only 0.75% of oil, gave results that were "excel- 
lent, with all float-concentrate, no granular material 
being formed." We are informed, at first hand, that as 
early as 1902 Messrs. W. Shellshear and F. A. Beau- 
champ suggested the application of the idea, of floating 
the metallic sulphides over a spitzkasten after agitation, 
in order to correct the failure of the granulating, or Cat- 
termole, process, and that the suggestion was put to the 
test in 1903. It was ascertained that the flotative effect 
was produced while using 9 pounds of oil and 22 pounds 
of acid per ton of ore. Later the proportion of oil was 
diminished gradually to 2 pounds per ton. This, we 
infer, was the real beginning of the froth-flotation proc- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

ess as patented by Messrs. Sulman, Picard, and Ballot in 
the United States on May 29, 1905. It remains to note 
that the experimental work done in the Central mill was 
known to the Minerals Separation company. We have 
made these statements before and they have not been 
contradicted. On them we base our justification for com- 
batting the efforts of Minerals Separation to secure a, 
monopoly on flotation and to impose their inquisitorial 
and domineering methods on the metallurgical profes- 
sion in the United States. "We do not deny the inventor's 
right to a reward from the community, we merely ques- 
tion the assertion that the patentees of 835,120 were the 
discoverers of the process described in that patent; we 
believe them to have been developers of the flotation idea, 
and we concede cheerfully that they have contributed 
largely to the growth of its metallurgic usefulness, but 
we believe also that mill-men in this and other countries 
have contributed to the successful result, some of them in 
a small way, to be sure, but with an aggregate effect not 
to be underestimated. For this reason we think it unfair 
to these and to other inventors to give Minerals Separa- 
tion the exclusive rights to the process in the United 

The Miami Case 

With reference to the litigation over the flotation pat- 
ents, more particularly No. 835,120, we think it well to 
remind our readers that the case of Minerals Separation 
v. Miami Copper Company is yet sub judice. It will be 
recalled that this case was decided adversely to the 
Miami company on a strict interpretation of the patent 
in so far as it controls the type of agitation, because, un- 
fortunately, the Miami company used both a Pachuca 
agitator and a centrifugal pump in its experimental 
work and milling operations prior to October 1915, the 
period covered by the record in the case ; but since then 
the company has used neither of these methods of agita- 
tion, depending entirely upon the Callow type of pneu- 
matic machine for the aeration necessary to the forma- 
tion of an effective froth. At the present time a Master 
appointed by the lower court, namely, the District Court 
of Delaware, is hearing evidence on the accounting 
precedent to an award for such damages as will be levied 
upon the treatment of the small tonnage of ore covered 
by the opinion of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, as 
promulgated on May 25, 1917. An important feature of 
the Master's report will be his opinion, after review by 
the Court, as to whether or not the later milling opera- 
tions, subsequent to abandonment of the two agitating 
machines, come under the ban of the Court of Appeals. 
The point we make is that the pneumatic method of agi- 
tation has not come under the ban of infringement. It 
will be recalled that the decision of the appellate court 
was divided, two judges upholding the patent, whereas 
the third disseated. Judge Woolley, in recording the 
majority opinion, held that "the invention resides not 
alone in the critical proportion of oil, but also in air and 
agitation," or, as he expressed himself elsewhere in the 

decision, "in the co-action of the critical proportion of 
oil and air effected by 'an agitation greater than and 
different from that which had been resorted to before', 
resulting in a froth-concentrate of economical [meaning 
economic] value." The words quoted by the Judge are 
taken from the U. S. Supreme Court's decision in the 
Hyde case, of course. In the recent opinion of the Su- 
preme Court, in the Butte & Superior case, it is held that 
the "patent is on the process; it is not and eannot be on 
the result." Judge Buffington, who dissented from the 
majority opinion of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals 
in the Miami case, held that the invention was not based 
only on the use of a minimum proportion of oil and con- 
cluded that "the step of the process 'agitating the mix- 
ture until the oil-coated mineral matter forms into a 
froth', meant the novel air-entraining agitation which 
the patentees disclosed, and did not cover the novel air- 
releasing agitation which the defendants disclosed." It 
is more than likely that the Miami case will be carried to 
the Supreme Court, in which event there will be pre- 
sented a record much stronger than either in the Hyde 
or in the Butte & Superior case. An entirely different 
phase of the dispute will be submitted. The opinions 
given in the Butte & Superior case are so different from 
those delivered in the Miami case as to arouse a feeling 
of bewilderment in the minds even of engineers familiar 
with the various litigations. In the one case the crux 
was the interpretation of the "critical" proportion of 
oil, that is, as to what fraction of 1 %, was covered by the 
patent; in the other case the question was, and still is, 
as to whether the pneumatic method comes within the 
scope of the patent. The Ninth Circuit Court of San 
Francisco in the Butte & Superior case centred its atten- 
tion on the proportion of oil used in the process; the 
Third Circuit Court of Philadelphia in the Miami case 
kept its eye on the character of the agitation employed ; 
each of these appellate courts interpreting the particu- 
lar part of the Supreme Court's decision in the Hyde 
case that referred to one phase of the dispute, neglecting 
other controversial points. In doing so, of course, the 
lower courts passed judgment only on the points raised 
in the briefs and arguments of opposing counsel ; and the 
highest court, in turn, adjudicated the issues presented 
to it from the court below. It is noteworthy how little 
information is given, in any of the records of these eases, 
as to the early application of the flotation idea in Aus- 
tralia, particularly the froth-agitation method, which was 
developed from observation and experiment in the Cen- 
tral mill, at Broken Hill ; on the other hand, there is re- 
peated reference to the litigation between Minerals Sep- 
aration and the Elmore brothers in the English and Aus- 
tralian courts, although the issue in those cases concerned 
only the old bulk-oil, not the vacuum-air, process of the 
Elmores, and therefore bore no relation to the froth- 
agitation process of Minerals Separation. It is evident 
that it is high time for taking such disputes over patents 
from the ordinary courts of law and placing them tinder 
the jurisdiction of a technical court specially equipped 
for such investigation and adjudication. 

July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


D I 3 

Flotation Litigation 

The Editor: 

Sir — We have read the editorial in your issue of 
March 22 entitled 'Flotation Litigation', which we have 
not commented on earlier as we prefer to follow the 
usual British practice of refraining from discussing in 
the press a matter which is still sub judice. Now that 
the ease referred to is settled by the Supreme Court of 
the United States we wish to call the attention of your 
readers to some facts in regard to our action against Mr. 
Wolf to which you refer in your article. We can only 
assume that you did not take the trouble to ascertain the 
real bearing of this action or that your remarks were 
based upon an ex parte statement. 

So that you may be placed in full knowledge of the 
particulars we enclose herewith transcript of the Judg- 
ment of Mr. Justice Buckley in the case. It would be too 
much to expect you to reproduce the judgment in full, 
though in justice to ourselves we think you should do so, 
but if you will be good enough to read it you will no 
doubt take the opportunity of correcting your state- 
ments in an early issue. You will see from the judgment 
that Messrs. Minerals Separation, Ltd. were not parties 
to the action directly or indirectly and consequently your 
statement that "Mr. Wolf, like the Blmores, had an 
unpleasant experience with Minerals Separation" is in- 
correct. You will also see that we took action against 
Mr. Wolf for the recovery of fees for services rendered, 
and that before accepting an engagement from him we 
informed him that we had an interest other than that of 
professional advisors, in a company owning a process 
which was likely to prove a serious competitor. In the 
action Mr. Wolf saw fit to counter-claim against us on 
the grounds that we had (as he alleged) taken out pat- 
ents in respect of discoveries made whilst in his employ, 
though he never made any complaint on this or any other 
pretext till the writ was issued. The judgment makes 
it clear that this claim was quite untenable on the 
grounds that there was no similarity either in principle 
or in detail between the process patented by ourselves 
and that of Mr. Wolf. In the result judgment was given 
in our favor for the amount of the claim, whilst the 
counter-claim was dismissed with costs, the Judge not 
even calling upon our counsel to reply. 

The statement in your article that the judgment held 
that Sulman & Picard had fulfilled every obligation of 
their contract is true so far as it goes, but like many 
statements it only contains a portion of the truth, and is 

misleading in that the most important points of the judg- 
ment are entirely omitted. 

We notice that you have in the same issue quoted the 
Wolf patent in full and that you are recommending or 
suggesting to users of flotation processes that this might 
form a foundation for further action against Minerals 
Separation, whereby they might be successfully robbed 
of the fruits of their work. We consider it fortunate for 
the industry that you have quoted this patent in full as 
no one who has the least technical knowledge of flotation 
would recognize in Mr. Wolf's patent a process which 
in any way can be said to anticipate the froth-flotation 
process as patented by Minerals Separation, and we are 
surprised that a paper which professes technical knowl- 
edge and business rectitude should recommend its read- 
ers to adopt such a course. 

We know that you lay claim to impartiality, though we 
regret that in the many attacks which have been made 
upon us and Minerals Separation in your journal we 
have not seen evidence of this. With, however, the 
judgment before you you will have an opportunity not 
only of displaying this quality but of rectifying the mis- 
statements contained in your article of March 22. 

In this matter we have no quarrel with Mr. Wolf, 
though if your article were inspired by information re- 
ceived from him, his recollection of the events is clearly 
at fault. 

Should Mr. Wolf be advised that the Minerals Separa- 
tion processes are an infringement of his patent — a view 
which you evidently hold — we have no doubt that Min- 
erals Separation will be quite prepared to defend them- 
selves against any action which he may wish to take. 

Sulman & Picard. 
London, June 13. 

Exit the Blast-Furnace 

The Editor: 

Sir — Mr. 0. E. Jager's article, in your issue of the 
21st ult., is a clear broad statement of the trend of cur- 
rent practice in the smelting of copper-sulphide ore and 
concentrate ; as it is backed by the prestige of being the 
latest expression of Anaconda technology, it is of especial 
interest to metallurgists. 

There is one point that he has not clearly expressed 
in terms of its real value and importance. In the re- 
capitulation of the merits of the two types of furnaces, 
the blast-furnace item, "higher cost of power", is not 
sufficiently defined. Power for tramming the charge, 
calcine, and slag will be approximately the same in both 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

cases, therefore the difference represents the cost of com- 
pressed air. 

The fuel (potential energy) in a blast-furnace is value- 
less without the compressed air that supplies the oxygen, 
to promote kinetic energy. This item therefore auto- 
matically becomes a money charge with, or on, the fuel 
when comparing the cost of the fuel consumed in the two 
types of furnaces. The air for burning the fuel in the 
reverberatory, being at atmospheric pressure, has no 
cost against it. This fact is not generally recognized, 
but nevertheless it indicates the only way of making a 
true comparison of fuel-cost. 

It would be interesting and instructive if Mr. Jager 
could give detailed figures in terms of heat-units, for 
instance : 

Reverberatory Furnace: Heat-units (fuel) per ton of 
calcine (at x°C.) smelted. 

Blast-Furnace : (1) Heat-units (fuel) per ton of ore 
or charge smelted. (2) Heat-units (air) per ton of ore 
or charge smelted, for producing compressed air. 

This would put the factor of extraneous applied heat 
on a basis parallel with kinetic energy, as against cost 
figures showing fuel in terms of potential energy only. 

Mr. Jager has made his comparison between roaster 
plus reverberatory versus blast-furnace, therefore, the 
heat balances of chemical reactions will, broadly speak- 
ing, cancel one another and the question of reducing only 
the fuel in the different types of furnaces to segregated 
relative and comparative terms becomes important. 

The reason that I emphasize this particular point is 
that I go further than Mr. Jager and believe that even 
in pyritic smelting, using only 1$ to 2% coke to the 
charge, the apparent saving by smelting this type of ore 
in blast-furnaces is anything but real, if the cost of air 
for the production of kinetic energy is stated in terms of 
the extraneous fuel used. For purposes of comparison, 
the reverberatory furnace must be given an equivalent 
direct heat-unit credit for smelting calcine. The heat- 
balances from the chemical reactions of the material 
being treated will be the same in both cases, even though 
the mechanical means of obtaining them are very differ- 
ent. The problem, then, comes down to whether it is 
better, technically and financially, to use a certain 
amount of money in terms of heat-units, for compressing 
air for blast-furnace smelting, or to use the equivalent 
sum, more or less, for direct heat-units applied as fuel 
for smelting hot calcine in a reverberatory furnace. 

If the run-of-mine ore from a pyritic deposit be taken 
as an instance, 15% must be screened out as fine, another 
10 to 15% will be blown out of the furnace and re- 
covered as flue-dust, therefore 25 to 30% of the total ore 
must under any circumstances be treated in roasting and 
reverberatory furnaces, or go through some process that 
will render it physically suitable to become part of the 
blast-furnace charge. The smelting of these products is 
a cost on the blast-furnace, which is thus seen to be a 
defective machine for smelting, when compared with 
roaster and reverberatory, which will smelt not only the 
material the blast-furnace cannot handle, but also that 

which it can, namely, the coarse ore. It is not suffi- 
ciently recognized that even coarse ore decrepitates, and 
becomes fine, just as soon as it comes in contact with 
heat, when the sulphide portion is in sufficient propor- 
tion to catee it to be classified as pyritic ore (about 90% 
iron sulphide, FeS 2 ). The statement regarding decrepi- 
tation does not apply in the same exaggerated degree to 
pyrrhotite or to those ores in which the percentage of 
complex silicate gangue ranges from 20 to 30% or more. 
This type of ore, however, has passed out of the domain 
of pyritic smelting, becoming semi-pyritic, and the prob- 
lem of smelting it becomes even worse for the blast- 
furnace, because the fines and flue-dust problems still 
remain in varying degrees. One of two courses for 
smelting such material in a blast-furnace has to be fol- 
lowed; either the entire tonnage must be roasted in 
heaps, with its attendant costs of handling and re- 
handling, its roast-yard waste, and leaching losses, or it 
must be smelted, or melted, in a blast-furnace at a high 
cost for coke, plus air, to separate the gangue from the 
mineral, throwing the load of 'raising' the low-grade 
matte to a marketable form on the converters. Follow- 
ing this procedure there is a second extra charge for 
compressed air necessary by virtue of the large volume 
of low-grade matte produced; only this time instead of 
the 40 oz. of air already used in the blast-furnace, mostly 
for burning the fuel, 10 to 12 lb. air has got to be com- 
pressed for bessemerizing. 

There axe local conditions that change the financial 
aspect of smelting a given ore in any particular locality, 
but even then there are few cases where blastfurnace 
smelting can justify its existence, when compared with 
modem roasting and reverberatory practice for any 
sulphide material that comes under the classification of 
direct smelting. The question then resolves itself to 
whether the reverberatory is a fully developed machine 
as at present used. I do not think it is, and it will not 
even start on the way to perfection until the waste-heat 
boiler is scrapped along with the blast-furnace, and the 
logical method is adopted of using the waste heat in 
properly designed regenerators, which will return the 
heat-units directly to the furnace itself in live air. 

In the non-reversible regenerative furnace built at 
Kyshtim, Russia, and described in an article in the 
'Mining and Scientific Press' of June 2, 1917, the fol- 
lowing furnace temperatures are shown: 

At bridge-wall 2732°F. 

At throat 2372°, a drop of 360° in 90 to 100 ft. of 

At stack 450°. 

Hot live air to furnace from regenerator at 900°. 

This furnace is 16 ft. wide by 90 or 100 ft. long, the 
fuel used is gas of low calorific value, produced from a 
lignitic coal yielding about 8000 B.T.U., and containing 
about 30% ash. It is easy to see that if the fuel were 
pulverized coal of 12,000 B.T.U. value or crude oil, an 
initial temperature of 2900° at the bridge and 2550°. 
or better, at the throat would easily be attainable. 

The old double-ended regenerative furnaces formerly 

July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


used at Great Falls.* Montana, showed a temperature 
of 2650° at the bridge and 2550° at the throat, W a drop 
of only 100°F. in a length of 41 ft. 6 in. At this low 
initial temperature, the furnace smelted 31.6 tons per 
inn sq. ft. of hearth-area, the average temperature of the 
calcine charged being 788°. This furnace evidently 
worked under the same disadvantage as thai at Kyshtim 
by having gas of low thermal value. 

The above figures show that with regenerated or 
heated live air furnished at the point of combustion of 
the fuel a very even temperature can be maintained the 
entire length of the furnace, which, of course, is the 
ideal condition for obtaining the highest furnace capac- 
ity per unit of hearth-area in reverberatory smelting. 
This cannot be done in current practice, even under the 
best of conditions so far produced. 

The latest data on this point are givenf in the account 
of the work of Capt. Stout at the Copper Queen plant, 
which shows that reverberatory smelting is all a matter 
of applying or conserving heat-units. By enlarging the 
throat of the furnace and decreasing the velocity of the 
gases in the furnace he obtained higher continuous tem- 
peratures more evenly throughout the length of the 
furnace, but the limit was reached in two ways; the ob- 
struction caused by the boilers prevented further de- 
velopment in this direction, and the temperature of the 
emitted waste gases became so high that the' boiler-tubes 
burned out, showing that the limit of the use of waste- 
heat boilers from a mechanical standpoint was at least 
indicated. The data in the article upon the fuel-ratio 
and smelting-capacity of the furnace are of great im- 
portance on the effect of the proper conservation of the 
heat-units. It is pointed out that with calcine at 200° 
0.95 bbl. of oil is required per ton of calcine smelted, 
but it is estimated that only 0.45 bbl. will be necessary 
with calcine charged at a temperature of 1150°F. This 
is of especial importance when considering the problem 
of smelting pyritic ore in a reverberatory furnace, and 
it is easy to see that with the high excess heat produced 
by the chemical reactions in treating this type of ore, a 
thoroughly mixed charge, at 1100° to 1300° can be con- 
sidered practicable, if heat conservation in the roasting 
section be taken care of in the plant design by the in- 
sulation of hoppers and cars. 

The above-mentioned Copper Queen data are all in 
reference to reverberatory furnaces, using waste-heat 
boilers, to save the heat-units from the waste gas leaving 
the furnace; they have no reference to the further de- 
velopment of reverberatory furnaces along the line of 
waste-heat saving by means of properly designed re- 

In the old days of grate-firing a ratio of 4 tons of 
calcine to 1 ton of coal, and the smelting of 10 to 12 tons 
of calcine per 100 sq. ft. of hearth-area was considered 
good average work for a reverberatory. With the intro- 

*E. P. Mathewson, 'The Development of the Reverber- 
atory Furnace', Trans. A. I. M. E., Cleveland meeting, 1912. 

t'Eng. & Min. Jour.', July 20, 191S. 'Notes on Recent 
Metallurgical Progress', by E. P. Mathewson. 

duotion of pulverized fuel the tonnage smelted per LOO 
sq. ft. of hearth-area increased to 21 or 22 with a fuel 
ratio of 6 tons of calcine per ton of coal. The increase 
in capacity is nearly 100% and the decrease in fuel con- 
sumption is 50%. This increased efficiency is due almost 
entirely to the more efficient method of burning the fuel. 
Three factors are principally responsible: (1) carbon 
or coke losses in ash are avoided; (2) complete com- 
bustion takes place instantaneously; (3) there is no 
moisture in the fuel; the actual efficiency of the furnace 
itself in using the developed heat-units is nearly the 
same relatively when burning pulverized coal as it was 
when the coal was fired on grates. 

The average heat-balances of reverberatory furnaces 
using waste-heat boilers and emitting stack-gases at 
about 900°, and the thermal distribution is approxi- 
mately as follows: 

Heat absorbed in smelting, radiation, and other fur- 
nace losses 25% of B.T.U. in the fuel. 
Waste-heat boiler credits 35% of B.T.TJ. 
Lost up the stack at 900°,40% of B.T.TJ. 
The value 35% of the B.T.U. shown as waste-heat 
credit is of decidedly doubtful accuracy by virtue of the 
fact that no furnace synchronizes absolutely with the 
boilers ; consequently at times the boilers are under-fired, 
and sometimes they are over-fired, thus causing them to 
'blow-off', with a consequent loss of a portion of the 
B.T.U. that have been converted into steam and probably 
entered erroneously as a credit. 

This condition necessitates that the central power- 
plant shall always have a boiler, or several boilers, under 
steam to act as a governor to regulate the steam required 
for maintaining the constant load. In small plants, of 
one or two furnaces, this condition is more exaggerated 
than in larger plants. I think that even with the recent 
improvements in reverberatory smelting this is still an 
important adverse factor and should modify the value 
of the steam from waste-heat boilers being considered 
as all real money, in terms of fuel in bins. 

Now, bearing in mind the above figures and the line of 
argument, let us carefully examine what will be the 
position if we change our present practice to one in 
which we use a non-reversing regenerative reverberatory 
furnace for copper smelting, in order that w r e may re- 
cover the waste heat in such form that the saving be- 
comes real and absolute. This positivenesc of results is 
assured in regenerative furnaces only, since the furnace, 
dust-chamber, and regenerators are in a closed circuit 
and final heat-losses can only occur by radiation, or up 
the stack. It does not matter what the temperature of 
the gases is when leaving the throat of the furnace, as 
their heat is returned to the point of ignition, in order 
to reduce the quantity of initial fuel needed to maintain 
any desired temperature in the furnace. The additional 
advantage is shown in the working of the Kyshtim and 
Great Falls furnaces of maintaining an even temperature 
throughout the entire length of the hearth. This can 
never be accomplished so successfully and the same high 
temperature maintained throughout the furnace when 
using* waste-heat boilers for two reasons • the boiler- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

tubes would burn out, and the eventual waste of heat- 
units in waste gases would be too high to be considered 
the full achievement of the greatest possible economy. 

A heat-balance of the regenerative reverberatory fur- 
nace has been estimated, after a careful survey, as 

follows : B.T.U. in fuel 


Heat absorhed in furnace in smelting' and radiation 25 

Regenerator loss 10 

Stack loss at 400°F 15 

B.T.U. returned to furnace through regenerator in live air 50 

So that in the regenerator there will be 35% plus 15 r ; , 
equalling 50%, of the thermal value of the original fuel 
absorbed and transferred from the waste gases to live 
air. having no uncertain value, as the equivalent fuel is 
still 'on hand' in bins, or if it is used in the furnace it 
will smelt 100% more in quantity of charge. 

It is obvious from these figures that even though the 
use of pulverized coal has decreased the amount of fuel 
required for smelting a ton of calcine by 50%. and has 
increased the tonnage of calcine smelted per ton of fuel 
by 100% over grate-firing, this saving can again be re- 
peated by the adoption of regeneration, as set out in the 
previous and in the following tables: 

Calcine Smelted Per lOO sq. ft. of Hearth-Area 

Fuel ratio 

Gr.Tic firing. 10 to 12 tons 4:1 

Pulverized fuel or oil. CO to '2?. tons 6:1 

With regenerative furnaces. 40 to 44 tons 12 : 1 

That these figures are in no wise chimerical has been 
demonstrated by the Great Falls regenerative furnaces 
smelting 31.5 tons per 100 sq. ft. of hearth-area with 
only 100° drop in temperature in 41.6 ft. of hearth- 
length and 360° temperature drop at Kyshtim in 90 to 
100 ft. of hearth-length, in both cases having low initial 
temperatures on account of using fuel of low calorific 

There is no reasonable doubt that the most efficient 
American reverberatory smelting practice so far re- 
corded, was that of the old Great Palls regenerative 
furnaces with every possible factor that leads to success 
against them: a few of which were: (1) low B.T.U. 
value of the fuel used: (2) high ash and carbon loss in 
producers; (3) small old type of inefficient producers; 
(4) long gas-eonduits: (5' regenerators of improper 
designs, hut the standard of the period; (6) regener- 
ators not of sufficient capacity to absorb waste-gas heat- 
units; (7) furnace too small in relation to the modern 
furnaces: (8) loss of efficiency due to checkers clogging 
with dust accretions. 

It was with a knowledge of these facts and having to 
meet the condition of low-grade fuel, at a time when 
pulverized coal had not yet become a factor in smelting, 
that I sought a solution of the problem of the successful 
application of the regenerative principle to reverber- 
atory furnace construction and practice, which eventu- 
ally ended in the design given in the article in the 
'Mining and Scientific Press' of June 2. 1917. This is 
essentially a dust-chamber, placed between the furnace 
and the regenerator, through which the gases pass at a 
reduced velocity, to settle the dust and semi-molten 
particles that escape through the throat of the furnace; 
and a double-chamber regenerator through which the 

gas passes with an up-cast, in contrast to the old Siemens 
principle of no dust-settling appliance and a down-cast 
flow for the outgoing gases, in which the dust and semi- 
molten parjicles formed accretions on the top tiers of 
the checker-work and blocked up the whole area of the 
apertures. Such mechanical difficulties are overcome by 
the use of a chamber which takes out most of the dust 
that it is possible to settle, and that which does go over 
can do no harm, as with the up-cast feature any dust 
that settled out of the gases must fall back clear of the 
checker-work, where it can do no damage. 

There is nothing new or mysterious about regenerative 
furnaces, as furnaces and their value has been demon- 
strated in steel practice. The open-hearth process of 
steel-making would probably never have been developed 
had it not been for the Siemens regenerative furnace, as 
the uniform temperature required cannot be maintained 
in the length of furnace necessary by direct firing, with- 
out incurring heat losses that would become an economic 
impossibility, as it is not the high temperature that is 
required at one point, but an even one throughout the 
length of the furnace that is the chief factor. The fur- 
nace temperature required is 2800 to 2900°P. The re- 
versing or end-over-end principle is essential in open- 
hearth steel-making, otherwise the steel at the end 
farthest from the reducing action of the combustion of 
the fuel would be slightly oxidized : and this the revers- 
ing principle corrects. 

In copper smelting, the single and non-reversing fea- 
ture is nearly essential, because of the necessity of hav- 
ing one end of the furnace 'quiet' for slag-settling pur- 
poses. This fact was the second problem that was faced 
in solving the application of regenerative furnaces to 
copper smelting. 

In all probability a smelting charge consisting of 
roasted pyrite and quartz flux of 94% SiO„ such as 
would be used for pyritic smelting in blast-furnaces and 
at approximately 1150° would smelt with less applied 
fuel than a Copper Queen furnace-charge and give a 
higher metal recovery than either blast-fumace, or, a 
combination of blast and reverberatory furnaces, pos- 
sibly could ; so that power for air plus extraneous fuel 
has got to bear comparison with probably 120 lb. of 
12,000 B.T.U. coal per ton of calcine in a regenerative 
reverberatory and make an equally good recovery to 
keep the blast-furnace in competition even for pyritic 

The mechanical difficulty of smelting the type of 
charge producing a basic slag disappeared with the in- 
troduction of side charging of reverberatory furnaces, 
as it eliminates side-wall corrosion and the necessity for 
fettling. Another factor is that a high stack becomes 
unnecessary ; in fact, it is to be avoided. The regener- 
ator itself when properly constructed is a stack in a 
horizontal position; therefore all that is required further 
is a steel stack such as would be used for a boiler-plant. 
That this is no conjecture will be observed by a visit 
to any open-hearth steel-plant where each furnace has 
its own steel stack about 100 ft. high. The lower the 

July 1!'. 1911» 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


velocity of the gases in the furnace and regenerator, the 
greater »ill be the efficiency of the furnace, 

It bus been demonstrated that the blast-furnaoe is an 
obsolete machine for economical smelting. The rever- 
beratory furnace with boilers for savins,' Hi'- wast.' beat 
From the outgoing gases has reached, or at least shown, 
its limitations of development, both mechanical and eco- 
nomical. At the same time the necessity for further 
progress in the economies of smelting lias never been so 
great as today. The regenerative furnace is a logical 
development and strikes at the root of real economy. 

A radical change today becomes obvious common sense 
tomorrow, but it takes time to break away from old ideas 
and get used to thinking in terms of new ones, as was 
the ease with the adoption of the basic-lined converter, 
and of oil flotation, which, especially as to the latter, had 
considerable justification, because it involved accepting 
new principles, but with regenerators this should not be 
so. because their effectiveness for the recovery of waste- 
heat units has been known for years, even though the 
plan on which they were developed was not suitable for 
copper smelting. If, however, it had been possible to 
take a regenerator checker-work and canals filled with 
flue-dust and invert or turn it upside down, the obvious 
would have happened and the furnace would have con- 
tinued working. This is precisely the principle of the 
design of the non-reversing regenerative furnace, with 
this addition, tl'.at a dust-settling chamber is provided 
to free the gases of the major portion of their dust, be- 
fore proceeding to the inverted or upside-down regen- 
erator, which again has further protection in so far that 
the checker-work is seetionalized into small parts and 
easily accessible, enabling am r section to be removed 
and replaced while the furnace is in operation, or at the 
worst, shutting off the fuel for an hour or two. It will 
be apparent from this explanation that the regenerators 
as a whole are practically indestructible. 

Having pointed out the structural features, I think it 
safe to repeat that from an operating standpoint it is 
not possible to create the favorable uniform temperature 
required for perfect smelting conditions except in a re- 
generative furnace, and that by the use of a properly 
balanced furnace unit an increase in capacity of 100% 
can be expected or a decrease in fuel consumption of 
50% per ton of calcine smelted can be safely estimated. 
Referring back to the Copper Queen data, it is there 
estimated that 0.45 bbl. of oil per ton of calcine is re- 
quired if the temperature of the calcine charged is 1150° 
F. If a regenerative furnace were used, this amount of 
oil may be divided by 2 ; thus 0.225 bbl. of oil per ton of 
calcine smelted or 122.5 lb. of coal at 12,000 B.T.U. per 

It is a pertinent fact that an attempt to operate a 
non-regenerative reverberatory furnace with waste-heat 
boilers attached and having a hearth-length of 100 ft. 
or 110 ft., and using fuel of such low calorific value, 
only creating an initial temperature at the bridge-wall 
of the furnace of 2650° to 2750° and a probable throat 
temperature of 1500° to 1600° would be a failure, be- 
cause the slag bath would be 'frozen' some distance back 

from the skimming-door, and the steam produced in the 
waste-heat boilers would be of little or no value. 

It is also a fact that the old Great Falls regenerative 
furnaces, having a hearth-length of 41 ft. 6 in., but with 
inefficient regenerators and the Kysbtim furnace with a 
hearth-length of 90 or 100 ft., but with efficient regen- 
erators, did use fuel of such low calorific value that it 
did create initial bridge-wall temperatures of only 2650° 
and 2750°, but. owing to the element of the conversion 
and regeneration of the waste-units to hot live air. the 
throat temperatures were only 100° less in 41 ft. 6 in. of 
hearth-length and 360° less in 100 ft. of hearth-length, 
respectively. These regenerative furnaces did work more 
successfully than any non-regenerative furnace ever 
recorded, even when this latter type is provided with 
fuel of the most concentrated and highest calorific value 
obtainable (fuel-oil). This is sufficient evidence to sat- 
isfy even the most skeptical of the effectiveness of the 
principle of converting the waste heat into regenerated 
live air returnable to the furnace ; it is a logical step in 
the development of a machine for economical and effi- 
cient copper smelting. ,_ _ 

Walter G. Perkins. 

Palo Alto, California, July 7. 

Employment Management 

The Editor: 

Sir — "Referring to Mr. Nye's article on this subject in 
your issue of June 14, I beg to say that, irrespective of 
the abnormal labor conditions mentioned, Mr. Nye and 
the Eagle Mining Co. are pointing out the right course 
for the settlement of the labor problem. The working- 
man is looking primarily for an 'honest deal'. Give it 
to him and convince him so clearly that he is getting it 
that no ranting agitator can shake his faith. You have 
a suspicious oft-cheated subject to convert, but it can be 
done ; and with surprising ease, for it is the goal toward 
which he himself with his unions and lock-outs is striving. 

Our method must include both cold-blooded statistics 
and an intelligent personal interest. Where statistics 
alone are relied upon a large labor turn-over is likely to 
occur. Where the personal factor predominates we often 
find inefficiency. A happy medium is the ideal. It is 
rather hard for a boss to attain this ideal without assist- 
ance from higher up. 

One successful method of reducing the labor turn-over 
is in keeping the boss, second above the men, as aloof as 
possible and using him as a court of appeal. For in- 
stance, if the foreman can refrain from giving direct 
orders to the men, the shift-boss can use him as this 
court. There is a psychological effect from the realiza- 
tion by the worker that, besides pleasing the shift-boss, 
he must also please the foreman, whose criticism he never 
hears but who drops a word of praise for good work. 
Merited praise stimulates all of us. 

Under Mr. Nye's system the employment manager 
assumes many of the duties of the court. This curb to 
hasty decisions is equally effective on the workman and 
on the boss. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19. 1919 

The workingman goes to sleep each night with a lot of 
unused brain energy. This energy is continually seek- 
ing an outlet. If not intelligently directed, it often leads 
to some form of mischief. The majority of a man's in- 
consequential' wrongs become real and all-absorbing dur- 
ing the hours he is whittling a stick. Consequently, 
given the usual normal crew of men, start them at poker 
or solo, provided you can think of nothing more original. 
But get them interested in something which will take 
care of that brain energy. And do not forget that you 
get the best out of a man when he is doing something of 
benefit to his fellow-man. Make a limited amount of his 
pleasure include something of this nature. 

Butte, June 22. J. C. Metger. 

[This is a good letter; it contains many excellent sug- 
gestions. — Editor.] 

'Extraction' or 'Recovery'? 

The Editor: 

Sir — In a recent communication of mine to j'our 
journal I made use of the word 'extraction' to signify 
the quantity of a given metal removed from an ore- 
pulp as shown by assay of the residue or tailing. If I 
remember rightly you, Sir, though you were good enough 
not to edit my term, have in time past taken exception 
to this use of the word 'extraction', holding that 're- 
covery' is correct at this stage of the process and that 
extraction does not take place until the metal in question 
has been reduced to a condition suitable for marketing. 
As I have never been able to see eye to eye with you in 
this distinction I hope you will allow me to set forth the 
opposite view with my reasons for favoring it. 

There are two aspects of this question : the first is as 
it concerns concentration processes, in which the metal- 
lurgic content of the original ore is for the most part 
collected into a comparatively small bulk of material 
and thus separated from the gangue or worthless part, 
though in the majority of cases not in the metallic form, 
and the second as applied to leaching processes, in which 
water or a chemical solution is made to dissolve the de- 
sired metal or its salt and thus remove it from the 
gangue, leaving a comparatively worthless residue be- 
hind. Now considering the second case first, I can see 
no word that fits the circumstances better than 'extrac- 
tion': under the word 'extract' Webster's dictionary 
gives, "To draw out, select, quote, distill." The word 
'recover' has no suggestion of any idea common to the 
word 'extract', and is explained by the same authority 
as meaning "to get possession of again." Now the metal 
that is separated from the gangue by leaching (or, that 
is, as I claim, "extracted") we do not always "get 
possession of" ("recover"), as some of us who have 
operated cyanide plants know to our cost; therefore it 
seems to savor somewhat of counting one's chickens be- 
fore they are hatched to say that we have recovered so 
many ounces of silver when that quantity has merely 
been extracted from the ore and has not as yet been 
safely stored in our strong-room. 

Turning now to the aspect of the controversy that is 
concerned with the separation of a mineral containing 
the desired metal from the worthless part of the ore, the 
case is not quite so clear. Here, as you have already 
pointed out, when one has separated metal combined as a 
sulphide from the gangue one has not obtained metal but 
merely a mineral of the metal ; it might therefore be 
asserted that literally one has not 'extracted' the metal; 
but, on the other hand, it seems equally plain that one 
has not 'recovered' the metal, but merely a product hav- 
ing a higher metal-content than the original ore. Thus 
the objection raised against the one word would apply 
with equal force to the other. "What shall we do then? 
Shall we try to bring into use a new word that may more 
literally interpret the facts of the case, as for instance 
'abstract'? This word seems to express fairly well the 
idea of "drawing away" the copper in whatever com- 
bination it may be found, from the worthless part of the 
ore, leaving it to a further process to extract or "draw 
it out" from its combination, though the use of the 
corresponding noun 'abstraction' would seem hardly so 
suitable. Or on the other hand, shall we waive literal 
accuracy for the sake of uniformity of nomenclature and 
adopt in the case of concentration the terms that are by 
the most common usage applied to leaching processes? 
After all, even in the case of concentration, if one looks 
at the question from the point of view of the tailing 
rather than of the concentrate, the copper that was 
originally associated with that tailing is there no longer ; 
it has been 'drawn out' or 'selected'; its form after the 
operation does not matter to the tailing which only 
knows that its erstwhile companion has been by some 
means or other "drawn out of" or "extracted" from it. 

To illustrate my understanding of the essential sig- 
nification and ditferentiation of the two words in ques- 
tion, I will suppose that a certain man is breaking up a 
packing-case to make a kitchen-shelf for his better half. 
As a preliminary to further action, he will probably find 
it necessary to 'extract' the nails. He may then do one 
of two things: he may either throw away, or, if he is of 
thrifty disposition, he may straighten them out and put 
them into his tool box. If he does the latter he will have 
'recovered' the nails in addition to having 'extracted' 

E. M. Hamilton. 

San Francisco, July 5. 

[The copper, for example, in a 2% ore is 'recovered' 
in a 35% concentrate, but it is 'extracted' in a 98% 
blister because this last is marketable as metal. The 
gold in a mill is 'recovered' in the cyanide solution, but 
it is not 'extracted' until precipitated in the zinc-box. 
Like the amalgam in a stamp-mill, the precipitate in a 
cyanide-plant is a product so concentrated and so valu- 
able as to be marketable. Answering Mr. Hamilton's 
suggestion, we would say that the gold in solution is in 
our possession as compared with its former state in the 
crude ore, and that successful precipitation usually so 
nearly ensures extraction as to be considered an accom- 
plished fact. — Editor,] 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Prolonging the Life of the Roofs of Reverberatory 

Furnaces at Anaconda 


present practice of building ribs on the roofs of 
the reverberatory furnaces at Anaconda is an interesting 

example of the revival of an old idea. At the Colorado 
smelter in Butte, the reverberatory roofs were built this 
way in 1899, and the scheme was tried on the first 50-ft. 
furnaces built at the present Anaconda reduction works 
in 1902. The lack of a sufficient variety of brick-shapes 
at that time caused the practice to be discontinued as im- 
practicable. This difficulty has disappeared under pres- 
ent conditions, as plenty of different shapes are now 


available. This is an important point, since the success 
of the scheme depends on good bonding, so that there will 
be no opening, nor falling, of the roof between the rihs 
when the furnace is allowed to cool for repairs. The 
idea is, that, when the roof has burned thin, the space 
"between the ribs is filled with brickwork, thus forming a 
new roof on top of the old one. As the ribs project nine 
inches above the surface of the roof, the additional thick- 
ness of roof will be limited to this amount, but the fur- 
nace campaign will be prolonged about two months. The 
ribs also help to keep the wide roof from buckling or 
otherwise getting out of shape. The system has been in 
use at Anaconda for three years. 

In filling between the ribs, the brickwork is bonded 
longitudinally, but no attempt is made to tie it into the 
ribs ; nor is it necessary to build this nine-inch structure 
■completely across the furnace, as the crown of the arch 
does not burn out as much as the parts near the walls. 
"While the amount will vary according to the condition 
of the roof, it has usually been found sufficient, on a fur- 
nace 22 ft. wide, to extend the nine-inch structure seven 
or eight feet from the buckstays toward the crown. This 
is shown in the sketch (Fig. 1), which also illustrates 

how the reverberatory furnaces bum out, the dotted line 
in the sectional view giving approximately the outline 
produced. The fluxing action of the fine material enter- 
ing by the charging pipes, P, is probably assisted by the 
air that enters when the pipes are opened. Roasted 
flotation concentrate does not protect the side-walls of a 
furnace like coarser material, as the former is extremely 
mobile, and will run down instead of piling up along the 


walls. As the present concentration practice at Ana- 
conda results in the production of a large proportion of 
very fine material, it has been decided to increase the 
thickness of the side-walls of the reverberatories to 2 ft. 
6 in. The plan shows the method of putting on the nine- 
inch brick work between the ribs. As there is nothing 
against which to set a skewback, the structure must be 
arched slightly. 

The construction of the ribs can be understood from 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 191 9 

the sketch, the skewbacks being placed on top of the roof 
against the buckstays. The ribs are made 15 in. wide, 
and every second row of bricks in the rib is tied into the 
roof of the furnace, except where the rib lies on the side- 
walls. The bonding of the rib is shown in cross-section 
along the line A A. The wedges are not driven at the 
crowns of the ribs till after the striking of the centres 
supporting the furnace-roof, as any settlement of the 
roof on the removal of the centres would throw a heavy 
stress on the rib, causing it to crack. It is not possible to 
give any exact spacing for the ribs on a roof, as this 
depends on circumstances, but it may be said, in general, 
that the spacing varies from 32 to 48 inches. It is best to 
butt them against the buckstays, but if this is not possi- 
ble, owing to interfering with the charging-pipes, a plate 
may be placed to cover the space between two buckstays 
and the skewback set against the plate. The present 
practice at Anaconda is to put ribs, suitably spaced, over 
the entire length of the roof. Previously they were built 
on a portion of the roof only, extending about one-third 
the distance from the firing end. 

The photograph shows the top of a furnace-roof with a 
rib at every buckstay. 

Cost-Keeping for Small Metal Mines 


*The importance of keeping accurate accounts of costs 
at small or medium-size mines is not as well recognized 
as it might be. To obtain the greatest benefit from min- 
ing an operator must, among other things, have a clear 
accurate statement of his expenditures and income. This 
will entail the preparation of a suitable accounting sys- 
tem, supplemented by cost-sheets and contributory data. 
From the small independently owned 'one-man' mine, 
where profit and loss are determined solely by the bank 
balance, to the large mining corporation employing the 
best technical advice, with accounting and cost keeping 
executed in great detail, there is a wide transition. 

A suitable and properly applied scheme of cost keep- 
ing will show, within limits determined by the size and 
complexity of the mining enterprise under considera- 
tion, the proper allocation of all operating and construc- 
tion expenditures, and will enable the management to 
know at periodic intervals the cost of any particular 
item. Such information may aid largely in any general 
campaign of cost-cutting or in the elimination, as un- 
payable, of certain phases of the work. 

Adequate and suitable cost-keeping methods are a 
direct corollary to efficient management. Both con- 
tribute largely to the success of any mining enterprise, 
and when combined they frequently turn failure into 
success. It is inconceivable that a* manager can trace and 
promptly stop financial leaks unless he knows the de- 
tailed cost of the various operations that enter into the 
aggregate expenditure. 

Both cost and financial statements may be so padded 

•Abstract from Technical Paper 223 of the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines, 1919. 

with insignificant details as to obscure the main issues. 
A cost statement applicable to all types of mines is not 
possible, but skeleton suggestions that may be modified 
to suit the requirements of individual properties can 
with some confidence be offered. 

A mine that has no transportation difficulties, and 
whose product is marketable without mechanical or 
other treatment, should present the simplest accounting 
and cost-keeping problem. In contrast to this the prop- 
erty whose ores are complex, or distinct in type, requir- 
ing several methods of treatment, may present a difficult 
problem, which may possibly be further complicated by 
involved methods of disposing of the final mine prod- 
ucts; this type of mining enterprise might require an 
elaborate system of cost-sheets and accounts. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the necessity for 
properly systematizing accounts and costs during the- 
development and equipment stages of mining properties. 
The information so gathered will prove valuable and 
necessary not only during its period of execution, but 
also during the life of the mine. 

During the period preparatory to production, mine re- 
serves and surface stock piles may be created, or work 
such as stripping, which may subsequently be a direct 
charge against ore extraction, may be done. The cost of 
doing this preparatory work should be known in order 
that it may be subsequently charged against ore mined. 

To devise a system of cost-keeping applicable to all 
mines is an impossibility, but general schemes capable 
of adaptation are presented and will be found in this 
useful publication. 

Germany's War Sources of Sulphuric 

During the War, American chemists were puzzled as 
to the source of the enormous amount of sulphuric acid 
the Germans were able to secure. Information mow in 
the hands of the U. S. Bureau of Mines shows that at no 
time was there any particular stringency in Germany's 
supply of this acid. During the early months of the- 
War, before conventions could be made with neutral 
countries, large shipments of pyrite were made to Ger- 
many; in fact, the importation of pyrite into Germany 
continued in some volume throughout the War. This. 
reserve built tip at the beginning of the War gave Ger- 
many time to find new resources of sulphuric acid. A 
noteworthy development of the Meggen pyrite took place 
and other pyritic beds were opened in Germany and 
Hungary. Considerable sulphur was obtained from Asia 
Minor. In addition, Germany made important, use of its 
rich beds of blende and galena, finding means to elimi- 
nate the lead-dust that has been a source of trouble in 
the contact process of manufacture. Kaiserite and plas- 
ter of paris also were sources of sulphuric acid, and some 
sulphur was obtained by purifying gas at coke-plants. 
As a matter of fact, sulphuric acid was so plentiful in 
Germany near the close of the War that restrictions on 
its use by industries were rapidly being lifted. 

-July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Sulman & Picard v. Wolf 

•l.\ the High Court of Justice 
Chancery Division 

Royal Courts of Justice 
Saturday. 20th May, 1905 


Mr. Justice Buckley: I need uot trouble you Mr. 

The plaintiffs sue for a sum of £166.16.3, for work and 
labor done, and for services rendered and moneys paid 
for the defendant. The claim divides itself into three 
parts, which 1 may take in the reverse order; the last is 
£4.4.3, which is not disputed ; the last but one is £150, 
which is the sum agreed to be paid by an agreement con- 
tained in writing in letters of the 19 and 22nd February, 
1904 ; and the first is a sum of £12.12.0 for certain work 
done in October and December, 1903. As regards the 
£150, that is quite plainly payable under the letters of 
February 1904 if the services have been rendered. The 
only possible contention against that is that the work 
was not properly done, which I will not dispose of under 
this head as I shall have something to say about it on 
the counter-claim. In my judgment that £150 is entitled 
to be recovered by the plaintiff's. They did the work 
and they have, therefore, become entitled to be paid the 
money agreed to be paid. 

That leaves only the first item, or rather the first two 
items of £5.5.0 and £7.7.0. As to those the only point is 
this; the defendant says that as regards the sum of 
£12.12.0, which he does not dispute is a fair sum — I 
think it was said to be an agreed sum — there was some 
bargain that he should not be asked to pay it until a 
man named Johnson, who was putting up some plant, 
had solved certain difficulties as regards the plant: The 
plaintiffs say nothing of the sort took place. There was 
no connection at all as a matter of good sense and good 
reason between the fact that the plaintiffs had made the 
inspection, which they did make, and that Johnson, the 
contractor employed to make the plant, had not done 
what he ought to have done: there is no reason why 
there should have been such a bargain, and upon the 
evidence I arrive at the conclusion that there was not 
such a bargain. It is a small matter and, at most, I 
think the result of the evidence is that the plaintiffs 
said that inasmuch as Johnson's difficulties, it was 
thought, would have been settled in a few days, they 
were not going to ask for immediate payment. Some- 
thing of that sort might have been said, though I do not 
think it was ; but, at any rate, there was no bargain to 
postpone the payment indefinitely. I may say that when 
the account was sent in, which it was in April 1904, no 

*For explanation, see editorial page. 
tCounsel for plaintiffs. 

complaint of any sort or kind was made as to any of the 
matters which are complained of now; and there are let- 
ters ou the 4th May, 16th May, 2nd June, 14th June, 28th 
June, and 8th July all asking for payment, in answer to 
none of which was any sort of complaint set up ; the de- 
fendant simply did uot pay. Ultimately the writ was 
issued, and it was necessary to obtain an order for substi- 
tuted service. There was no complaint made at all till the 
counter-claim came in in this action. I arrive at the con- 
clusion, therefore, that the claim is sustained, and there 
must be judgment for £166.16.3, unless something arises 
upon the counter-claim. 

I may say, however, before parting with it, that in 
another action which has been brought by Johnson, the 
maker of the plant, against Wolf, the defendant in this 
action, for the amount payable for the plant, "Wolf 
counter-claims against Johnson for £166.6.8, which is 
the same as this sum with a trifling difference of a few 
shillings, as being the amount properly payable by him 
to the plaintiffs in this action. 

Really the substantial contest between the parties does 
not arise upon the claim, but upon the counter-claim, 
and that is a more serious matter because it is an attack 
upon the character of the plaintiffs. Broadly stated, the 
case which the counter-claim seeks to set up is this : that 
the plaintiffs were dishonest in their dealings with the 
defendant; that, being employed by him to investigate 
a certain process, they acquired information in the course 
of their employment and, to put it in a short and crisp 
way, they stole that which belonged to him, appropriated 
it to themselves, and took out certain patents in respect 
of certain discoveries which they had found for him, and 
which they ought to have kept for him. Now is that 
true? Before approaching the fact as regards that I 
desire to say this, that from the first the defendant was 
perfectly well aware that these people were employed 
by other people to investigate similar processes. They 
appear to be gentlemen of eminence in their profession 
who were engaged, not only for Mr. Wolf but for other 
people, investigating processes similar to this. There is 
a letter before he first instructed them, namely on the 
15th November 1902, in which they add by way of post- 
cript, "We think it right to acquaint you with the fact 
that we are now advising other parties on another oil 
process which, however, is essentially different to your 
own." So they frankly tell him from the first that he 
was not the only employer upon processes of this de- 

The next date which I have noted is the 15th Septem- 
ber, 1903 — that is to say, before the particular matters 
which are the subject of charge here in the claim had 
been undertaken by the plaintiffs, which comes from the 
defendant's diary. I have not got a copy of the diary, 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

Inn the substance of my note about it is this, that Sul- 
inan, one of the plaintiffs, then told him that he was 
interested in one of these other processes, the Cattermole 
process, outside his professional interest. As I will state 
presently, the fad was that, the firm had an interest in 
that process, lie was told on the 15th September 1903 
.bat they had a commercial interest in that process, as 
distinguished from the mere interest of being employed 
to investigate it. On the 19th February 1904 there is a 
Letter which seems to me honest in even - particular, in 
which thej told him before they were going to resume 
work for him. the work which was the subject of the 
E150 claim in the writ : "Since writing to you on the 23rd 
nit., certain information has come to us. which, in view 
of your present proposal, we think it only right that we 
should put before you. Our information is in connection 
with another oil process which you are aware we were 
investigating. This process has recently made consider- 
able progress and though we are not free to give you any 
details of it. we are of opinion that it will be a most 
serious competitor to you and will, we think eventually 
prove itself superior to any existing process based on the 
use of oil."' Then they go on to say, "in view of our 
opinion of its probably proving superior we do not feel 
justified in accepting fees from you for developing your 
process without first giving such information and opinion 
as the above. We should therefore suggest to you that 
you might prefer to engage the assistance of some other 
firm to carry out your proposed trials," and so on. 
Then they go on to say: If you are minded still to em- 
ploy us our terms will be, so and so. In the 22nd Febru- 
ary he wrote back in that state of things "I have to 
thank you for your letter of the 19th hist, and am quite 
content that the work should proceed on the footing of 
our existing agreement as modified by that letter." I 
think the position as between the plaintiffs and the de- 
fendant a perfectly honest one. They were engaged 
upon other similar processes and they told him so. They 
told him it was competing with his: they told him they 
had an interest in it other than their professional in- 
terest, and he says, "Never mind, you are the best men 
for my work, I wish to employ you." They were em- 
ployed, and he now declines to pay them. Now he says 
under Article 4 of the agreement of February 1903 
which they entered into with him when this business was 
initiated, that they were hound, as they were, to give him 
the benefit of all discoveries, inventions, designs, and 
improvements from time to time discovered, made, or 
worked out or in course of investigation or experiment 
by the plaintiffs or their assistants in connection with 
the said process or system : so that if in their investiga- 
tions for him they came across something valuable, he 
was to have the benefit of it.' I now want to state in 
general terms why I am of opinion that they have done 
nothing at all in breach of that obligation as between 
them and him. In order to do that I must describe as 
shortly as I can, not what actually the nature of the two 
processes was, but what the diversity' between the two 
processes was. There is a process of dealing with oils 

called the Elmore process, which for my purpose is suffi- 
ciently described by saying that it consists in so dealing 
with powdered ore — a system, therefore of broken rock 
ami .sand. 1* may call it — and metallic particles by the 
introduction of water and oil as that the sand shall be- 
come loaded with water, and shall sink. and the metal shall 
become engaged by the oil and shall float. It is a process 
by which the oil is separated from the sand or gangue 
by flotation of heavier material, namely the mineral, by 
it 1 icing supported by what I may describe as little rafts 
of oil. The process in which Wolf was interested was a 
process of that description. It was of the Elmore type, 
which was the subject of a patent by one Scammell. 
Scammell's improvement upon the Elmore process. 1 
gather, was this, that he found by treating the oil with 
chloride of sulphur he was able to increase the viscosity 
and cohesion of the materials, and he got a better result 
in treating his minerals with oil by employing chloride 
of sulphur in certain proportions with the oil with which 
he was going to make it. That was the nature of the 
Scammell process, which was the process in which Wolf 
was interested ; and therefore what the plaintiffs were 
employed by Wolf to do was to find out all about im- 
provements in a system by which the mineral was to be 
separated from the gangue by flotation by the use of oil 
treated with chloride of sulphur. Well, they investigated 
that, and there are a number of reports which have been 
read; the result was that ultimately a patent was taken 
out of the defendant, Wolf's method, No. 4793 of 1904. 
The patent is for this oil and chloride of sulphur process, 
and the object to be attained is flotation in the way in 
which I have described: but it also comprised this, on 
which reliance has been placed, that after you have dealt 
with the pulp and separated your gangue from your min- 
eral with the result that the gangue is at the bottom and 
the mineral at the top, the gangue was allowed to pass 
out of the foot or at the bottom of the spitzkasten, or the 
vessel in which it was treated, into a tank which is 
marked 'L' in the Wolf patent. On the Wolf specifica- 
tion you will find that the object of 'L' was this: it was 
so made that you got in 'L' sand mixed with oil and as 
they did not want to waste their oil and they wanted to 
get the oil out of the sand again, in order to do that 
there was introduced a current of air into the bottom of 
tank 'L' which was driven up through the oil-laden sand 
with the result, that that drove the oil to the top and 
you recovered the oil ; and the Wolf patent in its fourth 
claim claims this "in separating mineral constituents of 
oil from gangue by means of oil recovering oil from the 
waste pulps by blowing up through them currents of air 
with or without steam substantially as described." It is 
quite true that in those tailings there might be some por- 
tion of mineral also ; it depended upon how efficiently 
you conducted your process whether there was much or 
little, and if there was a little you might get some of it 
back with the oil. But that was not the object of Wolf's 
patent; the object of Wolf's patent was to recover the 
oil, and. mark you, to recover the oil by blowing up 
through the tailings currents of air. That is a sufficient 

July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


description of the thing in which Wolf was interested. 

Now the other matter which the plaintiffs were in- 
vestigating was a differenl system altogether; il was the 
Cattermole process. Now Cattermole'a process was tins: 
be intended to use a very small quantitj of oil. Ee be 
gins by savins that hitherto the proportion of oil used 
has been so ureal that the mineral matter adhering to 

the oil floats. He says. "] am not going to 'I" that: 1 
am going to use a very small quantity of oil. ami my 
Object is that my mineral shall not float hut shall sink, 
ami 1 intend to recover it in this way: 1 am going to 
us.' oil emulsified with water preferably with the addi- 
tion of an emulsify ing agent such as soap." and ho says : 
"I find if I do that I take care not to get oil enough to 
float the mineral. I let my mineral sink, and ray emulsi- 
fying agent, the soap, has an effect by which the mineral 
becomes agglomerated or granulated by the oil which 
adheres in the form of a thin film to the metallic con- 
stituents which sink." So the essential difference be- 
tween these two is that Scammell and Wolf send the 
material upwards by flotation by the oil, and Cattermole, 
by the things which he is going to describe, acting upon 
it makes the mineral with the oil go down, and they are 
to be found at the bottom of the pan in which it is 
treated. There were two patents of Cattermole's 22695 
and 22696 of 1902 which describe a process of that de- 
scription. Now this is the other process which the plain- 
tiffs were treating and which the defendant Wolf has 
been told they had an interest other than a professional 
interest in. There was another patent of Cattermole's 
No. 17109 of 1903, and ultimately there was a patent 
which was introduced by amendment two or three weeks 
ago. I thing it is, in the Pleadings which has been relied 
upon. No. 20419 of 1903 of Sulman & Picard, the plain- 
tiffs. The idea is the same in this sense, that the process 
now which has to be used, instead of emulsifying your 
oil, using a very small quantity of oil and an emulsifying 
agent, and agglomerating your mineral at the bottom, 
Sulman & Picard devised this idea ; spray into your min- 
eral which is to be treated, oil in minute globules, and 
also use air, and you will find that the little globules of 
oil having an affinity for the mineral will engage the 
mineral, and that little bubbles of air or gas will attach 
themselves to the oily surface of the mineral, the result 
of which will be that you will get flotation. You will no 
longer have a Cattermole sinkage; you will get a flota- 
tion, but a flotation by a totally different idea and process 
to that which was involved in the Elmore and Scammell 
processes. This is not flotation by oil at all, but flotation 
by the use of a small quantity of oil, with the result that 
you get bubbles of air or gas attached, and thus you get 
flotation by air and not flotation by oil. That is a claim 
which is totally and radically different, as it seems to me, 
to anything involved in the Scammell process. Now how 
is that in any way within Article 4 of this agreement as 
something which is found out in connection with the said 
process or system, that is to say the Scammell process or 
system ? It had nothing to do with it. It was a different 
matter altogether. Then says the defendant: "But here 

you are using the system of a jet. and a jet is used in my 
tank 'I.', ami therefore you oughl to give me as an im- 
provement, or as a further development of the idea in 
my tank 'I.' your idea of using the jet so as to get flota- 
tion by oil." To my mind there is tonnection between 

the two. The only point of resemblance is that they both 
use a jet. hut the object of the jet in Wolf's process was 
by the insertion of a jet of air to dislocate, agitate, or 
interfere with a mixed mass of sand and oil for the pur- 
pose of driving out the oil : it was to recover the oily 
matter from the tailings. The object in the Sulman & 
Picard patent was not at that stage of the process at all. 
1 1 was a process by which not the oil was to be recovered 
which had ben left in the tailings, but by which the min- 
eral was to be engaged and caused to float and be sepa- 
rated from the gangue; and I confess I do not under- 
stand how it could be said that these gentlemen by dis- 
covering that which is said to have originated by the 
dropping of a grape, which had been touched by a 
greasy finger, into a glass of champagne — that in that 
they were making use for their own purposes of anything 
whatever which was connected with the process which 
they were investigating for the defendant. Having said 
that, I do not know that I need go on and investigate all 
these various matters which have been dealt with in the 
evidence. It is quite plain that Mr. Wolf is a person 
whom I may venture to say is of a nervous and suspicious 
frame of mind. Of course, I ought also to say that the 
plaintiffs have some reason for complaint in that, if he 
thought at any time they were not treating him fairly, 
he did not go and tell them so. 

There is an entry in his diary on the 19th February, 
which is the date when this letter was written to him 
telling him about this competition, which shows that his 
mind was then in a state of suspicion and he was expect- 
ing something of the kind ; but, notwithstanding that, he 
instructed them to go on and act for him. He says 
further there was some default on their part as regards 
the use of this Roumanian oil in the process they carried 
out for him. The result of the evidence as to that seems 
to me to be that this Roumanian oil was, for the purposes 
of the laboratory experiments, effective; nobody denies 
it. When they came to use the process with the plant 
which Johnson had put up, or was putting up, whether 
by reason of some defect in the plant, or by reason of the 
fact that the Roumanian oil was not the best thing to be 
used, it did not succeed ; but there is nothing in that to 
show that they did not render their services to the best 
of their ability in the work they had to do. ■ 

The result, therefore, at which I arrive is this, that 
there must be judgment on the claim for £168.16.3 with 
costs and the counter-claim I dismiss with costs. 

There are 200 engineering societies in the United 
States, with a total membership of 100,000, the annual 
dues amounting to $1,000,000. There are possibly 200 
other societies more or less connected with engineering, 
and having many engineers as members. Probably 100.- 
000 other engineers do not belong to any society. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

A Safe Stair-Tread 


The accompanying illustration shows the design of a 
stair-tread having several good points. Steel stairways 
are a usual feature about smelting works, but it is not 

every design that can be qualified as being safe under 
out-door conditions. Usually, stair-treads consist either 
of a channel filled with concrete, or of a casting having 
a raised checkered surface to give a grip to the foot. 
Both these types collect dirt, flue-dust, mud, and snow 
if placed out of doors, all of which tend to make a stair- 
way unsafe. Ice, of course, is the greatest danger on 
stairs, and the only remedy for it is vigilance on the part 
of the 'Safety First' men, so that no water be allowed to 
drip where it may freeze on a stair. 

The grid type shown herewith seems specially adapted 
for outside use, as no snow can collect on it, while muddy 
feet tend to be automatically scraped in ascending. 
Although the grid stair-tread is not a novelty, this par- 
ticular design is neat and simple. As shown in the 
sketch, besides being bolted to the outside channels, the 
grid is supported at the ends by angles rivetted to these 
channels. The several bars of 2\ by fg-in. iron forming 
the stair-tread are kept in equal spacing by pipe distance- 
pieces slipped on the T V m - bolts. 


Hope op supplying the world's requirements for 
platinum rests largely with Colombia. Extraction in 
the Urals probably is at a practical standstill, owing to 
unsettled conditions in Russia. Furthermore, trend of 
production for years immediately preceding the War 
would indicate the peak of production there had been 
passed. Colombia has gradually increased her output 
from 10,000 troy ounces in 1910 to approximately 50,000. 
It is estimated that with new developments in operation, 
she will be able to produce at least 75,000 ounces per 
year. As the alluvial deposits along the river-beds of 
Colombia have been little worked for platinum, and other 
large areas have not been worked at all, it is probable 
production can be gradually increased and that the peak 
will not be reached for some time. In the past, interest 
has been centred on gold rather than on platinum in 
Colombia. Total known supply of platinum produced 
to date has been estimated at 5,000,000 to 10,000.000 troy 






2 -$' 




= c 






July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Full Text of the Revised Covenant of the League 

of Nations 

[Changes From Original Draft Are Indicated in Italics] 

In order to promote international co-operation and to 
achieve international peace and security, by the accept- 
ance of obligations not to resort to war. by the prescrip- 
tion of open, just, and honorable relations between na- 
tions, by the firm establishment of the understandings of 
international law as to actual rule of conduct among 
Governments, and by the maintenance of justice and a 
scrupulous respect for all treaty obligations in the deal- 
ings of organized peoples with one another, the high con- 
tracting parties agree to this covenant of the League of 

[In the original preamble the last sentence read, 
"adopt this constitution," instead of "agreed to this 


The original members of the League of Nations shall 
be those of the signatories which are named in the annex 
to this covenant and also such of those other States 
named in the annex as shall accede without reservation 
to this covenant. Such accessions shall be effected by a 
declaration deposited with the Secretariat within two 
months of the coming into force of the covenant. Notice 
thereof shall be sent to all other members of the League. 

Any fully self-governing State, dominion, or colony 
not named in the annex may become a member of the 
League if its admission is agreed to by two-thirds of the 
Assembly, provided that it shall give effective guarantees 
of its sincere intention to observe its international ob- 
ligations, and shall accept such regulations as may be 
prescribed by the League in regard to its military and 
naval forces and armaments. 

Any member of the League may, after two years' 
notice of its intention so to do, withdraw from the 
League, provided that all its international obligations 
and all its obligations under this covenant shall have been 
fulfilled at the time of its withdrawal. 

[This article embodies the old Article VII. The first 
paragraph is new. In view of the insertion of the cove- 
nant in the peace treaty, specific provision as to the sig- 
natories of the treaty, who would become members of the 
League, and also as to neutral States to be invited to 
accede to the covenant, were obviously necessary. The 
paragraph also provides for the method by which a neu- 
tral State may accede to the covenant. The third para- 
graph of Article I is new, providing for the withdrawal 
of any member of the League on a notice given of two 
years. No mention of withdrawal was made in the orig- 
inal document.'] 


The action of the League under this covenant shall he 
effected through the instrumentality of an Assembly and 
of a Council, with a permanent Secretariat. 

[Originally this was a part of Article I. It gives the 
name Assembly to the gathering of representatives of the 
members of the League, formerly referred to merely as 
"the body of delegates."] 


The Assembly shall consist of representatives of the 
members of the League. 

The Assembly shall meet at stated intervals and from 
time to time, as occasion may require, at the seat of the 
League or at such other place as may be decided upon. 

The Assembly may deal at its meetings with any mat- 
ter within the sphere of action of the League or affecting 
the peace of the world. 

At meetings of the Assembly each member of the 
League shall have one vote, and may have not more than 
three representatives. 

[This embodies parts of the original Articles I, II, and 
III, with only minor changes. It refers to "members of 
the League" where the term "high contracting parties" 
originally was used, and this change is followed through- 
out the revised draft.] 


The Council shall consist of representatives of the 
United States of America, of the British Empire, of 
Prance, of Italy, and of Japan, together with representa- 
tives of four other members of the League. These four 
members of the League shall be selected by the Assembly 
from time to time in its discretion. Until the appoint- 
ment of the representatives of the four members of the 
League first selected by the Assembly, representatives of 
(blank) shall be members of the Council. 

With the approval of the majority of the Assembly, the 
Council may name additional members of the League 
whose representatives shall always be members of the 
Council ; the Council with like approval may increase the 
number of members of the League to be selected by the 
Assembly for representation to the Council. 

The Council shall meet from time to time as occasion 
may require, and at least once a year, at the seat of the 
League, or at such other place as may be decided upon. 

The Council may deal at its meetings with any matter 
within the sphere of action of the League or affecting the 
peace of the world. 

Any member of the League not represented on the 
Council shall be invited to send a representative to sit as 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

a member at an)' meeting of the Council during the con- 
sideration of matters specially affecting the interests of 
that member of the League. 

At meetings of the Council each member of the League 
represented on the Council shall have one vote, and may 
have not more than one representative. 

[This embodies that part of the original Article III 
designating the original members of the Council. The 
second paragraph is new, providing for a possible in- 
crease in the Council should other powers be added to 
the League of Nations whose present accession is not 
anticipated. The two last paragraphs are new, provid- 
ing specifically for one vote for each member of the 
League in the Council, which was understood before, and 
providing also for one representative of each member of 
the League.] 


Except where otherwise expressly provided in this 
covenant, or by the terms of this treaty, decisions at any 
meeting of the Assembly or of the Council shall require 
the agreement of all the members of the League repre- 
sented at the meeting. 

All matters of procedure at meetings of the Assembly 
or of the Council, the appointment of committees to in- 
vestigate particular matters, shall be regulated by the 
Assembly or by the Council and may be decided by a 
majority of the member's of the League represented at the 
meeting. The first meeting of the Assembly and the first 
meeting of the Council shall be summoned by the Presi- 
dent of the United States of America. 

[The first paragraph requiring unanimous agreement 
■in both Assembly and Council, except where otherwise 
provided, is new. The phrase "or by the terms of this 
treaty" was an alteration proposed by President Wilson 
in moving the adoption of the covenant, to make it con- 
form to the peace treaty proviso of a majority vote. The 
second paragraph was originally included in Article IV.] 


The permanent Secretariat shall be established at the 
seat of the League. The Secretariat shall comprise a 
Secretary General and such secretaries and staff as may 
be required. 

The first Secretary General shall be the person named 
in the annex; thereafter the Secretary General shall be 
appointed by the Council, with, the approval of the 
majority of the Assembly. 

The secretaries and the staff of the Secretariat shall 
be appointed by the Secretary General, with the ap- 
proval of the Council. 

The Secretary General shall act in that capacity at all 
meetings of the Assembly and of the Council. 

The expenses of the Secretariat shall be borne by the 
members of the League in accordance with the appor- 
tionment of the expenses of the International Bureau of 
the Universal Postal Union. 

[This replaces the original Article V. In the original 
the appointment of the first Secretary General ivas left 
to the Council, and approval of the majority of the 


July 19, 1919 
was not required for subsequent appoint 

The sea1*of the League is established at Geneva. 

The Council may at any time decide that the seat of the 
League shall be established elsewhere. 

All positions under or in connection with the League, 
including the Secretariat, shall be open equally to men 
and women. 

Representatives of the members of the League and offi- 
cials of the League, when engaged on the business of the 
League, shall enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities. 

The buildings and other property occupied by the 
League or its officials, or by representatives attending its 
meetings, shall be inviolable. 

[Embodying parts of old. Articles V and VI, this 
article names Geneva instead of leaving the seat of the 
League to be chosen later, and adds the provision for 
changing the seat in the future. The third paragraph, 
opening positions to women equally with men. is new.] 


The members of the League recognize that the mainte- 
nance of a peace requires the reduction of national arma- 
ments to the lowest point consistent with the national 
safety and the enforcement by common action of inter- 
national obligations. 

The Council, taking account of the geographical situa- 
tion and circumstances of each State, shall formulate 
plans for such reduction for the consideration and action 
of the several Governments. 

Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration and re- 
vision at least every ten years. 

After these plans shall have been adopted by the sev- 
eral Governments, limits of armaments therein fixed shall 
not be exceeded without the concurrence of the Council. 

The members of the League agree that the manufac- 
ture by private enterprise of munitions and implements 
of war is open to grave objections. The Council shall 
advise how the evil effects attendant upon such manu- 
facture can be prevented, due regard being had to the 
necessities of those members of the League which are not 
able to manufacture the munitions and implements of 
war necessary for their safety. 

The members of the League undertake to interchange 
full and frank information as to the scale of their arma- 
ments, their military and naval programs and the con- 
dition of such, of their industries as are adaptable to war- 
like purposes. 

[This covers the ground of the original Article VIII, 
but is rewritten to make it clearer that armament reduc- 
tion plans must be adopted by the nations affected be- 
fore they become effective.] 


A permanent commission shall be constituted to ad- 
vise the Council on the execution of the provisions of 
Articles I and VIII and on military and naval questions 

.lulv 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


[Unchanged except for the insertion of the words 

■■Art id, !.••] 


The members of the League undertake to respect ami 
preserve as against external aggression the territorial in- 
tegrity ami existing politics] independence of all mem- 
bers of the League. In ease of any such aggression or in 
ease of any threat or danger of such aggression, the 
Council shall advise upon the means by which this obliga- 
tion shall be fulfilled. 

[Virtually unchanged.] 


Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affect- 
ing any of the members of the League or not, is hereby 
declared a matter of concern to the whole League, and 
the League shall take any action that may be deemed 
wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of nations. In 
case any such emergency should arise, the Secretary Gen- 
eral shall, on the request of any member of the League, 
forthwith summon a meeting of the Council. 

It is also declared to be the fundamental right of each 
member of the League to bring to the attention of the 
Assembly or of the Council any circumstance whatever 
affecting international relations which threatens to dis- 
turb either the peace or the good understanding be- 
tween nations upon which peace depends. 

[In the original it was provided thai the "high con- 
tracting parties reserve the right to take any action," 
&c, where the revised draft reads, "The League shall 
take any action."] 


The members of the League agree that if there should 
arise between them any dispute likely to lead to a rup- 
ture they will submit the matter either to arbitration or 
an inquiry by the Council, and they agree in no case to 
resort, to war until three months after the award by the 
arbitrators or the report by the Council. 

In any case under this article the award of the arbi- 
trators shall be made within a reasonable time, and the 
report of the Council shall be made within six months 
after the submission of the dispute. 

[Virtually unchanged except that some provisions of 
the original a/re eliminated for inclusion in other 


The members of the League agree that whenever any 
dispute shall arise between them which they recognize 
to be suitable for submission to arbitration and which can- 
not be satisfactorily settled by diplomacy, they will sub- 
mit the whole subject matter to arbitration. Disputes as 
to the interpretation of a treaty, as to any question of 
international law, as to the existence of any fact, which, 
if established, would constitute a breach of any inter- 
national obligation, or as to the extent and nature of the 
reparation to be made for any such breach, are declared 
to be among those which are generally suitable for sub- 
mission to arbitration. For the consideration of any 

such dispute the court of arbitration to which the case is 
referred shall be the court agreed on by the patties to 
the dispute or stipulated in any convention existing be- 
tween them. 

The members of the League agree that they will carry 
out in full good faith any award that may be rendered 
ami that they will not resort to war against a member of 
the League which complies therewith. In the event of 
any failure to carry out such an award, the Council shall 
propose what steps should be taken to give effect 

[This article shows a few minor changes. But the 
second sentence is new, inasmuch as it undertakes to givi 
instances of disputes wliich are generally suitabli for 
submission to arbitration, instances of what have latti rly 
been called ' jxisticiable" questions.] 


The Council shall formulate and submit to the mem- 
bers of the League for adoption plans for the establish- 
ment of a permanent court of international justice. The 
court shall be competent to hear and determine any dis- 
pute of an international character which the parties 
thereto submit to it. The court may also give an advisory 
opinion upon any dispute or question referred to it by 
the Council or by the Assembly. 

[Unchanged except for the addition of the last 


If there should arise between members of the League 
any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, which is not sub- 
mitted to arbitration as above, the members of the 
League agree that they will submit the matter to the 
Council. Any party to the dispute may effect such sub- 
mission by giving notice of the existence of the dispute to 
the Secretary General, who will make all necessary 
arrangements for a full investigation and consideration 
thereof. For this purpose the parties to the dispute will 
communicate to the Secretary General, as promptly as 
possible, statements of their case, all the relevant facts 
and papers; the Council may forthwith direct the pub- 
lication thereof. 

The Council shall endeavor to effect a settlement of 
any dispute, and if such efforts are successful, a state- 
ment shall be made public, giving such facts and ex- 
planations regarding the dispute and terms of settlement 
thereof as the Council may deem appropriate. 

If the dispute is not thus settled, the Council either 
unanimously or by a majority vote shall make and pub- 
lish a report containing a statement of the facts of the 
dispute and the recommendations which are deemed just 
and proper in regard thereto. 

Any member of the League represented on the Council 
may make public a statement of the facts of the dispute 
and of the conclusions regarding the same. 

If a report by the Council is unanimously agreed to 
by the members thereof other than the representatives 
of one or more of the parties to the dispute, the members 
of the League agree that they will not go to war with any 


MINING and ScientiBc PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

party to the dispute which complies with the recom- 
mendations of the report. 

If the Council fails to reach a report which is unani- 
mously agreed to by the members thereof, other than the 
representatives of one or more of the parties to the dis- 
pute, the members of the League reserve to themselves 
the right to take such action as they shall consider neces- 
sary for the maintenance of right and justice. 

If the dispute between the parties is claimed by one of 
them, and is found by the Council to arise out of a matter 
which by international law is solely within the domestic 
jurisdiction of that party, the Council shall so report and 
shall make no recommendations as to its settlement. 

The Council may in any case under this article refer 
the dispute to the Assembly. The dispute shall be so 
referred at the request of either party to the dispute, 
provided that such request be made within fourteen days 
after the submission of the dispute to the Council. 

In any ease referred to the Assembly all the provisions 
of this article and of Article XII relating to the action 
and powers of the Council shall apply to the action and 
powers of the Assembly, provided that a report made by 
the Assembly, if concurred in by the representatives of 
those members of the League represented on the Council 
and of a majority of the other members of the League, 
exclusive in each case of the representatives of the parties 
to the dispute, shall have the same force as a report by 
the Council concurred in by all the members thereof 
other than the representatives of one or more of the 
parties to the dispute. 

[The seventh paragraph specifically excluding matters 
of "domestic jurisdiction" from action by the Council 
is new. In the last sentence the words "if concurred in 
by the representatives of those members of the League 
represented on the Council," &c, have been added.] 


Should any member of the League resort to war in dis- 
regard of its covenants under Articles XII, XIII, or 
XV, it shall ipso facto be deemed to have committed an 
act of war against all other members of the League, 
which hereby undertake immediately to subject it to the 
severance of all trade or financial relations, the prohibi- 
tion of all intercourse between their nationals and the 
nationals of the covenant-breaking State, and the preven- 
tion of all financial, commercial, or personal intercourse 
between the nationals of the covenant-breaking State 
and the nationals of any other State, whether a member 
of the League or not. 

It shall be the duty of the Council in such case to 
recommend to the several Governments concerned what 
effective military or naval forces the members of the 
League shall severally contribute to the armaments of 
forces to be used to protect the covenants of the League. 

The members of the League agree, further, that they 
will mutually support one another in the financial and 
economic measures which are taken under this article, 
in order to minimize the loss and inconvenience resulting 
from the above measures, and that they will mutually 

support one another in resisting any special measures 
aimed at one of their number by the covenant-breaking 
State and that they will take the necessary steps to afford 
passage through their territory to the forces of any of 
the members of the League which are co-operating to 
protect the covenants of the League. 

Any member of the League which has violated any 
covenant of the League may be declared to be no longer 
a member of the League by a vote of the Council con- 
curred in by the representatives of all the other members 
of the League represented thereon. 

[Unchanged except for the addition of the last sen- 
tence, providing for an expulsion from the League under 
certain extraordinary circumstances.} 


In the event of a dispute between a member of the 
League and a State which is not a member of the League, 
or between States not members of the League, the State 
or States not members of the League shall be invited to 
accept the obligations of membership in the League for 
the purpose of such dispute, upon such conditions as the 
Council may deem just. If such invitation is accepted, 
the provisions of Articles XII to XVI. inclusive, shall 
be applied with such modifications as may be deemed 
necessary by the Council. 

Upon such invitation being given, the Council shall 
immediately institute an inquiry into the circumstances 
of the dispute and recommend such action as may seem 
best and most effectual in the circumstances. 

If a State so invited shall refuse to accept the obliga- 
tions of membership in the League for the purposes of 
such dispute, and shall resort to war against a member 
of the League, the provisions of Article XVI shall be 
applicable as against the State taking such action. 

If both parties to the dispute, when so invited, refuse 
to accept the obligations of membership in the League for 
the purposes of such dispute, the Council may take such 
measures and make such recommendations as will pre- 
vent hostilities and will result in the settlement of the 
dispute. • 

[Virtually unchanged.] 


Every convention or international engagement entered 
into henceforward by any member of the League shall 
be forthwith registered with the Secretariat, and shall, 
as soon as possible, be published by it. No such treaty 
or international engagement shall be binding until so 

[Same as original Article XXIII.] 


The Assembly may, from time to time, advise the re- 
consideration by members of the League of treaties which 
have become inapplicable, and the consideration of inter- 
national conditions whose continuance might endanger 
the peace of the world. 

[Virtually the same as original Article XXIV.] 

July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



The members of the League severally agree thai this 
covenant is accepted as abrogating all obligations or 
understandings inter se which are inconsistent with the 
terms thereof, and solemnly undertake that they will not 
hereafter enter into any engagements inconsistent with 
the til ins thereof. 

In case a member of the League shall, before becoming 

a member of the League, have undertaken any obliga- 
tions inconsistent with the terms of this covenant, it 
shall he the duty of such member to take immediate steps 
to procure its release from such obligations. 

[Virtually the same as original Article XXV.] 

Nothing in this covenant shall be deemed to affect the 
validity of international engagements such as treaties of 
arbitration or regional understandings like the Jlonroe 
Doctrine for securing the maintenance of peace. 

[Entirely new.] 


To those colonies and territories which as a conse- 
quence of the late war have ceased to be under the 
sovereignty of the States which formerly governed them, 
and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand 
by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the 
modern world, there should be applied the principle that 
the well being and development of such peoples form a 
sacred trust of civilization, and that securities for the 
performance of this trust, should be embodied in this 

The best method of giving practicable effect to this 
principle is that the tutelage of such peoples be intrusted 
to advanced nations who, by reason of their resources, 
their experience, or their geographical position, can best 
undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to ac- 
cept it. and that this tutelage should be exercised by 
them as mandataries on behalf of the League. 

The character of the mandate must differ according 
to the stage of development of the people, the geo- 
graphical situation of the territory, its economic condi- 
tion and other similar circumstances. Certain commun- 
ities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have 
reached a stage of development where their existence as 
independent nations can be provisionally recognized sub- 
ject to the rendering of administrative advice and assist- 
ance by a mandatary until such time as they are able to 
stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be 
a principal consideration in the selection of the manda- 

Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are 
at such a stage that the mandatary must be responsible 
for the administration of the territory under conditions 
which will guarantee freedom of conscience or religion 
subject only to the maintenance of public order and 
morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, ' 
the arms traffic, and the liquor traffic, and the prevention 
of the establishment of fortifications or military and 

naval bases and of military training of the natives tor 
ether than police purposes, and the defense of territory, 

and will also Becure equal opportunities for the trade and 
commerce of other members of the League. 

There are territories, such as Southwest Africa and 
certain of the South Pacific islands, which, owing to the 
sparseness of their population or their small size or their 
remoteness from the centres of civilization or their geo- 
graphical contiguity to the territory of the mandatary 
and other circumstances can be best administered under 
the laws of the mandatary as integral portions of its 
territory, subject to the safeguards above mentioned in 
the interests of the indigenous population. In every 
case of mandate, the mandatary shall render to the 
Council an annual report in reference to the territory 
committed to its charge. 

The degree of authority, control, or administration to 
be exercised by the mandatary, if not previously agreed 
upon by the members of the League, shall be explicitly 
defined in each ease by the Council. 

A permanent commission shall be constituted to re- 
ceive and examine the annual reports of the mandataries 
and to advise the Council on all matters relating to the 
observance of the mandates. 

[This is the original Article XIX virtually un- 
changed, except for the insertion of the words "and who 
are ivilling to accept," in describing nations to be given 
mandates, thus explicitly introducing the principle that 
a mandate cannot be forced upon a nation unwilling to 
accept it.] 


Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of 
international conventions existing or hereafter to be 
agreed upon, the members of the League (a) will en- 
deavor to secure and maintain fair and humane condi- 
tions of labor for men, women, and children, both in 
their own countries and in all countries to which their 
commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that 
purpose will establish and maintain the necessary inter- 
national organizations; (b) undertake to secure just 
treatment of the native inhabitants of territories under 
their control; (c) will intrust the League with the gen- 
eral supervision over the execution of agreements with 
regard to the traffic in women and children, and the 
traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs; (d) will 
intrust the League with the general supervision of the 
trade in arms and ammunition with the countries in 
which the control of this traffic is necessary in the com- 
mon interest; (e) will make provision to secure ana 
maintain freedom of communication and of transit anu 
equitable treatment for the commerce of all members en 
the League. In this connection the special necessities 
of the regions devastated during the war of 1914-18 
shall be in mind; (f) will endeavor to take steps in mat- 
ters of international concern for the prevention and con- 
trol of disease. 

[This replaces the original Article XX, and embodies 
parts of the original Articles XVIII and XXI. It elim- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

mates a specific provision formerly made for a bureau 
of labor and adds the clauses (6) (c) and (/) respec- 
tively providing for the just treatment of aborigines, 
prevention of the white slave traffic wnd the traffic in 
opium, and looking toward progress in international pre- 
vention and control of disease.] 


There shall be placed under the direction of the League 
all international bureaus already established by general 
treaties if the parties to such treaties consent. All such 
international bureaus and all commissions for the regula- 
tion of matters of international interest hereafter con- 
stituted shall be placed under the direction of the 

In all matters of international interest which are regu- 
lated by general conventions, but which are not placed 
under the control of international bureaus or commis- 
sions, the Secretariat of the League shall, subject to the 
consent of the Council and if desired by the parties, 
collect and distribute all relevant information and shall 
render any other assistance which may be necessary or 

The Council may include as part of the expenses of the 
Secretariat the expenses of any bureau or commission 
which is placed under the direction of the League. 

[Same as Article XXII in the original, with the mat- 
ter after the first two sentences added.] 


The members of the League agree to encourage and 
promote the establishment and co-operation of duly 
authorized voluntary national Red Cross organizations 
having as purposes the improvement of health, the pre- 
vention of disease, and the mitigation of suffering 
throughout the world. 

[Entirely new.] 


Amendments to this covenant will take effect when 
ratified by the members of the League whose representa- 
tives compose the Council and by a majority of the mem- 
bers of the League whose representatives compose the 

No such amendment shall bind any member of the 
League which signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that 
case it shall cease to be a member of the League. 

[Same as the original, except that a majority of the 
League instead of three-fourths is required for ratifica- 
tion of amendments, although it does not change the re- 
quirement in that matter with regard to the vote in the 
Council. The second paragraph is also new, and tvas 
added at the request of the Brazilian delegation, in order 
to avoid certain constitutional difficulties. It permits 
any member of the League to dissent from an am-end- 
iii i at, the effect of such dissent being withdrawal from 
the League.] 


I. Original members of the League of Nations. 

Signatories of the Treaty of Peace : 

United States of America, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, 
British Empire, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New 
Zealand, I*dia, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia. Ecuador, 
France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hedjaz. Honduras, 
Italy, Japan, Liberia, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru. Poland, 
Portugal, Rumania, Serbia, Siam, Uruguay. 

States invited to accede to the covenant: 

Argentine Republic, Chile, Colombia, Denmark, Neth- 
erlands, Norway, Paraguay, Persia, Salvador. Spain, 
Sweden, Switzerland, Venezuela. 

II. First Secretary General of the League of Nations : 
[Sir Eric Drummond.] 

[The annex, also a later addition, tvas not published 
with the original draft of the covenant.] 

The Jones Process for Manganese Ores 

The aim of the Jones process is to effect by metal- 
lurgical means a separation and consequent concentra- 
tion of the manganese in ores in which the association of 
the manganese with iron is so intimate that ordinary 
methods of gravity or magnetic separation are out of the 
question. The process consists of two stages. In the 
first, called low-temperature reduction stage, two prod- 
ucts are made, namely (a) metallic iron, suitable for 
direct use in the manufacture of steel, and (6) slag. 
Most of the manganese is concentrated in the slag. Sep- 
aration of these two products is accomplished by grind- 
ing the sinter resulting from the low-temperature treat- 
ment of the ore, and thereupon extracting the magnetic 
iron pellets by means of magnetic separation apparatus, 
producing thereby a high-grade magnetic iron concen- 
trate, and a non-metallic manganiferous sinter. Separa- 
tion is also accomplished by pouring the material under 
treatment in a liquid condition and recovering the iron 
metal in the form of a button. This last method of sepa- 
ration was developed at the Minneapolis experiment sta- 
tion of the Bureau of Mines. Its advantages are obvious, 
and should the process become a commercial success, this 
method of separation would doubtless be used. The sec- 
ond stage, which may be called the high-temperature 
stage, involves the smelting of the manganiferous slag or 
sinter derived from the first stage, to produce a manga- 
nese alloy. 

The results of tests carried out by the U. S. Bureau of 
Mines indicate that by the Jones process concentration of 
manganese in the finely disseminated manganiferous iron 
ores is metallurgically possible. The metal produced in 
the low-temperature redtiction is suitable for conversion 
into steel by ah}' basie steel process. It could not be used 
as a foundry metal. Whether the low-temperature re- 
duction could be modified to yield a foundry metal would 
require further experiments. By a suitable regulation of 
temperature and by the use of iron ore in the place of 
manganiferous ores, it is possible to make a foundry 
metal. About 72% of the manganese in the ore appears 
in the alloy. — Peter Christianson and W. H. Hunter. 

July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




jpg-r ■■ 


State Mines Development Association. — Silverton, 
Paradox Valley, Rico, Telluride, Ouray, La 

Mine-owners in south-western Colorado favor the new- 
ly organized State Mines Development Association. The 
objects of the association are to increase public interest 
and confidence in mining operations and to develop the 
mining resources of the State more intensively. The 
State will be mapped out into 10 districts, each district 
to be supervised by a local board of directors composed 
of shareholders of the association. The local board will 
examine any prospects brought to its attention, recom- 
mending favorable prospects for development. They 
will also have the management of any association projects 
within their district. The various operations of the asso- 
ciation will be determined by the parent company solely 
upon respective merits, regardless of the district location, 
thus eliminating favoritism. The plan of capitalization 
is similar to that of insurance companies, 10-year con- 
tracts being issued to shareholders, upon which an annual 
assessment is paid similar to the premium on insurance 
policies. These contracts call for a participation in the 
association's profits from all sources up to 90%, the re- 
maining 10% going to the capitalization and mainten- 
ance of the parent company. Local branches have been 
organized at Ouray and Silverton, and it is probable that 
other towns will form branches. 

Silverton. — Shipments from this district are light, 
but extensive development work continues. The rising 
price of copper is having a stimulating effect on the 
operations of the smaller producers, whose output is 
mainly copper ores ; it will especially benefit Red Moun- 
tain, as soon as the Silverton railway is again open. At 
present the tracks are out at numerous points, and ex- 
tensive repairs are required before the ore can be pulled. 
Large tonnages are ready for shipment, as has been noted 
at an earlier date. 

The Sunnyside M. & M. Co. has a force of men on the 
ground starting construction work on the new buildings. 
The Gold King Extension Mining Co. is now running the 
mill. The preliminary tests are encouraging, and con- 
tinuous milling is to be expected. Mr. Kinney, who has 
been severely ill, is recovering and will soon resume the 
direction of the work. The Columbus mine, near Animas 
Porks, was obliged to discontinue operations for a short 
period while repairs were made to the compressor. The 
Rouville and the Little Anna properties will be operated 
under lease by Fattor and Job. The American Smelting 

& Refining Co. lias leased the Silver Lake mine to Giono 
& Co., who have started operations. The Silver Ledge 
will resume operations. A fire at the Vernon mine, near 
Red Mountain, destroyed all the outside workings except 
the bunk-house and office-buildings, causing a loss of 
$100,000. The Summit Copper M. & M. Co. has resumed 

The Barstow mine will probably be worked on a larger 
scale than for years, as the orebodies recently opened up 
in virgin ground are promising, there being a large ton- 
nage of high-grade gold-milling ore. The recent strike 
that was made by breaking open an envelope of kaolin 
has broken all records for richness of ore found in this 
mine. The Radiant Mining Co., operating in the vicinity 
of Burro Bridge, reports a good showing of ore on the 
December vein. Development on the Sioux group of 
claims is now under way. The Gold Bird group has a 
good showing of galena and copper in a newly opened 
vein. The North Star M. & M. Co. has resumed opera- 
tions. The Highland Mary Leasing Co. is shipping 

The Needle mountains, about 20 miles south of Silver- 
ton, are receiving attention, and new prospects are being 
opened. The most important is the Black Horse, near 
Needleton; this has extensive bodies of high-grade zinc- 
lead ore. The property is some distance from the rail- 
road, so that packing is necessary, but as soon as in- 
creased shipments warrant the expense a wagon-road 
will be built. 

Paradox Valley. — The Radium Mines Co. is develop- 
ing its holdings in the Long Park district. The Carnotite 
Reduction Co. intends to build a large mill for the treat- 
ment of carnotite ore. The site of the plant has not been 
determined upon, but it will be either in the Paradox 
Valley or at Grand Junction. Shortage of labor con- 

Rico. — Scarcity of labor has caused the curtailment of 
many operations. The Marmatite M. & M. Co. continue 
to mine low-grade ore, and is shipping at the rate of two 
cars daily. An assay-office has recently been added. 
The Rico Argentine Mining Co. is about to resume ship- 
ping. The Resolute Mining Co. continues to mine high- 
grade silver ore. Operations have been resumed upon 
the Expectation group, and a large body of high-grade 
copper ore has been opened up. In anticipation of a 
busy season a boarding and bunk-house will be built. 
The Big Four company will resume operations with the 
driving of a new adit into Telescope mountain. In order 
to facilitate the placing of miners, a clearing-house for 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

miners has been established, so that the needs of the 
Various companies can be listed. 

Telluride. — Shipments continue light, but develop- 
ment work is increasing. Acute labor shortage exists, 
250 men being required for all the projects planned. 
The Bebnont- Wagner Mining Co. is now operating the 
Alta mill successfully, and high-grade concentrate is 
being shipped at the rate of a car every other day. The 
Inamo & Perino Leasing Co. is milling and shipping 

Ouray. — Gannon & Hall are operating the Rose lode 
under lease, the first car of the season having been 
shipped during the last week in June. The holdings of 
the Wanakah Mining Co. are to be sold at auction to 
satisfy a judgment. The holdings consist of the follow- 
ing claims: the Sawdoff Lode, King Lode, Lilly Clay 
Lode, U. S. Gold Lode, and Bluff Lode. 

La Plata.— Mining activity in Cave basin is reviving. 
The Excelsior mine has a good showing of silver ore, and 
has resumed shipments. Transportation difficulties need 
to be overcome, as the ore must be packed for a distance 
of four miles to reach the wagon-road, and from that 
point hauled 25 miles to the smelter. 



Houghton.: — Calumet & Hecla's loss by fire of the 
Hancock & Pewabic engine-house, with its contained 
hoisting plants, did not interfere seriously with ore pro- 
duction. The plant served four shafts on the conglomer- 
ate : No. 7, 8, 9, and 10, all in the South Hecla branch of 
the main Calumet & Hecla mine. Within 12 hours after 
the fire one of the shafts was connected with an auxiliary 
hoist and within 24 hours all shafts were producing ore 
and hoisting it at the normal rate. These four shafts are 
included in the program for greater development with 
depth that is planned for the Calumet & Hecla con- 
glomerate lode. The haulage level to connect the Red 
Jacket shaft with the territory served by shafts 6 and 
7 Hecla and 9 and 10 South Hecla has been driven 3700 
ft. This is being driven in the, amygdaloid 180 ft. under 
the conglomerate, and when finished will be 7800 ft. long. 
Connection with the conglomerate will be established by 
means of underground shafts. Power tramming will be 

. The Seneca shaft is below 1800 ft. and sinking con- 
tinues. Driving has commenced on the first level. The 
cross-cut showed well-mineralized Kearsarge amygdaloid. 
Additional surveys of possible mill-sites have been made 
on that part of the Lake Superior shore line held under 
option. Quiney's new hoist for No. 2 plant has begun 
to arrive and will be installed as rapidly as possible. It 
is designed to hoist from a depth of 14,000 ft., as against 
an 8200-ft. maximum for the present plant. Isle Royale 
production now is limited to shafts 4, 5, and 7. The 
June ore tonnage was approximately 42,000 and aver- 
aged 18 lb. of copper per ton. Five drill parties are 
working in newer openings, all in ground which is re- 
ported to average 20 lb. over a stoping width. North of 

the shaft the drifts over to No. 6 are holed through down 
to and including the seventh level, but on the south side 
the drifts from the surface down to the sixth were 
stopped at 1*00 ft., as that is the point midway to the 


location of the proposed No. 8 shaft. Work on this has 1 
not yet been started. 



Goldfield. — Under supervision of P. D. Bradley, of 
San Francisco, the Goldfield Consolidated mill is being 
repaired and improved and will go into commission the 
first week of August. It is scheduled to treat 1200 tons 
of ore per day from the Red Top mine and the north 
section of the Florence. The Red Top product is to be 
hoisted through the Laguna shaft. The Combination 
mine is being placed in shape for early production by 
way of the Fraction shaft. The Goldfield Development 
Co. estimates, including ore exposed in the north half of 
the Florence mine, a minimum of 2,150,000 tons of ore 
available for treatment. 

A new silver-lead district 10 miles south of Goldfield is 
attracting attention. The district formerly was known 
as Casey's Flats. The Merrill Silver-Lead company, 
owning 125 acres, has been organized, and Harry B. 
Ruhl, interested in a number of companies at Divide, is 
forming a corporation to develop claims in the new dis- 

July IS. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


tript, The principal vein in the Merrill claims has a 
maximum width of six feet. Assays from 3.84 to 7.4 I <>/.. 
silver have been reported. The ore also contains con- 
siderable lead and a small quantity of gold. The prin- 
cipal formation in the district is a dark gray crystalline 

Austin — The face of the Hiawatha tunnel of the 
Austin Nevada Consolidated is in ore, and opening of 
the vein-system has begun. H. G. Richardson, the man- 
ager, reports financing of important work is proceeding 
satisfactorily and that the directors plan to erect the first 
unit of a large mill in the fall. Emmet D. Boyle, Gov- 
ernor of Nevada, has acquired a group of claims adjoin- 
ing the Austin Nevada Consolidated and started sink- 
ing on a promising vein showing high-grade silver. The 
Austin Dakota Co. is reported to have opened extensive 
reserves of ore carrying silver. It is planned to erect a 
mill in the near future. C. J. Babcock, Dean of the 
North Dakota School of Mines, is consulting engineer, 
and C. F. Littrell is manager. 

Pioneer. — J. B. Kendall, president of the Consolidated 
Mayflower, has confirmed report of a discovery of four 
feet of $100 gold ore on the 200-ft. level. The strike was 
made in a raise which had advanced 14 ft. on $40 ore. 
The cross-cut has struck the Mayflower vein on the 500- 
ft. level, showing seven feet of $15 ore. The directors 
have practically decided on immediate construction of a 
new mill, and definite action will probably be taken at 
the annual stockholders meeting, to be held at Pioneer 
on July 21. 

Tonopah. — Tonopah Extension Co. has begun dia- 
mond-drilling of the south end of Red Rock claim, adjoin- 
ing the California claim of the "West End company. The 
work will determine if the Ohio vein continues into Tono- 
pah Extension territory. On the 1680-ft. level of the 
Victor shaft a station has been cut on the north side and 
a 500-gal. turbine pump installed. Cross-cutting is prog- 
ressing from the 1700-ft. level to reach the Murray vein. 

Kennedy. — A. A. Smith and Prank "Warning have un- 
covered a promising vein of silver-gold ore at surface and 
traced the Orebody for 3000 ft. It ranges from three to 
four feet wide and has been followed to a depth of 15 ft. 
The ore is said to be milling grade, mingled with seams 
of rich quartz. Extension of the vein has been found on 
the Silver Butte group, owned by Lee Campbell and 
"William Sarden. 



Forest fires swept large areas of Northern Ontario last 
week, and the mines of the Porcupine camp were for 
some time in danger. Some damage was done at the 
Dome Lake mine and the Hollinger and other properties 
in the Timmins area were seriously threatened, but were 
saved by a timely rainstorm. The most serious losses sus- 
tained were at Boston Creek, where the mining plants of 
the Patricia and Cotter were burned. The loss on the 
mill of the Patricia is estimated at about $75,000. 

Kirkland Lake. — Operations at the leading mines are 

at a standstill owing to the miners' strike, which is still 
unsettled. The majority of the strikers have left the 
camp, a number of them having gone out as prospectors 
or found employment in doing assessment work on claims. 

The Ontario Kirkland will install a 100-ton mill. A 

vein stated to show $28 ore, over a width of 5 ft., has been 
opened up on the 300-ft. level. The Greene-Kirkland 
company, which owns a group of claims formerly be- 
longing to the Lucky Cross, will install a small mining 
plant and carry on a comprehensive program of explora- 
tion.— —The output of the Lake Shore during May 
amounted to $42,136 from the treatment of 1750 tons of 
ore, running $24.08 per ton. — —The Kirkland Lake has 
500 tons of ore in the mine bins and a surface dump of 
8000 tons with stopes full at the 300-ft. level. At the 
600-ft. level a 15-ft. ore face is showing with ore stated 
to average $55 per ton. Running parallel is another 3-ft. 
orebody averaging $28 per ton. Surface work on the 
Young-Duncan east of the Tough-Oakes shows two good 
veins 3 and 5 ft. wide, which are believed to be an ex- 
tension of the Tough-Oakes vein system. At the Kirk- 
land Combine, camps are being built and exploration 
work undertaken. 

Porcupine. — The Porcupine miners recently asked the 
operators for an increase of 50c. per day in wages all 
around. It is hardly probable that the request will be 
granted, but the leading mines are preparing to meet the 
views of their employees by reducing the cost of living, 
by opening company stores, to a point that would be 
more advantageous to them than the granting of the 
increase asked for. The Dome Mines, it is stated, has 
already by this means cut down living expenses some 
18% below what they were at the beginning of the year. 
The Hollinger is making plans in the same direction, by 
which it is hoped to bring about a reduction Of 25%. The 
miners are reported to be showing a conciliatory spirit 
ready to co-operate with the company. 

The Dome Mines is said to be producing at the rate of 
approximately $120,000 monthly, or at about half ca- 
pacity. Aji average of about 20,000 tons of ore is treated 
every 30 days, indicating that mill-heads are running 
somewhat higher than the average grade of the ore. 
Profits are conservatively figured at about $2 per ton. 

The Imperial has let contracts for several hundred 

feet of driving and cross-cutting. — ^The Mclntyre is 
cutting a station in the main shaft at the 1200-ft. level: 
Ore from the 1135-ft. level is being mined and milled. 
The shaft has been sunk 175 ft. deeper and a haulage 
level established. The mill is reported running at ca- 
pacity on ore averaging $10. 

Cobalt. — The threatened strike of miners still hangs 
fire, action having been deferred pending further nego- 
tiations with the mine owners through the Labor Depart- 
ment of the Canadian government. Meanwhile the min- 
ers are receiving an additional bonus of 25c. per day 
for the month of June as a result of the quotations for 
silver having averaged over $1.10 per ounce during the 
month. This brings the total bonus paid in addition to 
the regular wage up to $1.50 per day. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 19, 1919 

The Foster has discovered another vein at the 40-ft. 
level. It is reported to he high-grade. The Oxford- 
Cobalt, which has two claims in the Gillies Limit, di- 
rectly south of the Kerr Lake group of mines, has ap- 
pointed Prof. J. W. Russell, late of "Woodstock College, 

as manager. The Adanac has made its first shipment 

of a car of high-grade ore and concentrate. At the 

Provincial three veins have been encountered, which 
though low grade show considerable silver in the wall- 
rock. On the Temiskaming a 2-in. ore-shoot carrying 
some high-grade has been encountered at a depth of 575 
ft. The Mohawk, on the west side of Mud lake, has 

started work. The Kerr Lake produced 105,582 oz. of 

silver during May, compared with 104,477 in April. 



Rails have been laid on the extension of the North 
Fork branch of the Kettle Valley Railroad to the Rock 
Candy fluorspar mine, belonging to the Consolidated M. 
& S. Co. The siding to the Humming Bird mine also 
has been completed. 

The work at the Big Missouri mine, Salmon River 
district, recently bonded to Sir Donald Mann, has been 
placed in charge of William Noble, who has a number of 

men on development work. The Spider group, Salmon 

River district, has been optioned to R. W. Martin, of 
Seattle. Rich ore is said to have been struck recently. 

Diamond drilling on the Snowstorm property, High- 
land valley, has found a body of high-grade copper at a 
depth of 600 ft. Surface ore sent to the smelter some 
time ago gave returns of 30% and 23% copper, re- 

The Cunningham mill, on the Alamo claims, Slocan 
district, has been re-started. 

Miners at the Cork Province mine, Ainsworth district, 
are out because the mine refused to pay the wage-scale in 
force at the Sandon camp. The ore is low grade, and 
mine-owners say they cannot pay Sandon wages and 
work at a profit. The Silversmith mine, Sandon, re- 
cently shipped 100 tons of concentrate to the smelter, 
and received a return of 90 oz. silver per ton. In future 
it is expected that the mine will be shipping 300 tons of 
silver-lead concentrate per month. 

After a considerable period during which nothing but 
development has been done, the Silver Standard, at New 
Hazelton, shipped two 44-ton cars of silver-zinc concen- 
trate. The mine and mill are in full operation once 
again, and in future will be shipping about two cars of 
zinc and one ear of lead concentrate per month. The 
concentrates are being sent to the Selby smelter. 

A combined San Francisco and Seattle syndicate has 
bonded the Carmi mine, in the Boundary- Yale district. 
A new mill and compressor plant are to be erected. 

Grand Forks. — The Granby Consolidated Mining, 
Smelting & Power Co. has discontinued operations at its 
Grand Forks smelter and Phoenix mine, and it is be- 
lieved that the close down is permanent. Although the 
immediate cause of the cessation of work is lack of coke 

owing to the strike at the Fernie coal-fields, it is felt that 
this trouble only hastened what was inevitable. The com- 
pany is offering all employees at Grand Forks and 
Phoenix frqe transportation to Anyox and positions with 
the company at that place. Among the Phoenix miners 
and business men, however, there is a persistent feeling 
that Phoenix will rise again from its Granby ashes. It 
is pointed out that the machinery is not being removed, 
the only exception being that of a few ore-crushers, and 
that although the Great Northern Railway will pull up 
its tracks, the C. P. R. will not do so. Attention in this 
connection is directed to the report of the Granby com- 
pany of last June, which states that there was then 
3,274,966 tons of ore in the Phoenix mine. Since that 
time it is estimated that about 150,000 tons has been 
mined. On that basis, therefore, there are about 3,000,- 
000 tons still left. This, with the possibility of new de- 
velopment, inclines those with confidence in the camp to 
the belief that the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Com- 
pany of Canada is likely to step into the breach and to 
continue mining operations in the district. 



Sonora. — Exports of ore through the port of Agua 
Prieta into the United States during the month of June 
showed a slight decrease from May. The total value was 
$1,135,600, Mexican gold, from a total of 161 care or 
6296 tons of ore. Nacozari led with 5640 tons, which 
represented several companies, but chiefly the output of 
the Moctezuma Copper Co. ; El Tigre was second with 
450 tons; other shippers were San Nicolas 33 tons, San 
Pablo 48 tons, San Pedro 16 tons, La Cruz 38 tons, Nueva 
Amistad 10 tons, Tarasca 21 tons, Tres Piedras 10 tons, 
and La Roy 30 tons. 

The Babicanora mine is being opened up on three 
levels, exposing some good ore. A 25-ton stamp-mill is 
making a high-grade concentrate of silver and gold, and 
a zinc concentrate which is shipped to Nacozari and mar- 
keted. Sixty men are employed. Las Chispas, adjoin- 
ing the Babicanora, is operating steadily, shipping high- 
grade ore and flotation concentrate from its mill. The 
Tepecate mine, south of the Babicanora, is being opened 
by Hosier Brothers & Co., of Kansas City, Missouri. The 
company is well financed and is doing consistent work re- 
opening the old workings in this rich silver-lead mine. 
Twenty-five men are employed. New machinery is being 
set up. Recent developments underground are reported 
to be of encouraging nature. The Espiritu Santo, ad- 
joining Las Chispas, will start operations soon. At pres- 
ent it is being examined for the owners by John A. Rice. 
It is controlled by a Cananea company composed of R. L. 
Hawes, the estate of Harry Kirk, and others. It is re- 
ported to have rich bodies of silver ore. The San Pascual 
property continues operating in a modest way, develop- 
ing its orebodies by means of shafts and tunnels. It is in 
charge of Martin Hickenson. The San Nicolas, operated 
by Douglas capital, began operation of its new 50-ton 
flotation mill early in July. 

July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Globe. — The Miami Mining & Milling Co. has purchased 
the complete 250-ton milling plant of the Arizona Butte 
company from W. J. Porter of Globe. The company Is now 
installing an initial 50-ton plant, the capacity of which is to 
be increased from time to time. The new compressor plant 
is expected to be in operation within a week. 

Kingman. — It is reported that H. M. Crowther has satis- 
factorily financed the Arizona Butte tunnel project at Stock- 
ton Hill. Sufficient money has been raised to drive an 
11,000-ft. tunnel. It is expected that this tunnel will open 
ore at depth under many old mines and at the same time 
open up new orebodies. A contract has been let to W. D. 
Grannis of Los Angeles to drive an adit drift on the Cedar 
Grannis silver vein near the Leviathan mine. This drift is 
now in 160 feet. 

Nogales. — The Lyman Syndicate of Jerome has secured a 
25 year lease from Billy Powers on the Blue Nose property, 
which has not been worked since 1S82. A large hoist, com- 
pressor, and other machinery have recently been installed 
and sinking is to commence immediately. 

Oatman. — It is reported that the orebody on the 1400-ft. 
level of the United Eastern Mining Co. has been cut and that 
the values are the same as those on the 660-ft. level. The 
shaft has lately been sunk from the 1150-ft. level to the 
1400-ft. level. 

Prescott, — The Silver Belt mine has made its first ship- 
ment of silver ore to El Paso. The ore is estimated to run 
300 oz. of silver per ton and comes from the 300-ft. level. 
Driving on this level is to be continued. A pumping plant 
has been installed and other necessary machinery is to be 

Tucson. — The Ohio Arizona Copper Co. has taken over the 
Silver Hill property in the Silver Bell mountains. This 
property has been worked spasmodically for years, being the 
old Nat Faison patented claims. The work, however, has 
never been carried on at any depth. A 400-ft. shaft is to be 
sunk immediately. The property is 15 miles from the rail- 
road and smelter at Sasco. 


Alleghany. — An electric hoist has been installed in the 
main adit of the Mariposa, 600 ft. from the portal. Shaft- 
sinking to a depth of 500 ft. on the lode will he immediately 
carried forward. Ore of excellent milling grade is reputed 
in the tunnel workings. Sinking will commence shortly at 
the El Dorado group to seek three veins which have given 
fair results in the tunnel workings. 

Carson Hill. — The Morgan mine, operated by the Carson 
Hill company, is producing from the 200, 300, 500, and 675- 
ft. levels and keeping the mill running at capacity on ore 
stated to average $12 to $13. Monthly earnings approximate 
$60,000, with the mill treating about 4500 tons. Total oper- 
ating costs average less than $5. Before the end of July 
stoping will start on the 86 0-ft. level. 

Downieville. — A new tunnel, which will be 700 ft. long, is 
being driven at the White Bear gravel mine. It is planned 
to intersect the channel 1500 ft. below the main lateral, 

from which the miners were recently driven by a heavy 
water flow. John Costa is superintendent. 

Engelmine. — Prospecting outlying ground with diamond- 
drills has been started by the Engels Copper company. 

Grass Valley. — There have been rumors of a new strike, 
due to dissatisfaction with some of the conditions brought 
about by the agreement recently entered into between the 
Mine Workers' Protective League and the operators, which 
does not seem to work out in practice as anticipated by the 
miners. All the mines are in operation except the Union 
Hill, which is stated to have closed down permanently. The 
State Highway Mining company, composed of local residents, 
is reputed to have uncovered at a depth of 50 ft. a vein 
assaying $50 over seven inches. The shaft will be sunk 50 
ft. deeper and driving commenced. 

Ingot. — The Afterthought Copper Co. officially announces 
that the reverberatory furnace and flotation plant will go 
into commission before July ends. Fifty to sixty men will 
be added to the working crew and underground operations 

Kennett. — The Mammoth Copper Co. has asked the super- 
visors to reduce its assessment for this year from $1,963,985 
to $619,164 — a reduction o£ $1,344,821. The company 
claims this cut is fair because of the shut-down of Its smelter 
and the stopping of production, and heavy depreciation. It 
also claims its assessment was out of reason even In good 
times, its assessed valuation having been increased $1,100,- 
000 in the two years of 1916 and 1917. 

Nevada County. — Ray C. Rassen. Commissioner,, appoint- 
ed by the Superior Court of Nevada county, has authorized 
the sale of all the holdings of the Mountaineer Mines Con- 
solidated, to satisfy a judgment obtained July 2 last by Peter 
Bender of Santa Clara county for over $151,000. The prop- 
erty involved consists of some 33 lots and patented quartz 
claims, rights of way, pipe-lines, and surface improvements. 
The property, which has had a varied existence as a pro- 
ducer, is close to town and adjoins the Champion holdings 
on the east and south. 

Placerville. — Following examinations by E. A. Gabriel 
and W. E. Davis of Modesto, large owners, arrangements 
are being made to re-open the Landecker, formerly a pro- 
ducer of gold-quartz and gravel. Richard Reynolds is 
superintendent. John E. Patterson, Long Beach, has pur- 
chased the Blackburn gravel mine near Fairplay, which ad- 
joins the Rocky Bar placer group on the middle fork of the 
Cosumnes river. Development of the channel is to start 

Sloat. — Feather River Gold Mines Co. has concluded an 
excellent placer season and is preparing to improve the dam 
and develop new ground. Henry Halstead Is in charge. 

Cripple Creek. — Contractors are sinking a shaft on the 
Dexter for the leasing firm of Anderson & Benkelman. 
Lessees of the Gold Sovereign Mining & Tunnel Co. are 
mining ore from a vein four feet wide on the 9th level. A 
carload of ore from the Maggie mine of the Cresson Con- 
solidated company brought settlement at the rate of $83.60 
per ton. The ore was mined by Duchesne and Kearns. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

^July 19, 1919 

Twenty-seven sets of sub-lessees operating under the 
Owen-Reberts lease on the Strong mine at Victor are pro- 
ducing a car per day. It is planned to sink the shaft of the 
South Burns mine from its present depth of 1450 ft. to 1700 

Fairplay. — The Mudsill Gold & Silver Mines Co., with 
•offices in Denver, has taken over the properties along the 
London fault fissure known as the Sherwood, Camp Bird, 
and Kurt, and now owns approximately 300 acres on this 
fault. The claims named have produced in excess of 
$100,000 from light development. John B. Stephens is 
president of the company. 

Leadville. — An electric storm recently disabled the power- 
line and stopped the pumps at the Penrose mine. As the 
electric hoists were also stopped, the miners had to climb 
the ladders to escape. The Hibschle sub-lease of the Down 
Town Mines company is producing a good grade of lead 
carbonate and iron flux, with prospects for increased pro- 
duction in the near future. 


Mullan. — The National Copper Mining Co. earned $25,000 
net in June, compared to an earning of $20,000 for the 
month of May. The mine is opened for 1000 ft. in depth 
on the pitch of the vein, with an 800-ft. perpendicular shaft. 

George Craddock of De Borgia is operating a group of 10 
claims situated in the De Borgia copper belt on the same 
vein system as the Monitor, Richmond, and St. Lawrence 
mines. Two adits are being driven. Present development 
amounts to more than 2000 ft. of adits, drifts, and cross- 
cuts, and there is a large tonnage of ore of a milling grade. 


Cosby. — Capt. Gulgren and three miners were badly gassed 
last week by a fire in drift 48 of the Armour No. 2 mine. 


Idbby. — C. E. Lukens, president and manager of the 
Lukens-Hazel Mining Co. of Llbby, Montana, will build a 
power-plant and concentrator on the property; it will be 
capable. of milling 200 tons of ore per day and will cost 
about $200,000. 

Rimini. — The Gould placer mines located four miles above 
Rimini on the Try Again branch of the Ten-Mile have been 
sold to Charles Hewett of Butte for a group of Salt Lake 
investors. Work has already been started on a hydraulic 

Saltese. — The working force at the Tarbox mine has been 
cut to 12 men. Only four men are working underground. 


Carson City. — The Carson Free Gold property is reported 
to have cut four feet of high-grade ore. 

Tonopah. — The wet jack-hammer drilling contest held 
here on July 4 resulted in the following prize-winners: 

First — Dan Boyd, 56-10/16 inches. 

Second — George Lynch, 52-2/16 inches. 

Third — Adam Ogi, 49-14/16 inches. 

Fourth — Ed. Yender, 48-8/16 inches. 


Medford.— We have received a letter from A. E. Kellogg, 
of Gold Hill, entering a friendly protest against the state- 
ment appearing in this column in our issue of July 12, that 
the War Eagle mine carried 31 to 4% mercury over a width 
of 5} ft. Mr. Kellogg further states that he has recently 
inspected this property, and that he is moved to protest in 
the interest of the district, which can only be injured by 
such extravagant reports. We are glad to make this cor- 
rection here. — News Editor. 


^n 1 Q ' =J^»J 

Note. The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars 
of their work and appointments. The information is interesting to our 

Henry Hanson left on July 12 for Idaho for a professional 
trip which will take several weeks. 

Maurice D. Leehey was in San Francisco last -week on his 
return from Washington to Seattle. 

C. Legrand, consulting engineer to the Phelps Dodge Cor- 
poration, has gone from Douglas to New York. 

Cecil A. Gorelangton, Captain in the Engineer Corps, U. S. 
Army, sails for Shanghai on July 29 on his way to North 

A. W. Geiger, Captain in the Engineer Corps of the U. S. 
Army, has returned to San Francisco after a year's service 
at the .front in France. 

J. Volney Lewis will spend several weeks in professional 
work in the Las Animas district of New Mexico. His ad- 
dress will be Hillsboro. 

Lionel Lindsay, at one time on the staff of the M. & S. P., 
voyaged recently by aeroplane from Paris to London, 220 
miles, in 2 hours 6 minutes. 

J. C. E. Baker of Great Falls, and C. L. Tout of Butte, 
have recently taken a working bond and lease on the Pilgrim 
group of mining claims near Bozeman. 

Charles E. Prior, Captain U. S. Army, has returned from 
France and is proceeding to Pachuca, Mexico, as chief en- 
gineer to the Santa Gertrudis company. 

R. C. Gemmell, general manager for the Utah Copper Co., 
will become assistant managing director of the allied Jack- 
ling companies on August 1. Louis S. Cates, at present 
general manager for the Ray Consolidated Copper Co., will 
become assistant general manager for the Utah Copper Co. 
C. D. Moffat has been appointed metallurgical engineer to 
the Jackling companies. 

The San Francisco section of the A. I. M. E. will meet at 
the Engineers' Club on Tuesday next, the 22nd inst., in 
order to hear an address from Mr. Philip N. Moore on 'The 
Engineering Council and the proposed Federal Department 
of Public Works'. The dinner will be at 6:30 as usual; the 
meeting beginning at 7:45 p.m. 

William Tovote was killed recently by Yaq ui Indians in 
Chihuahua, Mexico, while in the employ of the American 
Smelting & Refining Co. He was born in 1872 at Linden, 
in Germany, and graduated from the Mining Academy of 
Freiberg in 1901. After a short stay in Serbia, he came 
to the United States in 1906, and became honorably known 
as a mining geologist, contributing several articles to this 
paper. For several years he lived at Tucson, Arizona, and 
latterly at Venice, California. 

The United States Civil Service Commission announces 
that the examinations listed below will be held in San 
Francisco at an early date. 

Assistant in tobacco investigations (male), $12 00-$ 18 00 
per year; vacancies in the Bureau of Plant Industry, De- 
partment of Agriculture, for duty in the field. 

Assistant instructor, Motor Transport Training School 
(male), $1500-2400 per year. 

Stationary fireman (male), $1000 per year; vacancy in 
Quartermaster Service, Presidio of San Francisco. 

Application blanks and further information relative to 
these examinations may be obtained from the secretary. 
Twelfth Civil Service District, room 241, Post-Office Bdg., 
San Francisco, California. 

July 19, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



San Francisco, July l 
Aluminum-dust, cents per pound 

Monthly averages. 

on — HO 



i — li.75 


Antimony, cents per pound. . . 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound ..' '. 

Lead, pig, cents per pound 57 

Platinum, pure, per ounce .]!!!! 

Platinum, 10<7o iridium, per ounce. ...."' 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb ...'. 

Spelter, cents per pound !!!'..! 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound ...."!"""!""! 10.00- 


(By wire from New York) 
July 15. — Copper is aetive and advancing. Lead is in better demand 
Spelter is active and higher. 


««S e !? w ax ^ lTen official or ticker quotations, in cents per ounce of silver 
999 fine. From Apnl 23. 191S, the United States government paid SI 
per ounce for all silver purchased by it. fixing a maximum of SI .01 y. on 
August 15. 1918. and will continue to pay SI until the quantity specified 
under the Act is purchased, probably extending over several years On 
May 5. 1919, all restrictions on the metal were removed resulting in 
fluctuations. During the restricted period, the British government fixed the 
maximum price five times, the last being on March 25. 1919. on account of 
the low rate of sterling exchange, but removed all restrictions on May 10 
The equivalent of dollar silver (1000 fine) in British currency is 40 65 
pence per ounce (925 fine), calculated at the normal rate of exchange 


New York 

9 107.00 

10 106.00 

11 106.12 

12 106.37 

13 Sunday 

14 106.12 

IS 106.60 




Average week ending 

3 108.90 

10 109.43 

17 111.98 

24 111.62 

1 108.83 

8 107.52 

15 .106.35 


Monthly averages 


Jan 75.14 

Feb 77.54 

Mch 74.13 

Apr 72.51 

May 74.61 

June 76.44 

1918 1919 

88.72 101.12 

85.79 101.12 

88.11 101.12 

96.35 101.12 

99.50 107.23 

99.60 110.60 





July 78.92 

Aug 85.40 

Sept 100.73 101.12 

Oct 87.38 101.12 

Nov 86.97 101.12 

Dec 85.97 101.12 

It has been announced that the TJ. S. Treasury has waived the restrictions 
contained in the agreement between the United States and Great Britain 
for the purchase here of 200.000,000 oz. of silver, which is taken to 
mean that the price of this metal may now move to still greater heightB. 
At first the agreement provided for a price of $1 per ounce, then it went 
to SI. 01 M: . and only recently silver sold as high as $1.14. 

There is slight change for the better in the China market, the rates 
having advanced both in Shanghai and Hongkong because of the movement 
in exports. As was expected, the movement of gold to China has not been 
of much consequence. There is no improvement in the Indian situation. 
The drain on the Treasury is still going on. and the Government is obliged 
to maintain coinage at the old rate. If this situation continues, the silver 
market will be very firm. 


Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 



Jan 29.63 

Feb 34.67 

Mch 36.00 

Apr 33.16 

May 31.69 

June 32.67 

9 19.76 June 

10 20.00 

11 20.26 

12 20.60 

13 Sunday July 

14.... 20.50 

15 20.76 

Monthly averages 

1918 1919 I 

23.60 20.43 

23.60 17.34 

23.60 15.06 

23.60 15,23 

23.60 16.91 

23.50 17.53 

Average week ending 

3 16.37 

10 16.81 

17 17.58 

24 17.89 

1 18.37 

8 18.53 

15 20.29 


July , 29.67 

Aug 27.42 

Sept 25.11 

Oct 23.60 

Nov 23.50 

Dec 23.60 


Boston — Some copper sales for delivery over the year end have been 
made at 20 %c. per pound. Fairly good business has been done for Sep- 
tember delivery at 20 %c. with nearer positions generally one-quarter cent 
per pound under that month. 


Lead iB quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 



















13 Sunday 











Average week ending 









July . . 

. ..10.93 


Feb. . . 

. . . 9.10 



. . .10.75 




. . . 9.07 


. . . 9.38 



Oct. . . 

. . . 0.97 



. . .10.29 



. . . 0.38 


. ..11.74 



. . . 6.49 


Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, New York delivery, 
in cents per pound: 







13 Sunday 






Average week ending 

3 6.63 

10 6.58 

17 6.88 

24 7.02 

1 7.36 

8 7.45 

15.. 7.74 

Monthly averages 


Jan 9.76 

Feb 10.45 

Mch 10.78 

Apr 10.20 

May 9.41 

June 9.63 



















The primary market lor quicksilver is San Francisco, California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. Prices, in dollars per flask of 75 pounds ; 


June 17 95.00 

" 24 95.00 


1 95.00 

8 100.00 

15 100.00 

Monthly averages 




Jan. . 

. . 81.00 



Feb. . . 






.. .114.50 



May .. 

. . .104.00 



. . . 85.50 



1917 1918 

July 102.00 120.00 

Aug 115.00 120.00 

Sept 112.00 120.00 

Oct 102.00 120.00 

Nov 102.60 120.00 

Dec 117.42 115.00 

Prices in New York, in cents per pound: 

Monthly averages 


Jan 44.10 

Feb 61.47 

Mch 54.27 

Apr 65.63 

May 63.21 

June 61.93 




July 62.60 

Aug 62.53 

8ept 61.54 

Oct 62.24 

Nov 74.18 

Dee 85.00 



Boston — On the first of the current month, the British government had 
on hand the following stocks of non-ferrous metals (in long tons) : Cop- 
per, 44,298 tons: spelter, ordinary. 26.059, fine. 13.856; lead, 121,135; 
antimony, 4368; nickel, 2452; aluminum, 10.662. 

In pounds this means that England on July 1 had on hand in surplus 
stocks 99.277,400 lb. of copper, compared with 107,602,080 lb. on June 1, 
a decline of about 8.250.0QO lb. This is indicative of the fact that a 
considerable tonnage of copper is being melted at the present time. During 
June she imported a substantial tonnage of cppper bars yet .at the same 
time she was DUBy enough to eat into her surplus.' 

In lead, however, the story iB different. Great Britain pn the: first of this 
month had on hand 271,342,000 lb. of lead. 3.000,000 lb. more than last 
month and compared with December 19. 1918. the date all restrictions on 
British metal were removed, an increase of over 160,000,000 pounds. 

The nation's supply of zinc also expanded last month. On July 1, 
88,289.600 lb. were held by the government, or about 2,300,000 lb. more 
than in June. There has not as yet appeared any substantial export buy- 
ing in the American zinc market. 

The following (in pounds) pictures present holdings of England com- 
pared with previous months, and also compared with stocks on December 
19, 1918: 

June 1 May 1 Dee. 1918 

107,502,080 114.531.200 61,667.200 

268,591,680 244.186.880 110,008.040 

86,078.720 76,090,560 56.698.880 

24.458,560 25,854,080 22,881,010 

7,956,480 6,760.080 

10.080.000 9,992,640 

July 1 

Copper 99,227,520 

Lead 271,342.400 

Spelter 88.289,600 

Aluminum 23,874,080 

Nickel 5,492,480 

Antimony 9.784,320 

From the above it would appear that England may be as active a buyer 
of American copper in the not distant future as will the Teutonio countries 
when proper credit has beep established for them. Certainly it begins to 
appear as though the world were not as glutted with metal as 90 days ago. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Eastern Metal Market 

July 19, 1919 

New York, July 9. 

The holidays Friday and Saturday, July 4 and 5, caused 
a lull in the markets, but the tone this week is strong and 
demand is quickening. 

Copper has continued to advance on heavier demand, both 
foreign and domestic. 

The tin market has been quiet but steady. 

Very little has been done in lead but the tone is strong 
and prices are firm. 

Demand for zinc has decidedly improved and prices are 

Antimony is unchanged. 


There is no marked change in the situation, but when gen- 
eral conditions are summed up the conclusion is that the 
market is slowly forging ahead to better things. Many 
Northern makers of pig-iron are now comfortably booked 
with orders for third quarter delivery, some have sold well 
into the fourth, and a little business for 1920 delivery has 
been closed. Alabama furnaces expect to benefit from the 
sold-up condition of their Northern competitors. Southern 
prices for pig-iron are slightly stronger, although in Penn- 
sylvania concessions are still being made. Inquiries are 
coming from England, Sweden, and Holland. In finished 
steel products, wire and wire products and tubular goods 
are most active, with structural material making a good 
showing in the central West. The steel industry in general 
is adhering to about two-thirds of capacity. Several makers 
of bolts and nuts have advanced their quotations, having put 
bolts up 5%, nuts, except semi-finished, up $3, and rivets 
up 10%. Export inquiry is more ecouraging, especially that 
coming from the East. Japan is in the market for both rails 
and plates in round tonnages. The Railroad Administration 
is showing no disposition to buy, a policy which is authori- 
tatively said to be hurting the railroads more than the steel 
mills. Confidence in the stability of present prices is 


Twenty cent copper is apparently nearer than was pre- 
dicted a short time ago. July delivery of electrolytic cop- 
per is hard to get under 19.75c, New York, with some pro- 
ducers sold out for this position. Others are quoting as high 
as 20c. For August not less than 20c. can be done with 
probably 20.25c. a fair valuation. For July-August delivery 
' 20c, New York, seems to be general today. We quote the 
market as 19.75 to 20c for July delivery for electrolytic 
copper with Lake firm at 20 to 20.25c, New York. Inquiry 
is reported as very brisk with sales good both for domestic 
and foreign account, Japan being still a buyer. Consumers 
seem to be of the opinion that a rising market is at hand and 
are taking more interest. The market grows stronger daily. 


An absolutely free market, except perhaps so far as the 
necessity for certain import licenses is concerned, seems 
assured now after September 1. An announcement of July 
3, effective July 1, is to the effefft that import restrictions 
( have been removed as of September 1 on pig-iron and metal 
alloys containing tin when imported from countries other 
than countries of origin. It is expected that soon even im- 
port licenses to bring in tin will be no longer necessary. 
Because of the holidays on Friday and Saturday the market 
has been quiet; there has been very little demand. Straits 
tin from stocks is unchanged at 70.50c, New York. The 

London market has been strong the last few days and it has 
had its effect here so that Straits tin from England is quoted 
at 53c per lb. with 52c asked for this grade from the Far 
East. Lamb and Flagg tin for importation is held at 52c 
American 99% metal is quoted at 67 to 68 cents. 


This market is very quite but firm. There has been a fair 
amount of inquiry but it has not resulted in any large 
amount of business despite reports that the demand has 
been big. Quotations are unchanged at 5.40c, New York, 
or 5.15c, St. Louis, these levels obtaining in both the out- 
side market and as the bid of the leading interest. An un- 
confirmed report is to the effect that the American Smelting 
& Refining Co. has sold September-October delivery at 
5.60c, New York. 


The inquiry for zinc has broadened and in the last two or 
three years the tone of the market has become considerably 
stronger. Prime Western for early July delivery is not 
quoted and sold at 7.15 to 7.20c, St. Louis, or 7.50 to 7.55c, 
New York, with not less than 7.20c, St. Louis, asked for 
August. The principal cause of the strength is said to be 
demand for export as well as a quickening demand on the 
part of domestic consumers. 


No change is reported and prices are nominal at 8.37* to 
8.50c, New York, duty paid. 


No. 1 virgin metal, 98 to 99% pure, is obtainable at 33c, 
New York, for wholesale lots for early delivery. 


Manganese: There is a little more inquiry, but buyers 
and sellers cannot get together on price, which springs 
partly from the inability of the sellers to obtain cheap 
freight rates. 

Manganese-Iron Alloys: Ferro-manganese is in light de- 
mand following the recent flurry of buying. Although 
American producers are quite generally quoting $125, de- 
livered, it is believed that $115 and possibly $110 would 
not be refused in some directions. The British price is $115. 
seaboard. Spiegeleisen is unchanged at $30 to $35, furnace. 

Molybdenum: The market is dull, with prices unchanged 
at 75 to 85c. per lb. of MoS, in 90% concentrate. 

Tungsten: Despite the holiday considerable activity is 
reported, and there is additional inquiry for high-grade ore 
for home consumption which is expected to materialize soon. 
Chinese ore for spot and forward delivery has been sold 
around $7 per unit. Business has been done in tungsten 
ores for shipment to Europe — the first in a long time. 

Wire manufacturers are the best buyers of copper, and 
their efforts to obtain it simultaneously have been quite in 
line with plans to advance the market. The agencies and 
producing interests not members of the Copper Export Asso- 
ciation have been coming more in competition with that 
organization and have been underselling the larger factors 
in the export market. The demands of the Scandinavian 
countries, which have been a growing factor in the export 
buying, have been chiefly for wire rods. Much, if not all. of 
this copper will eventually find its way into Germany, pro- 
ducers believe. 

Minings^, Press 



Parsons, associatc editor 

lAoi nl UO M«rM si.. Son FranciKO, 
fiy (A* Dtwty PifblUhhio Company 





iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiitii miiititiiiiimiimimiiinm urn i mi mini iiiiiiiiiiiiiimiimiimiimiimiiii iiiiimmiiiimmimmiimm iiimiiiiimiiiimmiiiimmmiiiiiiimmii imiiiiiimmiiimiiim 


Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 26, 1919 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 




NOTES 105 


A reply to the claim of Sulman & Picard that Min- 
erals Separation has done work of enormous bene- 
fit to the mining industry. Eight years inter- 
vened between date o£ patent and its successful 
application in the United States. Minerals Separa- 
tion stated chalcocite ore could not be treated suc- 
cessfully. Who developed the flotation process? 
M. & S. P., July 26, 1919. 


The purpose of a patent. Need for re-organizing 
the Patent Office. Report of a committee of the 
National Research Council. Four principal recom- 
mendations. The constitution of a special Court 
of Patent Appeals. What is the desirable person- 
nel of such a court. The business-man's dislike of 
legal procedure. A suggested Commissioner of 
Patents, as in Canada. M. & S. P., July 26, 1919. 



By Arthur L. Pearse 109 

A reply to the article by Mr. Hoskin. Different 
varieties of shales. Ammonium sulphate and pot- 
ash. Cost of plants to manufacture shale-oil. 
Fallacy of high recoveries. Retorts and mass car- 
bonization. Temperatures. Future of the in- 
dustry. M. & S. P., July 26, 1919. 


By Sulman & Picard 110 

A note suggesting that we call to our readers' 
attention the benefit Minerals Separation has con- 
ferred on the mining industry of the United States. 
M. & S. P., July 26, 1919. 



By Frank H. Probert 115 

Visit to Western Front of American Mining Mis- 
sion. Lorraine iron mines and treaty of 1871. 
Output of German pig-iron. Operation of captured 
iron and coal mines and steel works. Their wan- 
ton destruction. Problems of reconstruction. The 
treaty of 1919 and the Saar Valley mines. M. & 
S. P., July 26, 1919. 


By Oliver E. Jager 118 

Heavy production and problems of slag-disposal. 
Granulation and haulage. Settling-pits. Founda- 
tions for tracks. Cars and locomotives. M. & S. 
P., July 26, 1919. 


By T. A. Rickard 121 

Some usual errors. Omission of the sign of the 
infinitive. Dangling participles. Wrong subject- 
nominative. Other 'bad beginnings. Redundancy. 
Exact meanings of words. Vague terms. Impor- 
tance of care in writing. M. & S. P., July 26, 1919. 


By D wight Farnum 127 

The Gateway district. Geology. Occurrence of 
the ore. Unscrupulous buyers. Suggestion of co- 
operation. M. & S. P., July 26, 1919. 


By H. E. Clayton 128 

A simple hanger that saves space and keeps maps 
where they are readily accessible. M. & S. P., 
July 26, 1919. 


By B. S. Butler 129 

The production and consumption in the United 
States from 1913 to 1918. Tables giving details. 
M. & S. P., July 26, 1919. 


Abstract from Bulletin 16S of the Bureau of Mines. 
M. & S. P., July 26, 1919. 


Meeting of delegates at Chicago. Scope of the 
Bureau. Resolutions. M. & S. P., July 26, 1919. 


Experimental flotation plant. Costs. Dividends. 
M. & S. P., July 26, 1919. 







Established May 24, 1860, as The Scientific Press; name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining- and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 600 Fisher Bdgr.; New York, 3514 Woolworth 
Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price, 15 cents per copy. Ajinual subscription, payable in advance- 
United States and Mexico, $4; Canada, $5; other countries in postal union 
25s. or $3. 


MINING and Scientific PI1ESS 

July 26, 1919 


This stretcher bar hoist will 
handle from 500 to 1000 lbs. 
operating on but half the power 
required for a 3i-in. drill. You 
can take it into the most in- 
accessible places. You can use 
it for a thousand and one differ- 
ent purposes. And, when not in 
use. it can be placed out of the 

It is practically all steel and is 
so especially sturdy that it rare- 
ly requires any attention. It is 
in use the world over like all 
Massco products. 

SACKETT Sand Pump 

This pump has met with marked 
success in the San Juan district 
of Colorado, where particularly 
hard quartz is encountered, re- 
placing nearly all other types of 
pumps in that district. 

It has an enclosed impeller; the 
shaft can be turned, thus giving 
double wear; adjustable to 
larger pulley when desired; 
bearings and liner-joints effi- 
ciently protected from sand ; all 
parts interchangeable. Get de- 
tails concerning this pump. 

MASSCO Cages and Skips 

Made for every condition o£ mining. The Massco Double Deck Mine Cage 
is equipped with steel-plate doors and automatic chairs which are con- 
trolled by the station-man; and which automatically function when a level 
is reached. They are thoroughly fool-proof. Massco cages conform to the 
safety laws of all states. They are ready for immediate delivery in many 

Massco Service the World Over 

makes it possible for you to get standard machine- 
tools, mining and metallurgical machinery, and 
assay or laboratory equipment at equitable prices no matter in what far-off corner of the world you 
may be. Three great" warehouses are at your service. It will be worth your while to investigate fully. 

Jnst write, mentioning class of equipment in which yon are most interested. 




New York Office: 42 Broadway 


July 26, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


\ S our readers are aware, Mr. Frank H. Probert, Pro- 
•** lessor of Mining- anil Dean of the Mining College 
in the University of California, was one of a commission 
of three Americans sent early this year to investigate 
conditions in the devastated mining regions of northern 
Prance and southern Belgium. He had an opportunity 
to see the effects of German sabotage and to study the 
work of rehabilitation. In this issue we publish an in- 
teresting article on the subject, illustrated by some of 
his own beautiful photographs. 

JUDGE BOURQUIN of the U. S. District Court of 
Montana on July 19 handed down his decree in the 
Minerals Separation v. Butte & Superior case in accord- 
ance with the recent judgment of the Supreme Court of 
the United States. The effect of this is to enjoin the min- 
ing company from further infringement of patent No. 
835,120 and to impose payment for damages, yet to be 
determined by an accounting, for their trespass on the 
rights of Minerals Separation up to the end of 1916, after 
which time the mining company, by using more than 
1% of oil per ton of ore, ceased to infringe. 

STATISTICS of American copper production, as col- 
lected by Mr. B. S. Butler of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, will be found in this issue. It is interesting to 
note that the output during the last three years has 
been steady at a tremendous total, which is about 60% 
greater than the production before the "War. Of this 
increase about 35% is estimated to be normal and 25% 
is due to the demands created by the "War. Among the 
States of the Union the leading producer is Arizona, 
whose output of 769,500,000 pounds of copper reflects 
the splendid activities of the big mines of the dissemi- 
nated chalcocite type, notably the Inspiration, Miami. 
Ray, and New Cornelia. The production of Arizona is 
more than double that made by any other State; it is 
about equal to the combined outputs of Michigan, Mon- 
tana, and Utah. 

TT looks as if the latest Mexican outrage would stir the 
■*■ Administration into action, at last. The insult to the 
American flag involved in the robbery of a crew that went 
fishing near Tampico in a boat from the U. S. S. 
'Cheyenke' is one that cannot be passed, as many other 
acts of brigandage have been. An inquiry into the 
murder of John "W. Correll, an American citizen, in the 
same region, is likewise under way. Since then Peter 

Catron, another American, has been murdered in the City 
of Mexico. We note also that Theodore Patterson, the 
superintendent of the Mazapil Copper Company in Zaca- 
tecas, has been killed by other bandits while engaged in 
professional work. He was a Briton, and we trust that 
his government will stimulate the gentlemen at Wash- 
ington to something more lively than 'watchful waiting'. 
Of that we have had enough and to spare. 

"W7IIEN a mining company reaches an age of 25 years 
" and has produced gold steadily during the whole of 
its life, it is entitled to a celebration. "We note that the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the Great Boulder Pro- 
prietary Gold Mines was recorded at the recent annual 
meeting of the company in London. The mine has pro- 
duced £11,649,970, or (taking the pound sterling at 
$4.70) $54,754,859 worth of gold, at a profit of £6,699,- 
293, or $31,486,677, enabling a distribution of £5,531,- 
800, or $25,999,460, in dividends; and the end of the life 
of this splendid property is not yet in sight, for over 
$5,000,000 worth of ore is still in reserve. Moreover, 
the company is on the look-out for fresh mines to be oper- 
ated under its existing excellent management, of which 
Mr. Richard Hamilton is the chief. He has been resident 
manager, at Kalgoorlie, "Western Australia, at least since 
1897, when the present writer visited the mine and went 
underground with him. 

/~\IL-SHALE is an interesting topic of discussion at 
^-' this time, so we are particularly pleased to publish 
a letter from Mr. Arthur L. Pearse on this subject, with 
which he is familiar, having himself had practical experi- 
ence in the production of oil from shale and from coal. 
The figures of cost he gives are most welcome ; also those 
of yield. Most writers on this new branch of mining con- 
tent themselves with airy generalities, thereby failing to 
attract the more sagacious type of business man. Mr. 
Pearse lays stress on the question of marketing the 
product ; that, of course, is one point on which the 
financial world or the investing public, meaning those 
who find the capital for mining enterprise, is sceptical. 
So long as liquid petroleum can be drawn from wells 
and pumped through lines of pipe for long distances, 
the shale-oil will be at a disadvantage unless the mine is 
close to a railroad. However, the consumption of well- 
oil is so great and the sources of it so limited that the 
day must come soon when a market will be available for 
rock-oil. The increasing price of oil favors this expecta- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

tion. We note that Mr. Carl H. Bead, in Bulletin 177 of 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines, states that "the limit of oil 
production is being approached and that, although new 
oilfields undoubtedly await discovery, the yearly output 
must inevitably decline, because the maintenance of a 
given output each year necessitates the drilling of an in- 
creasing number of wells. ' ' Another factor is the drain- 
ing of virgin ground by neighboring wells, thereby di- 
minishing the anticipated yield of undeveloped areas ad- 
joining them. While we deprecate undue optimism, 
especially such as lends itself to irresponsible stock- 
jobbing schemes, we believe that the profession can well 
afford to pay attention to the possibilities of shale-oil 
production, so as to be ready to guide the public when 
the occasion arises. 

TTUMOR is often unconscious. We find much to amuse 
■'■■'■ us in the circulars and prospectuses of persons offer- 
ing for sale either mines or machinery without knowing 
much about either. A little pamphlet describing a dry 
concentrator has been sent to us ; we forbear mentioning 
the name because we believe the inventor and seller is 
acting and writing in good faith ; but we think it fair to 
expose some of his blunders, because any man in his posi- 
tion ought to take pains to be better informed. In the 
pamphlet we are told that "the State of Arizona has 
more than 125,000 square miles. Much of this is wild 
waste land — and everywhere one may find black sand — 
which is only oxidized gold, that is, gold that has united 
with the oxygen of the air, defying all former processes, ' ' 
except, of course, the one now offered to the simple- 
minded miner among the cactus and prickly pear. We 
think it unnecessary to italicize the obvious blunder. 
Again, "there are many placer deposits containing un- 
limited quantities of free gold, but without water; no- 
body has ever been able to save these values." Well, 
there is "unlimited" water and "unlimited" gold in the 
sea and "nobody has ever been able to save" the more 
valuable of the two, in sufficient quantity, although many 
attempts have been made. However, we do not mind Mr. 
Dry Concentrator's nonsense about the resources of 
Arizona so much as his statement concerning the cost of 
operation. He gives an itemized estimate in which he 
puts down a superintendent at $5 per day, a cook at $3, a 
teamster at $3, a furnace man at $3, and eight laborers at 
$2. Surely this is a bad anachronism, one cannot employ 
such men for such wages in Arizona at this time, unless 
it be Navajos or Papagos. By such figuring he gets a 
cost of 50 cents per ton, when it is dollars to doughnuts 
that the cost would be more than twice as much. As 
against the 50-cent cost, he expects a $5 yield of gold. 
Of such flimsy fabric are dreams made. We hope the 
gold will not be oxidized. 

"TkEPRESSION is the dominant note of a forecast made 
■'-' at Johannesburg by Mr. C. D. Leslie, consulting en- 
gineer to the Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa, 
in his recent valedictory speech to the Institute of Engi- 
neers of South Africa. The impending cessation of oper- 
ations at a large number of low-grade mines in the near- 

eastern portion of the Rand goldfield moved him to 
sundry sad predictions. Fourteen mines, extending from 
the New Goch to the East Rand Proprietary, earned an 
average profit of only 14 cents per ton during the pre- 
ceding quarter, and it must be remembered that only 
70% of the so-called profit of these companies is trans- 
latable into dividends. The flow of water underground, 
says Mr. Leslie, is at the rate of 3000 million gallons per 
annum and costs about 50 cents per thousand gallons to 
pump. Should the increasing cost and decreasing yield 
of this group of mines compel a closing-down, the water 
would overflow into the neighboring properties and 
would penetrate the workings of the Central Rand, un- 
less special efforts were made to arrest the inundation. 
Mr. Leslie is of the opinion that it would never pay to 
re-open the poor mines, in view of the water difficulty, 
the caving of the workings, and the decay of the plant. 
Not only has the pay of the white workers increased 
rapidly since 1914, but their efficiency has undergone a 
marked decline, and also that of the natives employed 
on the Rand. The cost of labor has increased $1.25 per 
ton during the past five years. The outlook is anything 
but cheerful. 

The Flotation Process and Its Makers 

Last week's issue contained a letter from the firm of 
Sulman & Picard; this week we publish a short note of 
later date, in which these distinguished metallurgists 
ask us to draw attention to the "enormous benefit" con- 
ferred upon the mining industry by the Minerals Sep- 
aration company, with which they are so prominently 
identified. Our editorial last week on the origin of the 
froth-agitation process dealt with one phase of the sub- 
ject; for the rest, we are quite willing to recognize the 
services of Messrs. Sulman and Picard, and of the 
numerous other technicians employed by Minerals Sep- 
aration Limited, in developing the flotation process, but 
to us it seems only a part of the big work done during the 
past fifteen or twenty years in applying the modifying 
influence of oil to the water used in concentrating the 
valuable constituents of ores. We would be quicker to 
express a generous estimate of the efforts made by 
Messrs. Sulman and Picard and their friends if we were 
not so hampered by the memory of facts. Unfortunately 
for the easy winning of a reputation for "impartiality," 
to which reference was made in the letter published last 
week, we recall the fact that the Minerals Separation's 
basic patent No. 835,120 was obtained in 1905, yet their 
own first successful application of their method was not 
made until eight years later, at the Inspiration mine in 
1913. Speaking from the American standpoint and from 
the point of view of their American patent of 1905, it 
appears that they did not introduce their process to the 
American mining industry until eight years after the 
grant of the patent. Moreover, in an official report dated 
January 8, 1911, by Mr. J. M. Hyde, then on their staff, 
the statement was made that the tests performed in the 
Minerals Separation laboratory proved that ' ' the copper 

July 26, L919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


ons of a good pan of the South-West and also of at leaal 
a portion of the Utah region contain ohalcocite, which is 

not floatable by any of the methods so far bested." This 
referred to the big deposits of disseminated chalcocite to 
which flotation has been so successfully applied, by 
Others, since then; the statement as made by Mr. Hyde, 
who severed his connection with the patent-exploiting 
company shortly afterward, summarizes the opinion of 
the Minerals Separation staff at that time. Mr. T. J. 
Hoover, who was their general manager and technical 
advisor, resigned in December 1910 and published his 
book on 'Concentrating Ores by Flotation' in 1912. In 
that book, which was carefully revised by Messrs. W. H. 
Ballantyne and S. Gregory of the Minerals Separation 
company and to the publication of which they gave a 
grudging consent, it is stated, "An ore in which the valu- 
able minerals are wholly or partly bornite or chalcocite, 
as those of Bingham canyon, will probably give trouble 
to flotation processes, although not always, for among 
the many ores tested the one which gave the most uni- 
formly satisfactory results was a copper ore assaying 
2.8% copper, all in the form of microscopic specks of 
bornite." So he remarks: "It may be that only those 
where bornite and chalcocite are of secondary occurrence 
give trouble." The reference is to the ore of the Utah 
Copper Company, which has developed the application 
of flotation on an enormous scale. The mention of sec- 
ondary enrichment, of course, would except all the great 
'porphyry' mines of the disseminated type in Arizona, 
New Mexico, and Nevada, to which others have applied 
flotation so successfully. The evidence shows that their 
lack of knowledge concerning their own process, and 
their positive assertions concerning its metallurgie limi- 
tations, delayed the successful use of the process in this 
country, in which they had secured a patent, for eight 
years. It is true, Messrs. E. H. Nutter and G. A. Chap- 
man, of Minerals Separation, made successful experi- 
ments, leading to the erection of a mill, at the Inspira- 
tion mine in March 1913, but in the same month Mr. 
T. A. Janney likewise made his first successful experi- 
ment on low-grade chalcocite ore at the Utah Copper 
Company's mill. Moreover, the success of the Inspira- 
tion mill was due, and is still due, largely to the use of 
the pneumatic froth-making machine devised by Mr. 
J. M. Callow. The effective application of froth-flota- 
tion to low-grade copper ores in the United States did 
not become a fact until 1915, that is, ten years after the 
date of the Minerals Separation company's basic patent. 
So we venture to submit to our readers that we are not 
ungenerous in refusing to give the entire credit for this 
valuable metallurgical process to the Minerals Separa- 
tion people, because neither in its discovery, as pointed 
out last week, nor in its application, as above outlined, 
were Messrs. Sulman, Picard, and Ballot the only per- 
sons concerned. They have done a notable service by 
their persistent efforts, ever since 1901, to develop an 
effective process, just as the Elmore brothers for six 
years before them kept the idea of the use of oil as an 
agent of concentration before the public, but the flota- 

tion process as used in American mills today is the 
product of research and experiment by a host of metal- 
lurgists and mill-men, at the head of whom we would be 
willing to place Henry Livingstone Sulman and Hugh 
P. K. Picard, but with them and sharing honor with them 
we would name Francis J. Elmore, Charles V. Potter, 
Guillaume D. Delprat, Alcide Froment, A. R. Catter- 
mole, T. J. Hoover, J. M. Callow, J. M. Eyde, E. II. Nut- 
ter, G. A. Chapman, and Leslie Bradford, and a score 
of clever mill-men whose contribution to the art has been 
the development of the correct manipulation without 
which the scientific ideas of the others would have fared 
badly. The flotation process is not the brain-child of any 
one or two men ; it is the composite product of the logical 
thought and the intelligent empiricism of at least a score 
of earnest workers. That is why we have fought the 
attempt of Messrs. Sulman, Picard, and Ballot to obtain 
a monopoly of the process and a monopoly of credit for 
the success of the process in the United States; and our 
opposition has been intensified on account of the high- 
handed methods adopted by them to bully the profession 
of which Messrs. Sulman and Picard are distinguished 
members, and, last but not least, on account of their in- 
effectual efforts to prevent the publication of information 
concerning the technology of the process. 

Concerning Patents 

Patents are intended to encourage and reward in- 
ventors by granting them sole rights to make, use, or sell 
their invention. Owing to the vast multiplication of 
mechanical devices and the enormous expansion of me- 
chanical methods for performing industrial operations, 
the Patent Office has become of greatly increasing im- 
portance both to inventors and to the community at large. 
It has proved defective both in its procedure and in its 
performance, owing to the inadequacy of the staff and 
the resulting unsatisfactory examination of applications 
for patent. Moreover .the promiscuous granting of patents 
upon conflicting inventions and the consequent resort to 
an unsatisfactory kind of litigation have decreased the 
value of ownership in a patent and made it difficult for 
inventors of small means either to enforce their rights or 
to sell them to advantage. The National Research Council, 
one of the useful creations of the war period, appointed a 
committee to investigate the subject and tc make recom- 
mendations. This committee will command confidence, 
for it consists of Messrs. William F. Durand, Leo H. 
Baekeland, M. I. Pupin, R. A. Millikan, S. W. Stratton, 
Reid Hunt, Frederick P. Fish, Thomas Ewing, and 
Edwin J. Prindle. Of these the first is chairman of the 
committee, he and the two next in order are scientists 
and inventors; the next two are scientists, the sixth is a 
physician, and the last three are patent lawyers. This is 
a group of men admirably fitted to study the subject 
and to suggest the changes necessary in the existing law. 
They have made four principal suggestions. The first is 
that there shall be a single Court of Patent Appeals, 
which shall sit at Washington, and the head of it is to be 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

a Chief Justice appointed for life by the President; 
the other judges are to be selected by the Chief Justice 
of the U. S. Supreme Court from the various District 
and Circuit judges in the country and each is to sit 
in the Court of Patent Appeals for six years, or longer 
if re-appointed. Next, the committee proposes to make 
the Patent Office a separate institution independent 
of the Department of the Interior, under which at 
present it receives no proper attention or direction, 
simply because the Secretary of the Interior is swamped 
by the multifarious duties arising from the numerous 
bureaus in his charge, nor is he a man selected on account 
of possessing any of the special qualifications needed for 
the proper supervision of the Patent Office. Thirdly, 
the committee recommends a large increase in the num- 
ber of patent examiners and an increase in their salaries, 
so that men of the requisite ability may be employed. 
Finally, the committee advocates an amendment of the 
law whereby proper compensation for infringement of 
his patent may be granted to the patentee. It is be- 
lieved, by the committee, that "the comparative cer- 
tainty of financial return would answer one of the most 
common and strongest reproaches against the patent 
system, namely, that a patent does not ordinarily pay 
the inventor any money, and it believes that the incentive 
to invent would accordingly be greatly increased." Yes, 
it would; and we sympathize with the committee's well- 
intended proposal for this purpose, but it seems to us 
conditioned upon the adjudication of questions of in- 
fringement by a court qualified to pass judgment by 
reason of a competent understanding of the technology 
involved in a dispute over patent rights. The personnel 
of the proposed Court of Patent Appeals fails to give 
adequate assurance of a consummation so devoutly to be 
wished. It is thought, apparently, that by selecting from 
among the judges such men as have shown aptitude for 
the understanding of patent problems, it will be possible 
to form an efficient court for this special purpose, but 
that, it seems to us, would simply perpetuate the evil of 
submitting highly technical questions to the adjudication 
of men without sufficient training in the sciences applied 
to such questions. In course of time the members of the 
Court of Patent Appeals, if constituted as recommended 
by the committee, would become well informed at the 
expense of the litigants, but why not make a clean break 
from an unhappy precedent and organize a court com- 
posed of men with the exact qualifications required for 
the duty, namely, patent lawyers. Moreover, steps should 
be taken to keep disputes over patents out of the courts 
as far as possible. The business-man of today has learned 
that a lawsuit is a gamble, he prefers to keep out of the 
courts, he is afraid of verbal technicalities on the one 
hand and of the judicial custom of falling back on prece- 
dents, however defective in their origin. So he submits 
his case to an arbitrator. By doing so he does not expect 
to save the fee due to an advisor, or even the expense of 
legal counsel, but he is able to submit his case to a man 
of sagacity unhampered by the apparatus of the courts. 
An official arbitrator or intermediary is needed for the 

purpose of settling disputes over patents before they go 
so far as to require the intervention of a costly and un- 
certain litigation. Canada gives us a useful suggestion ; 
there they do these things better in several respects. 
They have I Commissioner of Patents, who is empowered 
to abate the impetuosity of patentees and yet to protect 
them in their lawful rights. A patented invention must 
be manufactured within two years after the grant of the 
patent, so as to stop any dog-in-the-manger tricks. Fur- 
thermore, no invention can be imported "after the ex- 
piration of twelve months from the grant of a patent or 
an authorized extension of such period," except under 
special license. This is to compel domestic manufacture 
of the machine, but the Commissioner appears authorized 
to modify the regulation so that it may be reasonable in 
its incidence. Moreover, any person may apply to the 
Commissioner for a license to make, use, or sell the pat- 
ented invention, in the event of the patentee refusing ' ' to 
grant licenses to others on reasonable terms." In short, 
he is in a position to exercise discipline and to prevent a 
too exacting monopoly. In the United States the owner 
of a patent can decline to give a license to anybody at 
will or can levy a royalty as large as he pleases ; he can 
charge one person a royalty of 10 cents and he can mulct 
another for 10 dollars ; he need answer to nobody, unless, 
of course, he does something to bring him under the 
censorious eyes of the Federal Trade Commission, as has 
happened to Minerals Separation recently. It seems to 
us that it would be well if there were an officer of the 
Government, such as a Commissioner of Patents, em- 
powered to hear patent disputes and to settle contro- 
versial points before going to a Court of Appeals. The 
Commissioner, even if occasionally he did not settle the 
dispute, would elucidate the salient technical facts and 
leave only questions of law for the Court of Appeals. 
We are reminded of the settlement of mining disputes 
by the Wardens in the Australian mining districts. 
Each district or group of districts has an official called 
the Warden, before whom come disputes over the boun- 
daries of claims, trespasses underground, and other con- 
flicts arising in the course of mining operations. It is a 
remarkable fact that mining lawsuits are rare in Aus- 
tralia for the simple reason that the decisions of the 
Wardens are usually so fair that it becomes unprofitable 
to carry the dispute into the courts. A Commissioner of 
Patents, with competent deputies, in order to deal 
promptly with any number of disputes as they arise, 
would be a boon and a blessing to a quarrelsome phase of 
human activity. In closing, we may state that we are 
not adverse to the grant of patent rights to inventors or 
to the reward to be derived therefrom by the pioneers of 
industrial progress ; not at all. Some of our readers have 
interpreted our opposition to the Minerals Separation 
people as a desire to deny the rights of royalty to all in- 
ventors. That is not so. We have opposed them for 
reasons stated on another page in this issue and in the 
one preceding. We respect the gemiine inventor and are 
glad to see him rewarded by being accorded special rights 
under the Government. 

.lulv 86, L919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


D I 3 


The Oil-Shale Industry 

The Editor: 

Sir — in your issue of May 2-1 you publish another in- 
teresting article by Mr. Hoskin. He speaks of the differ- 
ence between American and Scotch shales, but there is 
just as much difference and a much greater variety of 
shale in this country ; so much so in fact that it will be 
found necessary to adopt different methods of treatment. 
These differences are not only those shown by analyses 
but in the physical make-up ; they require different 
methods of handling and no standard retort is adapted 
to every case. This is perhaps one of the reasons why 
more than .20 various kinds of retorts have been tried in 
this country, and still more are indicated. 

Mr. Hoskin suggests a new name for oil-shale, but is 
this wise in view of the great line of division between 
shale that is represented by the Colorado-Utah deposits 
and the carbonaceous shales, both of which are bitu- 
minous ? 

He suggests that profits can be measurably augmented 
by making ammonium sulphate and crude potash. Sav- 
ing some of the ammonia has for a long time been an 
integral part of the business, but as the extraction of 
good oil and ammonia is principally dominated by widely 
diverging temperatures, one or the other has to be 
sacrificed; to obtain best results in oil, lower temper- 
atures are indicated, whereas for ammonia a higher 
temperature is demanded; in other words, low temper- 
atures, 900°F. downward for oil and for ammonia up to 
2000°F. This at once involves the question not only of 
the retort but the material of which it is constructed; 
consequently the cost and capacity of the retort. Cer- 
tain moderate percentages of ammonia, of course, are 
recovered at low temperatures whether by wet or dry 
methods; the average recovery under present conditions 
is not 50% of the theoretical. As the Scotch shales are 
poorer in volatile but richer in nitrogen than the Colo- 
rado shales, more attention has been paid to the am- 
monia than is likely to be the case with the American 
shales of an average content of 0.55% or less. Regarding 
the potash, it is extremely doubtful if the cost and trouble 
involved are worth while ; it was tempting when potash 
was worth $300 per ton, or more, as a war product, but 
not under normal market conditions. 

Mr. Hoskin says that the manufacture of shale-oil is 
"not a formidable process nor does it involve an expen- 
sive plant." and then he states wliat a plant comprises. 
The fact is that the recovery of oil-shale is a difficult art 
and if properly carried out involves more than he would 

lead us to infer. It took the Scotchmen many years to 
make a success, and if "we should not base any plans for 
commercializiug American oil-shales upon practices and 
successes in Scotland and elsewhere, ' ' are we to begin all 
over again or follow their lead ? 

Now as to expense: careful estimates for a complete 
1500-ton Scotch type of plant, to be erected on this side, 
were a trifle over $1500 per ton-day ; at the present time 
this would cost 30%. more, or, say, $2000 per ton. Re- 
cently a 1000-ton plant for Colorado was figured at 
$1200 per ton. Both were of the continuous vertical 
type, with regulation methods for oil distillation and 
ammonia recovery; more modern types, both in the re- 
tort end as well as the stilling end, can be erected for 
$800 to $1000 per ton for plants of 1000 tons capacity 
upward, if on a railroad and under normal conditions. 
A pre-war cost of refining including recovering the 
ammonium sulphate was 62c. per ton with sulphuric 
acid at $6 per ton, while the retorting cost 40c. Today 
this cost is $1.25 and 70c, respectively ; add to these the 
cost of mining or getting the shale plus general charges 
and you have a basal figure it should cost to recover the 
prime products. 

It is a fallacy to suppose that high percentages of re- 
covery are most economical. It costs too much and the 
last oil is the poorest. I have heard it stated that the 
Colorado-Utah shales will run 55 gal. per ton, with 0.55 
nitrogen ; if you get 42 gal., or a barrel, the prime prod- 
ucts should be 16 lb. of ammonium sulphate; 15 lb. of 
wax ; 33 to 36 gal. of gasoline and lubricating oil, with a 
residue of uncertain value. Much lower-grade shale will 
be worked, and will depend on the amount of uncon- 
densed gas obtained. Most modern retorts require only 
two-thirds the heat we used in the older forms of retorts, 
and so will treat lower-grade shale. Generally, the poorei 
the shale the easier it is to run, besides which the nitro- 
gen does not necessarily fall with the volatile contents. 
Sometimes the reverse is the case. 

Steam-shovel methods of mining shale have been con- 
demned, because the poorer grades become unavoidably 
mixed with the better grade, but the ability to retort 
lower-grade stuff favors shoveling with its saving in cost 
of mining by 75c. to $1 per ton. 

Modern methods of coal carbonization help us much 
in the matter of retorts and retorting, and with the low 
temperatures indicated because of the low nitrogen con- 
tents of the shales referred to, the matter of retort con- 
struction is simplified; but merely condensing the gases 
in "air-cooled condensing-pipes" has given way to up- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

to-date fractional condensation. A modern plant entails 
considerable capital expenditure and careful regulation, 
but it means lower running costs both in retorting and 
distillation with more satisfactory commercial results. 
To make a success you must carry the process further 
than merely separating the liquid from the non-con- 
densible gases, and the recovery of ammonia. By frac- 
tional condensation the fractions can be obtained in one 
operation, and herein lies the profit. 

Speaking of retorts, your contributor mentions a proc- 
ess in which gases of combustion are drawn upward 
through the charge. This method of heating was tried 
and patented years ago by certainly one of the most 
eminent men in the business, who personally told me it 
was abandoned because of the deleterious effects on the 
products evolved; this is easily proved by comparing 
the value of the oil produced by this method and that 
produced by ordinary methods of distillation. So it 
would seem that so far we are confined to distillation in 
air-tight retorts into which heated steam may be in- 

So many types of retorts have lately been designed 
that it is not possible to deal with them individually, but 
I am able to state that most any process involving mass 
carbonization is likely to fall out of competition. In- 
deed it is obsolete, except when the form and structure 
of the carbonized residue are of first importance, as in 
metallurgical coke, for instance. By 'mass carboniza- 
tion' is understood the heating of a body of material, 
the particles of which are in close contact with each 
other, in contra-distinction to a condition in which 
each particle is unconfined. Mass carbonization involves 
the passage of the heat-units from the shell of the re- 
tort into the centre of the charge; it sets up the best 
heat-screen as carbonization proceeds. This is why the 
consumption of heat is so great in coke-ovens and the 
many forms of vertical retorts, both in shale and coal 
practice. The need for 2,000,000 or 2,500,000 B.T.U. per 
ton is common and is required because of the difficulty 
of causing the heat to penetrate the carbonizing ma- 
terial, which is always a good non-conductor. A good 
illustration of this is in a modern by-product coke-oven 
in which the diameter of the charge is, say, 14 inches; 
with a chamber temperature of 2000°F., it takes four 
hours to boil water in the centre of the charge. If small 
particles of shale or coal can be separately attacked by 
heat, not only is carbonization rapid but the gases evolve 
freely and need not be subjected to cracking or degrada- 
tion as is usually the case, and it can be effected by one- 
Ihird less heat. By way of illustration, a half-inch cube 
of shale in a temperature of 750°F. requires five hours 
and a half to give off all its volatile, a quarter-inch cube 
requires three hours and twenty-five minutes, while in a 
temperature of 900°F. the time would be reduced to 
three and a half and one hour and a half, respectively. 

Mr. Hoskin very wisely says there are many angles to 
the industry and only a few points can be discussed at a 
time. It is generally conceded that the industry has 
come to stay ; the main question now is as to the best 

marketability of the product, or in other words, the ques- 
tion of distribution, which is applicable not only to the 
shale-oil, but to mineral-oil generally. 

The destructive distillation or carbonization of coal 
in many of its forms in some countries has created quite 
as much interest as the treatment of shale. The ques- 
tions involved are much more difficult, but what is being 
done today in England, and, I am informed, what we 
shall hear from Germany, will doubtless be an education, 
and I am sure it will be very helpful to the shale in- 
dustry. If the treatment of oil is not a formidable proc- 
ess, we have the satisfaction of knowing that far more 
difficult problems are being and will be successfully 
solved, and I am right in saying that the commercial 
treatment even of intumaceous bitaminous coal for oil 
has been successfully accomplished, and with due regard 
to the residue in the form of good metallurgical coke, 
which was certainly the most difficult problem of all. 
This question of the destructive distillation of shale or 
coal does not rest with. them alone, but other forms of 
hydrocarbon, including wood, especially refuse, of which 
there are large quantities as sawmill waste, and which, 
instead of being a dangerous nuisance, can be turned 
into valuable products and power. Then the large quan- 
tities of lignite and peat, which are common, especially 
on the Western and Pacific slopes, will also come under 
consideration. Cheap power is necessary and will be in 
greater demand in the future ; the road to it lies through 
by-product and producer gas, be it from shale, coal, or 
any other form of hydrocarbon. 

I hope to hear more from Mr. Hoskin, for the future 
possibilities of the industry are great ; it is being watched 
by people who have prevision, and although some say 
the time is not yet because of the present output of well- 
oil, it will soon be recognized as necessary and almost 
as easy to distill shale as oil, and quite as profitable ; 
the risk is less, and the cost of obtaining the products 
from a barrel of oil-shale is no more than the average 
cost of a barrel of well-oil products. 

Arthur L. Pearse. 
Engineers' Club, New York, June 25. 

Minerals Separation 

The Editor: • 

Sir — We have read your editorial note in your issue 
of the 7th June, calling attention to the Supreme Court ? s 
decision in the Butte and Superior-Minerals Separa- 
tion case, which you describe as a severe blow to the 
mining industry. May we suggest that you also call the 
attention of your readers to the other side of the case, 
that is the enormous benefit the mining industry of the 
United States has derived from the froth-flotation 
process as patented by Minerals Separation, even though 
those who profit by it may be called upon to pay a small 
royalty to the patentees, whose rights have been at last 
established by the Supreme Court? 


London, June 25. 

July 26, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Lens, in April 1919 

Shaft No. 4 at Courriere, in the Pas de Calais 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

Shaft No. 11, at Bethune 




rsii : 

rani wim 



Surface Plant at the No. 4 Shaft, at Coueriebe 

July 26. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Steel Plant at Longwy 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

Steel Works at Mont St. Martin 

Shaft and Plant at Bethune 

July 26. 1919 

MINING and Scientific \'H\ SS 


Ruin and Restitution in France 


It is almost five years to a day since the fostered 
dreams of world domination by Germany assumed tangi- 
ble expression by challenging the balance of power. The 

dream is dissipated, right has conquered might, but a) 
what a cost! During the seemingly endless days of 
struggle the Allies looked to the United States for moral. 
financial, and material support, and finally for the man- 
power that gave strength to the knock-out blow. The 
peace treaty was signed after much discussion, delibera- 
tion, and delay, in the same room at Versailles as wit- 
nessed the preliminary parleys for the exacting treaty 
imposed by Germany on the French, concerning the price 
to be paid for the Franco-Prussian war, but has the 
world caught the reflection from the Hall of Mirrors of 
the ruins of northern France, or the image of crimes un- 
thinkable? This is not the time to arouse or excite 
hatred of the Hun, but, 'lest we forget' that the wounds 
of France still gape and that crippled industry will have 
to struggle for many years, a few close-up views are 
worth contemplating. 

In 1918 M. de Billy,* as head of the French High Com- 
mission visiting "Washington, invited Secretary Lane of 
the Interior Department to send a commission to France 
to study the condition of the coal and iron mines and 
discuss with French engineers plans for the future. At 
that time many properties had been destroyed by shell- 
fire — a destruction inevitable in waging such a war — but 
since June 1918 ruin of another kipd has been wrought 
and wrongs done that cannot be excused, explained, or 
exculpated. In January of this year I visited the West- 
ern Front as a member of the American Mining Mission, 
my associates being Dr. F. G. Cottrell, and Mr. George S. 
Rice, of the U. S. Bureau of Mines. Every facility and 
courtesy was extended to us by both the French and 
United States governments to carry out the investiga- 
tion, and in three months we motored nearly 2000 miles 
through the Pas de Calais and Nord districts of the 
Valenciennes coal-fields, the iron-ore districts of Luxem- 
burg, Lorraine, and Lorraine Annexee. and the coal areas 
of the Saar Valley. My remarks are not based on hear- 
say information ; my convictions come from close per- 
sonal contact with the conditions as they exist today, and 
the accompanying views were portrayed by my camera. 
Documentary evidence is available to show that it was 
the intention of Germany to destroy the mines of France 
and so render her commercially impotent ; field evidence 
shows that their plans were executed systematically, 
scientifically, and almost successfully. 

'We regret deeply to record the fact that Colonel ".douard 
de Billy was thrown from his horse and killed oi cne 12 
in France.^Editor. 

In order to understand the German strategy of the 
Western Front it is necessary to look bark fifty years. 
At that time Germany had great coal mines in West- 
phalia and the Saar province, and but limited iron ore 
resources. The possibilities of eastern Lorraine were 
being proved and by the Treaty of Frankfurt, signed on 
.May 10, 1871, France ceded to her conquerors all the 
outcrop mines of the vast iron-field. The boundary was 
drawn with meticulous care, guided by engineers and 
geologists, to include all the land known to be commer- 
cially mineralized, but when Thomas and Gilchrist, two 
English metallurgists, developed the basic Bessemer 
process to treat high phosphorus ores, the French ex- 
plored the lands to the west of Lorraine Annexee, with 
the result, that in 1913 the known reserves of the great 
Briey basin were owned by the Germans and French in 
the ratio of 2,330,000,000 to nearly 3,000,000,000 tons 

Immediately following the close of the Franco-Prus- 
sian war the Germans developed their steel industry 
with great rapidity, and just before the outbreak of the 
recent war they produced 21 million tons of iron ore 
from Lorraine Annexee and purchased 9 million tons 
from French Lorraine, from which they made 19 million 
tons of pig-iron annually. Of the iron ore smelted in 
German furnaces 58% came from Lorraine Annexee, and 
with the return of this land to France, the domestic sup- 
ply will be less than 20% of the capacity of the plants. 
France received German coke in return for iron ore. In 
normal times France is compelled to import coal to meet 
her domestic and industrial needs. In 1913, 43 million 
tons of coal was mined from the Valenciennes field and 
20 million tons imported. Here then was the situation ; 
an iron ore supply coveted by Germany coextensive with 
Lorraine Annexee, and practically all the coal mines 
lying immediately south of the Belgian border. The 
German hordes swept down into France and for over 
four years the titanic straggle was fought out on the 
fringe of the mineralized area. .Two-thirds of the iron 
reserves were in the hands of the Enemy during the War. 
It was in order to strengthen the hold on this important 
asset that the St. Mihiel salient was formed and Verdun 
attacked in 1916, while the bitterest of battles were cease- 
lessly waged for possession of Lens, the centre of the 
coal-field. Both iron and coal mines were worked by 
the Germans during their occupancy, worked as inten- 
sively as their diminishing virile man-power would per- 
mit; captive labor was forced to assist, and compelled 
under threat of death to participate in the wilful de- 
struction, as soon as the inevitable result of the war was 
realized. The steel works of Lorraine, metallurgical 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

plants planned and equipped with every modern device 
for efficient operation, were quickly modified to turn out 
weapons of war during the first year of the conflict, after 
which, as I shall show, they were dismantled piecemeal; 
the desirable equipment being transported across the 
Rhine, the rest destroyed with a deviltry difficult to com- 
prehend. At the south end of the district the steel plants 
at Pont-a-Mousson were damaged by shell-fire : this town 
was never occupied by the Germans, but from Briey 
northward to the Luxemburg line, the wonderful works 
have been sacked and wrecked beyond recognition. Coal 
and iron are complementary minerals, the two grand 
siegneurs of the mineral world. From them are fabri- 
cated the weapons of war as also the plowshare of peace ; 
with them a nation is strong financially, commercially, 
and industrially, always, of course, assuming the legiti- 
macy of motive prompting production. Bismarck char- 
acterized the former war as one of "blood and iron," 
the iron of Lorraine was the price of peace, and the in- 
dustrial association of Berlin and Dusseldorf in 1917 de- 
clared to Hertling and Hindenburg that "the annexa- 
tion of the Briey and Longwy basin is indispensable be- 
cause the possession of this region is of incalculable value 
to Germany for economic, industrial, and agricultural 
reasons, in view of a future war." 

In 1913 the 29 iron mines of the invaded section of the 
Briey and Longwy basins gave employment to 15,200 
men and produced 17J million tons of ore. During the 
four years following August 1914 the Germans worked 
the mines intermittently, they shipped all of the ore on 
the stock-piles to the steel works, and mined at the rate 
of 30% normal output. The underground workings were 
not seriously damaged at any of the properties, although 
many of the surface plants, particularly the miners' 
dwellings, were razed. The damage is more indirect and 
the visiting engineer notes that the ore was removed 
from the most convenient workings; pillars have been 
robbed near the main galleries, thus threatening the 
arteries of underground transportation; the extraction 
of ore without proportionate advance of development 
headings will postpone the pre-war scale of output for 
some time; the machinery has been abused for want of 
lubricants and every ounce of copper, the trolley-wires, 
motors, brass fittings, as well as all rubber, have been 
removed. The truth of the story that thunderous ap- 
plause followed the statement of the Chancellor in the 
Reichstag denying the shortage of copper was drowned 
by the noise of the tinsmiths removing the copper sheet- 
ing from the roof of the buildings, is emphasized wher- 
ever one goes in the invaded territory. 

Unquestionably large sections of the developed areas 
underground will be permanently abandoned because of 
the improper mining done ty the robbers. At St. 
Pierremont I was impressed by the extraordinary regard 
for the welfare of the workmen; hundreds of cases of 
mineral water were stored at the shaft-station on one of 
the levels for the Germans to drink, fearing the valiant 
had copied the vicious and contaminated the water 
supply ! 

Iron ore is of no value unless it can be beneficiated. 
What has happened to the steel plants? Visit Micheville, 
go to Longwy, ponder the ruins at Mont St. Martin; 
never a shall was fired here, but the destruction is com- 
plete. At the first mentioned plant M. Nahan, the vet- 
eran manager, bowed with the weight of years and tor- 
mented by the nightmare of recent events, tells of the 
conscription of 2000 of his Italian workmen to destroy 
the model plant. German officers dwelt in his house 
while he was kept prisoner, presentation bronzes were 
confiscated for the few pounds of copper they contained, 
and the plant itself, what of it? all machines that could 
be moved were shipped to the Fatherland, the rest de- 
stroyed ; it is a mass of fallen stone and twisted steel, a 
scrap-heap impossible to describe. At the Acieries de 
Longwy, the largest steel works in France and employ- 
ing 7000 men before the War, the ground must be cleared 
clean that a new mill may memorialize the irrepressible 
spirit of France. Here one sees train-loads of high- 
grade steel cut up into movable pieces that were to have 
been sent to Hunland to be turned into shells ; the crank- 
shafts, rollers from the mills, and cylinder-heads were 
cut with the oxy-acetylene torch or broken by liquid-air 
cartridges (high nitro-glycerine explosives were getting 
short toward the end), the boilers were blasted, and the 
structural steel of the buildings cut at the base, to be 
overturned. M. Dreux, the managing director of the 
company, showed me two antique brass candle-sticks on 
the mantel of his living : room labeled by the marauders 
and spared to posterity because they were considered 
'works of art'. Surely such magnanimity entitled Ger- 
many to mercy at the peace-table ! 

The Pas de Calais and Nord coal mines have suffered 
even more than the iron and steel plants. The damaged 
area embraces 24 of the 27 concessions ; the Bruay mines 
were not forced to shut-down although damaged by 
long-range shell-fire and aerial bombs; eight concessions 
suffered from artillery bombardment. and were later pil- 
laged, while toward the eastern end of the district sabo- 
tage finds its most glaring expression. Twelve conces- 
sions had the surface plants of the many mines com- 
pletely destroyed wilfully and systematically during the 
final retreat of the defeated Germans, even as late as 
October 28, 1918. The coal measures are overlain by 
water-bearing strata and quicksands, so that the shafts 
were sunk by special boring methods and lined with 
steel euvellage ; this was blasted with dynamite and the 
mines flooded. Of the 286 shafts 70 were dynamited, 172 
are now filled with water, and 235 of the surface plants, 
magnificent steel structures built with the idea of per- 
manency of operation, are partly, more often totally, 
destroyed. The few that escaped show the nature of 
the crime committed, for every building, every head- 
frame, bears a label giving the estimated quantity of 
high explosive necessary to wreck it. Many of the steel 
supports were cut by the oxygen flame and tumbled over 
into the already flooded shaft. The accompanying photo- 
graphs tell the story better than words. Lens, the centre 
of the coal-field, is completely destroyed and presents one 

July 26, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


of the dreariest spectacles imaginable, Near Lens the 
little river of Souchcz was turned into the mines and 
for part of its course has disappeared, now flowing 
. through the underground workings. Between Bruay 
and Valenciennes there is widespread, deliberate, and 
malicious destruction. Bethune, Lens, Courriere, La 
Bassee, Douai, and other coal-mining centres, are crushed 
and crumbling ruins. 

The problems of reconstruction, reparation, and re- 
habilitation are many. They are faced with a fortitude 
courage, and determination equal to the gigantic task. 
and they will be solved. France has lost during the War 
75% of her peace-time industries, the debts now aggre- 
gate three-fifths the total wealth of the country, her 
young man-power is sadly depleted and greatly ex- 
hausted, during the War the deaths exceeded the births 
by 800,000, but, while materially impoverished, France 
is morally strengthened, and moral energy is as impor- 
tant as material resource. Full restitution for the 
wrongs done is impossible except in so far as the allied 
powers combine to permanently wreck the national in- 
dustry of Prussia — which was to wage war. 

The peace treaty of June 28, 1919, gives to France 
Alsace-Lorraine, 5600 square miles, the frontiers to be 
as before 1871. In part compensation for the destruc- 
tion of the coal mines, and as reparation, Germany cedes 
full ownership of the coal mines of the Saar Valley with 
their subsidiaries, accessories, and facilities. This is but 
a sop, for if France will beneficiate the additional iron 
ores of Lorraine she must purchase proportionately 
larger quantities of coal. The coal situation was men- 
acing before the War; it is now aggravated. In 1913 it 
was necessary to import 20 million tons, and this when 
the Valenciennes field was giving its normal output. The 
whole product of the Saar mines in actual tonnage, say- 
ing nothing of the inferior quality of the coal, is not 
sufficient to offset the lack of coal from northern France. 
The Saar produces four grades of coal, none having the 
calorific value of the coals of northern France or of 
Westphalia. They can be used most advantageously for 
steam and domestic purposes but they are not good 
coking coals, one ton yielding little more than half a ton 
of coke, which is friable and of very inferior quality 
metallurgically. The Saar coal is sometimes referred to 
erroneously as the economic complement of Lorraine 
iron. Under German control the iron ores of Lorraine, 
the coal of the Saar and Westphalia, and the steel plants 
of all three districts, were treated more or less as a unit 
industry and most effective exchanges were made by 
means of the available cheap transportation. It is of 
vital importance to France that this exchange be main- 
tained under intelligent government control ; if coal from 
Westphalia is withheld the steel industry cannot expand, 
and either many of the iron mines will remain idle or a 
great surplus must be exported. 

It would be presumption on the part of an American 
mining engineer to suggest improvements in methods or 
practice in French mining. The French engineers have 
long known their own problems and have solved them in 

accordance with their system of finance. Their mines 
arc developed and equipped with the idea of permanent 
industry, and unless there is serious labor unrest and 
extraordinary advances in wage scales, the old French 
practice is peculiarly suited to French conditions. Their 
policy is progressive and there is constant search for 
new mineral areas or extensions of proved deposits. 
French Lorraine has greater reserves of iron ore than 
Lorraine Annexce and just before the outbreak of the 
War drill-holes had shown the extension of the coal 
measures of the Pas de Calais southward. Iron and coal 
are complementary minerals. France will have them 
both in larger quantity than in 1914, and when her re- 
construction program is carried out, the steel industry 
will be among the first assets of a land that has suffered 

Electrostatic Separation of Zinc Ores 

Electrostatic separation is one of the processes used for 
separating mixtures of sulphides of the same specific 
gravity that are not amenable to gravity concentration. 
Zinc-ore mixtures of pyrite and sphalerite in coarse 
crystals are often treated by this process. Such ore needs 
only drying before treatment on the electrostatic sep- 
arator. The non-conductive mineral particles pass 
through the separator inert, hut the particles of the con- 
ductive minerals acquire an electric charge and are re- 
pelled from one electrode. Sphalerite is a poor conductor 
or a non-conductor, and pyrite is a good conductor. 
Galena is likewise a good conductor and accompanies the 
pyrite. Fine dust cannot be treated on such a machine, 
its use being limited to the treatment of sand. As ores 
vary widely in their electrical properties, the only way 
of finding whether a given ore of zinc sulphide and 
other sulphides can be separated by this method is to 
test the ore in a commercial machine. With some ores 
electrostatic separation produces concentrate of commer- 
cial grade without further treatment, but as a rule none 
of the electrostatic or magnetic processes will make a 
clean separation of the average complex sulphide ore 
found in the inter-mountain States. The fact that 
pyritie ore does not have to be roasted before electro- 
static separation is important, as the sulphur can be 
saved, if desired. If the magnetic-separation process were 
used, some of the sulphur in the ore would be burned 
off and would escape in the smelter gases, forming a 
nuisance. Another advantage of the electrostatic method 
is that mixtures of galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and 
sphalerite can be separated into one product containing 
the first three minerals mentioned and a second product 
containing the sphalerite. These two products can both 
be marketed to good advantage. The magnetic-separa- 
tion process makes one product containing the iron and 
copper and another product containing the lead and 
zinc; and this latter mixture cannot be marketed to as 
good advantage as if the lead and zinc minerals were 
separated. — D. A. Lyon and O. C. Ralston in Bulletin 
1 68 of the Bureau of Mines. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

Method of Handling Granulated Slag at Anaconda 


When the Anaconda reduction works commenced op- 
erations in 1902, not the least among the noticeable fea- 
tures was the ample provision for the disposal of slag. 
Seventeen years operation, with increased tonnage dur- 
ing recent years, has altered this happy state of affairs, 
till at present, while it is true that there is still plenty of 
space on which slag may be deposited, there is no longer 
a free fall from the ends of the slag-launders. In seek- 
ing a solution of the problem, the adoption of elevators, 
conveyors, tailing-wheels, or other similar devices, pre- 
sents some difficulty owing to the rapid rate of growth of 
the dump, which, under normal conditions of plant op- 
eration, must be arranged to receive about 3800 tons of 
granulated slag during every 21 hours. The system 
finally adopted may be regarded as a combination of the 
two standard methods of slag-disposal, namely, granu- 
lation and haulage. In brief, the granulated slag is run 
into settling-pits, where the water is separated from it. 
the pits being then excavated mechanically and the slag 
put into cars, which are hauled to the edge of the dump 
and emptied. Besides its simplicity, this method has the 
advantage that no machinery has to be moved as the 
dump grows larger, only the railroad track having to be 
swung out from time to time. Also, the dump being 
circular, the larger it grows the less frequently need the 
track along its edge be moved. The method is shown 
diagrammatic-ally in the sketch, in which dimensions are 
approximations only. See Fig. 1. 

rC——3 : ll*>vidf/i inside. — ^\ 



CLpfcoupler-- ~Q 

± £il 


-£3'-/l§ "Lengih tnsicfe. 
A — 


y p: ' Top of floor 

■y j^'Top of rail. 

k— -IO'-7s' 'Width overall. - - - ->i 


-l6'-8" ->k- — skf— *\ i 

—EI-8"C.toC.of tracks >^i-3'8-"-i-\ j 

-- E9 : 0"0ver end-sills. >-> : 

•Jl'-O" Coupler contact '-line. >-* 

Air- brakes, Westinghouse E 81 
Couplers; Simplex 5'x 7*x 14$ 'and M.CB. 6"x8"x I4i ' 
Doors,- Six, three on each side of car. 
Draft Rigging , Westinghouse friction type'0"and type V 
Axles bg'x 10" Journals. 
Journal-bearings , Master Car Builders- 
Trucks ; Arch-bar type, Jj "x 6*0- It. steel, top and bottom, 

with. %t"xb* Tie-bar also B50 cars have Vulcan 

cast-steel truck side-frames. 
Bolsters: Reliance. 

Journal-boxes ; MlCord malleable-iron. 

Brake-beams; Creco E & L 

Wheels; 33' Rolled Steel; 33"6riffin cast-iron ECS. and 

33 "Davis cast-steel. 
Cubic capacity, IE? I cu ft. or 45 Zcu.yds 
Marked capacity of car IZO.000 lb. 
10% of marked capacity; lE.OOOIb. 
Weight of car empty, 4S,900lb. 
7btal weight ofoctr with maximum load, 174, 900 lb. 
Axle load. 437 25 lb. 

Pig. 2. slag-car 

July 16, L919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Two main launders, lined with reinforced Blabs of slag. 
carry the granulated slag from the reverberatory build- 
ing to the dump. These launders bifurcate at a con- 
venient distance from the settling-pits, so that then' is a 
discharge into each of the four pits. To prevent the 
stream of slag from channeling its way straight across 


the settling-pit to the exit-launders A, baffles B are 
placed about 6 ft. in front of the exits, thus causing the 
water to deflect and pass round the ends of the baffles. 
This arrangement provides good settling for the slag. 
The spaces C, between the baffles and the front walls of 
the pits, become filled with slag, which is removed only 
when it becomes troublesome. To do this, gates are 
opened to the launders D, which are 
placed below the launders A, allowing the 
slag to run directly to the dump. This is 
also a safeguard to be used in case of 
accident. As the slag fills the pit, boards 
are set in the exits E, to raise the level at 
which the water overflows, though this 
does not require much attention once the 
spaces C are filled. 

As originally built, there was one long 
pit only, but as it was found difficult to 
excavate the submerged slag, and also that 
the slag-water mixture had an abrasive 
action on the bucket-gear, the long pit was 
divided into four smaller ones of more or 
less equal size. Another difficulty in han- 
dling wet slag was that in winter there 
was an accumulation of ice on the cars 
and on the dump-tracks. Slag is allowed 
to run into two empty pits, one for each 
main launder, till they are filled to within 
2 ft. 6 in. of the top, when the stream of slag is deflected 
to the other two. The water soon drains from the full 
pits, as there is no bottom to them, the whole structure 
being simply placed on top of the slag-pile in a manner to 
be described later. The hoist is then brought along the 
track nearest the pits, while the train of cars stands on 

the othi-r track. The hois! is made by the [ndustriaJ 

Works of Hay City. Michigan. It has electric drive, and 
is capable of lifting 25,000 lb. at a radius of 30 ft. It 

is provided with a clamshell bucket of 3.5 yards capacity, 
with mild-steel edges, as the material handled is not hard 
enough to call for an edge of special steel. A bucket of 
larger capacity was firs! tried, ba1 it was 
not successful. There are two such hoists 
in the equipment. The comparatively dry 
slag is easily excavated, a train of four 
ears (a total of 80 cubic yards) being 
tilled in about 20 minutes. Excavation of 
I lie slag is carried to a depth of about 10 
ft., leaving an outline somewhat as indi- 
cated in the sectional view. 

The effluent water runs along the main 
launder F, through a mechanical sampler 
G, and then to waste. There is now in 
course of construction an installation for 
reclaiming this water, which, though not 
clear, is suitable for re-use in granulating 
slag at the furnaces. When this scheme is 
in service, the water from the pits will be 
deflected into a tank H, 50 ft. in diameter 
by 9 ft. deep, provided with a baffle J, 
reaching five or six feet from the top to cause the water 
to circulate and clarify before it overflows to the pumps. 
The tank has a pipe at the bottom for flushing out. The 
water will be handled by two 12-in. Cameron single-stage 
centrifugal pumps, each with a capacity of 5,000,000 
gallons per 24 hours against a head of 160 ft. The pumps 
are direct-connected to 300-hp. motors running at 1800 

11^ #^ ; -'■■-.. =3^^. 




r.p.m., and discharge into a machine-banded redwood- 
stave pipe of 18 in. diameter coated with tar and saw- 

The two lines of track beside the settling-pits are car- 
ried on 25-ft. piles driven into the slag. To form the 
back of the pits, two-inch planks are spiked to the piling 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

under the outside rail. Both the partitions between the 
pits, and the baffles, are made of piling and planks, the 
piles for the baffles being down 15 ft. only. The two 
ends and the fronts are not so heavily constructed, as 
they have less weight against them, 6 by 6-in. timbers 
being used instead of the piles. 

The U-dump cars, into which the slag is loaded, are 
of a special design patented by Ernest Junghanns, a 
draftsman at Anaconda. As shown in the photographs, 
they dump by rolling to one side, the contents being shot 
out 3 ft. 3 in. clear of the track, thus obviating the neces- 
sity of cleaning the tracks after each train is dumped. 
Dumping is performed by admitting compressed air into 
the cylinder attached to the under-side of the car-frame. 
This cylinder is hung on trunnions to allow of its turn- 
ing as the car dumps. It is fitted with a telescopic piston 
the two members of which are of 15 and 7J in. diameter 
respectively, with strokes 1 ft. 10 in. and 1 ft. 6 in., or a 
total stroke of 3 ft. 4 in. The cars dump with ease, 
owing to the nicety of balance, and the car-body resumes 
its original position by gravity when the air-pressure is 
released. Compressed air for dumping is piped along 
the train from the locomotive, and each ear also has a 
container holding sufficient air for dumping in case of 
accident. The ears are of 20 cubic yards capacity ; nine 
cars are provided. 

Westinghouse electric locomotives, weighing about 30 
tons each, are used to haul the cars. There are two of 
these locomotives in the equipment, and each carries an 
air-compressor plant consisting of three compressors of 
type D4, made by the Westinghouse Traction Brake Co. 
These provide the air necessary for dumping the cars, 
operating the spreader, and for braking the train. A 
fan is also carried for cooling the traction motors should 
over-heating occur. The pressure of air is automatically 
maintained, the high and low limits of the control being 
130 and 90 lb. respectively. A Jordan spreader is in- 
cluded in the equipment, as it is necessary to plow oil 
the edge of the dump from time to time as the slag piles 
up. This machine operates by compressed air. 500 volts 
D r C. is taken from a third rail beside all tracks except 
that next the pits, where it would be unsafe on account 
of operating the hoist, so the latter machine is fed by a 
cable. The dumping-track is of circular form, and is at 
present about three-quarters of a mile around. As the 
edge of the dump extends, the track must, of course, be 
cut and moved farther out, to facilitate which gaps are 
left at intervals in the third rail, connection being made 
between the rail ends by a piece of cable having plenty 
of slack. As the track is moved out the gap widens, till 
it finally grows too large for the locomotive collecting- 
shoes to bridge over, when another piece of rail is put 
in and a gap left elsewhere. The third rail is protected 
by a wooden box. which is also in sections to facilitate 
moving. The dump-tracks are of 60-lb. rail, and are well 
maintained. A repair shop for all this equipment has 
been erected on the dump itself. 

For the blast-furnace slag there is a smaller installa- 
tion consisting of two settling-pits situated at another 

part of the dump, but whose tracks connect to the circular 
dumping-track and to the rest of the system. 

The sloping face of the pile of granulated slag, on the 
side next the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific railway, is pre- 
vented from slipping by putting in rows of fencing made 
of planks spiked to posts set in the slag. Any movement 
of the granulated slag on this side would tend not only 
to cover up the railroad-tracks, but would also endanger 
the pits and launders on top of the slag-pile. 

Bureau of Public Works 

Seventy-one delegates, representing 74 organizations 
with a membership in excess of 105,000, recently attended 
a conference of technical societies in Chicago. It was 
called by Engineering Council, and unanimously adopted 
a resolution urging Congress to establish a Department 
of Public Works. Among the activities that logically 
belong to such a department are the following : 

Bureau of Public Roads; the United States Reclama- 
tion Service ; the Alaskan Engineering Commission ; the 
Construction Division of U. S. Army ; a Bureau of River, 
Harbor and Canal work, including such functions as are 
now exercised by the Mississippi River Commission and 
the California Debris Commission; a Bureau of Archi- 
tecture ; a Bureau of Surveys, including the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey ; a Bureau of Mines ; the Geological Sur- 
vey; the Forest Service, at least until the same is di- 
vorced from the supervision of water powers and road 
building ; and the Bureau of Standards. 

Later the following resolutions were adopted unani- 
mously : 

Resolved, That this conference be known as the En- 
gineers, Architects, and Constructors Conference on Na- 
tional Public Works; that it continue in existence until 
dissolved by its own action and that its officers and com- 
mittees be empowered to further the organization and 
development of a National Department of Public Works. 

Resolved, That for the purpose of furthering the pass- 
age of a bill for the creation of a National Department of 
Public Works there be set up by this Conference an 
Executive Committee, a Committee on Text of Bill, and 
a Campaign Committee. The Executive Committee shall 
have the power to create a Finance Committee and other 
committees and to add to its own membership or to that 
of its committees. 

Resolved, That the facts be presented to the President 
and to the Congress, and that they be urged to make ade- 
quate provision for the entire work of completing the 
topographic map of the United States in the shortest 
possible time compatible with requisite accuracy; and 
inasmuch as Engineering Council has already taken up 
this matter with Federal Government Departments, their 
efforts to hasten the completion of the topographic map 
be endorsed by this Conference and that this resolution 
be entrusted to them to present to the President, the Sec- 
retary of the Interior, the members of the Congress, and 
to make such other disposition of it as will, in their judg- 
ment, further the end desired. 

Julv 26. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Technical Writing: Slovenliness 


•Slovenliness is as disgraceful in words as in clothes. 
Much writing that we recognize as poor in style is merely 
sloppy. Just as some students postpone the necessary 
shave or forget to change their collars, so young engi- 
neers drop their articles, definite and indefinite, or omit 
prepositions where they are required, as if to compen- 
sate for those they use unnecessarily. 

(1) "[During] the preceding summer I went to 

(2) "The work will begin [on] Saturday." 

(3) "Flotation in America [during] the last two 
years has made tremendous strides." 

(4) "All such work helps [to] solve the problem of 

The sign of the infinitive should not be omitted ; this 
is a common blunder. In the June 'Atlantic', Vernon 
Kellogg writes : ' ' And it includes the thought that such 
justice is needed to help bring the light into the dark 
places of this world." 

(5) "At first the work was interesting and [was] 
liked by most of the men." 

The verb 'be' is used both as a principal and as an 

(6) "The drop of crusher lubricating oil could not 
get into the bin and mix with the ore." 

The adjectival use of nouns leads to a jumble; he 

"The lubricating oil on the crusher could not drip 
into the bin and mix with the ore." 

(7) "Construction of the mill started [on] August 
12, 1915, at which time 75% [three-fourths] of the ex- 
cavation was completed." 

Abridgements that leave the reader to guess the 
writer's meaning are bad. Mr. Roosevelt writes: 

(8) "While camped on the 'Nzoi, the honey-birds 
were almost a nuisance." 

Mr. Roosevelt and his party, not the honey-birds, were 
camped on the 'Nzoi. Such elliptical phraseology is 

Do not omit the connecting pronoun. 

(9) "Their vein is not as wide, nor the ore as rich, 
as the Combination." 

"The vein in their mine is not as wide, nor the ore as 
rich, as that in the Combination." 

(10) "Many mining booms such as [those of] 1906 
and 1916." 

(11) "A rate of drilling much superior to [that of] 
the old piston-drill." 

♦Another chapter from the forthcoming hook on 'Tech- 
nical Writing,' to he published hy John Wiley & Sons, New 

A finite verb must agree with its subject, says the rule. 

(12) "One of the most brilliant contributions to 
geology that has [have] been made." 

The correct form sounds awkward ; the attractive form 
is wrong; avoid both. The clause "that has been made" 
is redundant. 

(13) "Any one can measure with a glance, when they 
are tired." 

Ruskin, who wrote this, meant 'when he is tired' or 
'when tired'. 

Participles are commonly misused by novices. The 
dangling of a participle at the beginning of a sentence 
contravenes the rule of grammar that the substantive to 
which a participle relates must appear in the same sen- 
tence. For example. ;l| 

(14) "Approaching the vein, the serpentine is seen 
to be decayed." ,, , 

"As we approached the vein, we observed, that the 
serpentine was decayed." 

(15) "Examined carefully no fossils were detected." 
"Although I examined the rocks carefully, I could de- 
tect no fossils," or "Although the rocks were examined 
carefully, no fossils were detected. ' ' 

(16) "Turning westward there is a striking change." 
"Turning westward the observer beholds a striking 

change. ' ' 

(17) "In going seaward the boulders become smaller." 
' ' Toward the sea the boulders are smaller. ' ' 

Even practised writers are frequently guilty of the 
error of using participial phrases having no logical re- 
lation to the clauses preceding. Thus : 

(18) "The sandstones are massive, occurring chiefly 
in the lower half of the formation." 

' ' The sandstones, which are massive, are chiefly in the 
lower half of the formation. ' ' 

(19) "The output of the mine is about 100 tons daily, 
its assay- value being $50." 

"The daily output of the mine consists of 100 tons of 
ore, averaging $50 per ton. ' ' 

Another misuse is illustrated in the sentence : 

(20) "The vein has a general width of 1 to 6 inches, 
widening [but] in places [it widens] to 12 inches." 

Here the participle is used as an adversative, or con- 
tradicting, term. 

(21) "The limestone occurs resting [rests] upon the 
quartzite. ' ' 

(22) "These dikes were found cutting [cut] the. 

(23) " The cliff rises facin g [faces] the river." 

The choice of the wrong subject-nominative leads to 
wordiness : 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

(24) "The drainage of the area is accomplished 
[drained] by three streams." 

(25) "The collection of the statistics is done [are 
collected] by correspondence." 

Delete the first three words in each of the two fore- 
going sentences. 

(26) "Confirmation of these reports cannot be ob- 
tained [confirmed]." 

As says Mr. George M. Wood, 1 from whom the three 
preceding examples are borrowed: 

"The writers of these sentences, having 'used up their 
verbs' in their subject-nominative, could find no suitable 
predicate-verbs and were compelled to employ instead 
more auxiliaries or inappropriate words." 

The use of 'due' at the beginning of a sentence in the 
sense of 'attributable' is a common error, for the reason 
that a causal phrase, which is adverbial, should not be 
introduced by an adjective. 

(27) "Due [owing] to the psychological attitude of 
labor [Labor] and the scarcity of skilled operatives, it 
is far more difficult than ever before to secure high effi- 
ciency. ' ' 

Delete "psychological", which is redundant. 

(28) "Such problems are nearer solution, due 
[thanks] to the researches of Bragg and others." 

(29) "This is explained by the fact that this sub- 
stance, dice to [in consequence of] the predominating 
effect of the calcium, coagulates the slime." 

(30) "Due to the nature of the ore, it is expected to 
obtain a smelting ratio of seven of ore to one of coal." 

Here 'due to' stands for 'in consequence of or 'owing 
to'. Again: 

(31) "Due to the rise in copper, many mines are 
being re-opened in this district." 

Those who fall into this bad habit are also likely to 
begin their statements thus: 

(32) "Indicative of the success of the method is the 
cost which is now 60 cents per ton." 

This can be improved : 

"The success of the method is indicated by the low 
cost, which is now only 60 cents per ton. ' ' 

'Tend' is a word that prolongs a sentence without 
adding to the sense. Many writers enfeeble a verb by 
inserting the superfluous 'tend'. 

(33) "The use of flotation tends to aid [aids] the sav- 
ing of copper in chalcoeite ores." 

(34) "Such methods tend to cheapen [cheapen] the 
operation. ' ' 

Unemphatic words at the beginning of a sentence 
usually precede roundabout statements: 

(35) "Because the surface tends to contract with a 
definite force does not mean that it is coated with any- 
thing like a rubber membrane." 

It would be better to write : 

"The fact that the surface tends to contract with a 
definite force does not prove that it is coated with any- 

1'Suggestions to Authors', by George McLane Wood. U. 
S. Geological Survey. An extremely useful pamphlet. 

thing like a rubber membrane" or "The tendency of 
the surface to contract etc." 

Here is another example of a poor beginning: 

(36) "By such a system I believe we could establish 
a foreign trade based on honesty of goods which other 
nations would find it hard to take from us." 

Here 'by' is a weak introductive. He means: 
"Such a system, I believe, would serve to establish a 
foreign trade so well based on honesty of goods that 
other nations would find it hard to compete with us." 

'While' is another little word much misused. Instead 
of being restricted to its primary function as an adverb 
of time, it is employed as a conjunction synonymous 
with 'whereas', 'though', 'but', or 'and'. 

(37) "While [whereas or although] coal and iron 
command high prices, oil has become cheaper." 

(38) "At some points the ore is 4 feet wide while at 
others it narrows to 6 inches." 

Insert a semicolon after "wide" and delete "while". 
'Along these lines' and 'along this line' is a common 
crudity. It is neither precise nor clear. 

(39) "Examinations along these lines were made 
every year." 

"Examinations of this kind (or for this purpose) 
were made every year." Perhaps "similar examina- 
tions" would express the meaning, which is still left in 

(40) "The development of the mine along this line 
is sure to prove successful." 

"The development of the mine in accordance with 
this plan is sure to prove successful." 

(41) "Investigations along petrographic lines are not 

"Petrographic investigations are not needed." 
'Occur' and 'occurrence' are over-worked, especially 
by geologists. They are words to be used sparingly. 

(42) "The other mineralogical occurrence [mineral] 
I found in the Gila Canyon Consolidated Copper Co.'s 
mine. ' ' 

He is referring to another mineral, not to another find 
of the same mineral. 

(43) "There are seldom any signs of secondary cop- 
per enrichment, unless it be the occasional occurrence 
along cracks of pyrite." 

He means: "Signs of sulphide enrichment are rare,, 
except where the pyrite has been deposited along 
cracks." "Occasional occurrence" suggests time; he 
means place: here and there the pyrite was detected by 
him along the cracks. "Cracks of pyrite" is a bad 

(44) "The gold occurs [is] distributed over a large 

(45) "The fluorspar mines occur [are] in Pope and 
Hardin Counties." 

Usually 'occur' takes the place of a word that is more 

(46) "Hardwood trees occur on these slopes." 
The word he needed was 'grow'. 

July 26, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


(47' "In parte of the mine where the bolt occurs, 
tlir veins are shattered and impoverished." 

He means that where the veins are crossed by the 
fault, they are shattered ami poor in gold. 

(48) "'The tellnride occurs in [lines or encrusts] the 
interior of the cavity. 

A cavity' is a void, considered with reference t< > the 
circumjacent material. '"The tellnride encrusts the 

(49) "Underlying this decomposed garnet in the for- 
merly barren crystalline lime i arc] the secondary zinc 
ores occur." 

Delete 'occur' and end the sentence with a significant 

Writers who overwork 'occur' are likely to introduce 
their statements with 'there is' and 'there are', both of 
which are poor locutions — the mere tuning of language. 

(50)- "Wherever the galena occurs there is an increase 
of silver in the ore." The man that wrote this failed to 
say where or how the galena was distributed in the lode 
or vein, and thus omitted a necessary item of informa- 

"Wherever the galena, is seen, there the ore is richer 
in silver." 

(51) "Small packages can be easily carried and there 
is not the incentive to drop them by the carriers." This 
can be amended thns: 

"Small packages can be carried easily, there fore the 
carriers are not tempted to drop them." 

(52) "There are few Cornisbmen employed at Tread- 

(53) "I question whether there is any probability of 
succeeding with this process." 

These statements may be improved thus : 
"Pew Cornisbmen are employed at Treadwell." 
"I question whether the process can succeed." 

(54) "There are more men killed in metal-mining in 
the United States, in proportion to the number em- 
ployed, than in the country's coal mines." 

Here 'there are' merely detracts from the force of the 
statement; start with "More men are killed" and note 
how much more direct and forceful it is. 

'It is' belongs in the category of feeble introductions. 

(55) "It is the belief of the miners that the ground 
now worked may be a slide." 

"The miners believe that the ground, etc." 

(56) "It is a sign of richness in gold when the quartz 
is ribboned." 

"The ribboning of the quartz indicates richness in 

Begin and end a sentence with an emphatic word, as 
far as may be practicable without stilting the phrase- 

Avoid redundancy. In the following examples the 
italicized words should be deleted : 

(57) "The railway should be finished in nine months 

(58) "It requires several weeks or months time to 
treat the ore." 

.Mil "The mine is three miles distant from the mill." 
( 60 'i "Timbers arc Bet «' a distance of 4 ft. •_' in. 
centre to centre." 

til i "The peak is 1J.7.">o ft. high above sea-level." 
ill' "Manganese if present can !"■ precipitated at 

the same time us the iron." 

It must be present in order to be precipitated. 

(63) "It is best to use zinc sheets 2 feet by 3 feet in 

Do not attempt to be impressive by piling one word 
on another. 

(64) "Records were started with this ultimate end in 


(65) "He cannot return home before the final com- 
pletion of the mill." 

(66) "This oil will serve equally as well as oleic acid." 

(67) "The roasting will require probably about seven 
hours time." 

Study the meaning of words so that you will not em- 
ploy 'evince' or 'evidence' when you mean 'show'; 
'phenomenal' when you mean 'extraordinary'; 'tran- • 
spire' for 'become known' ; or 'problematical' for 'doubt- 
ful'. As you obtain literary taste, you will abhor 'ad- 
vent' as a synonym for 'introduction' or 'arrival'; 
'situation' for 'state'; 'eliminate' for 'extract', 'avoid', 
or 'destroy'; 'proposition' for 'proposal'; 'contemplate' 
for 'plan' or 'intend'; 'balance' for 'compensate'; and 
'unethical' for 'improper'. 

(68) "The stamp-mill held its own until the advent 
[introduction] of the cyanide process." 

(69) The treatment of the pyritic copper ores awaited 
the advent [application] of modern smelting methods." 

(70) "The cyanide situation [scarcity of cyanide] in 
Northern Ontario." 

(71) "A tramway will be built around Mineral lake 
to eliminate [avoid] the use of barges. 

(72) "The proposition [proposal] made by the union 
was rejected." 

(73) "The erection of one smelter and the completion 
of others now contemplated [planned or proposed]." 

(74) "It would be unethical [improper] to disclose 
my reason for withdrawing from the case." 

(75) "The natural expectation would be that they 
[each] (Carranza and Villa) will each [would] start in 
to eliminate [destroy] the other." 

No man with a right feeling for language would be 
guilty of such lapses. Acquire good taste by reading 
good literature : Huxley and Spencer, Thoreau and 
Lowell. Read 'The Atlantic Monthly', not 'The Satur- 
day Evening Post'; read 'The Outlook', not 'Hearst's 

If you read only second-rate stuff, you will lose the 
taste for good English, and the quality of your own 
writing will suffer, until you may be guilty of such 
lapses as the following: 

(76) "There are companies arranging to install com- 
mercial size units of several new inventions. It is far 
from probable that all these schemes will prove success- 
ful and therefore one anticipates hearing of disappoint- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

ments experienced by the pioneers in this work." 

He may have meant to say : 

"Several companies are arranging to erect working 
units based upon new inventions. It is unlikely that all 
these schemes will prove successful, and one may antici- 
pate that the pioneers will suffer many disappoint- 
ments. ' ' 

(77) "In practically every instance, operators plan 
to make the fuel item a self-contained proposition." 

He is speaking of oil-shale, and he means : 

"Most of the operators plan to use the shale for fuel." 

(78) "These often contain cassiterite, sometimes in 
profitable quantities, but long before the water sorted 
gravels are reached the wolfram has disappeared, though 
it comes from the same lodes as the tin ore where it 
almost invariably occurs in considerably greater quanti- 

Probably he meant: 

"In many localities .these alluvial deposits contain 
sufficient cassiterite to be mined profitably, but long be- 
fore the water-sorted gravel is reached the wolfram has 
ceased to appear, although it is derived from the tin- 
bearing lodes, in which it is invariably the predominant 
mineral. ' ' 

That may not have been his meaning; the worst of 
such writing is not its ungainliness but its obscurity. 
It may not be intended to be beautiful, but it certainly 
is intended to convey information, and in that it fails. 

(79) "In a cross-cut on the 14th level in ground to 
the east of the main drift along the line of the larger ore 
shoot a vein of quartz was struck, which on being fol- 
lowed soon developed values, and further on extraor- 
dinary values." 

Would you think of engaging the services of an engi- 
neer showing so little intelligence? He may have meant 
to say: 

' ' On the 14th level a cross-cut going eastward from the 
main drift, that is, the one along the line of the larger 
ore-shoot, struck a vein of quartz, which, on being fol- 
lowed, began to show ore and a little farther yielded ore 
of extraordinary richness. ' ' 

(80) "There has never been any doubt that the prob- 
lem of dry concentration would some day be solved and 
its present successful advent should not be passed by 
without at least an investigation." 

Was it the "advent" or the "problem" that merited 
attention? How does one 'pass by' an 'advent' even in 
the dark? 

"It never was doubted that dry concentration would 
some day prove successful, therefore this latest experi- 
ment is well worthy of attention." 

Use words so that each one may be significant. We 
keep different tools for different kinds of work, thereby 
gaining efficiency. Keep each word to its allotted task. 
Do not dull the edge of a chisel by using it as a screw- 

'Differentiate' refers to a physical process of becoming 
different; it is not a correct synonym for 'discriminate' 
or 'distinguish'. 

(81) "It would not be fair to differentiate [discrim- 
inate] against him." 

'Designate' is to specif y or particularize, not to choose, 
appoint, or name. 

(82) "He designated [appointed] Jones foreman. " 
'Visualize' is to make visible, not to imagine, see, de- 
scribe, or illustrate. 

(83) "He was unable to visualize [imagine] the 
horrors of War." 

'Discount' is to deduct from an amount or make allow- 
ance, not to expect, anticipate, or offset. 

(S4) "The manager discounted [anticipated] the cav- 
ing of the stope. ' ' 

These examples should serve as warnings to the engi- 
neer, who nowadays makes a fetish of efficiency and 
writes articles upon it in ineffective language. 

An American provincialism that is gaining ground is 
the use of a geographic noun as an adjective, thus : 

(85) "A California [Californian] mining engineer." 

(86) "The Alaska [Alaskan] method of drift min- 

Our daily papers show such head-lines as 'Good Italy 
Harvest'; 'Great Albania battle'; 'U. S. Victory'. In 
these the corresponding adjective is desirable: Italian, 
Albanian, American. Undoubtedly newspaper usage is 
corrupting; technical writers should take care not to 
copy the habits of the illiterate. 

Careless writers, with a fondness alike for the abstract 
word and the unnecessary plural, also show a preference 
for vague terms when precise ones are available. They 
use the present participle of a verb in place of the noun 
itself; thus 

capping instead of cap 

cropping " " outcrop 

filling " " fill 

faulting " " fault 

heavy shilling " " big stulls 

(87) "A capping [cap] of leached monzonite covers 
the ore." 

(88) "There are [is] no cropping [outcrop] of the 
vein to guide the prospector." 

(89) "The fillings [fill] in the old stopes can be 
milled at a profit." 

Abstraction is carried to inanity by scribblers who- 

nations into nationalities 
authors " authorities 
events ' ' eventualities 

persons " personalities 
characters ' ' characteristics 
"It is well to look askance at words ending in 'ism',, 
'istic'. and 'ization', for "they come of a vacuous 
tribe." 2 

Technology knows no political boundaries. The part 
of it written in English goes round the world. We ex- 
change freely with the British and their cousins over- 
seas. The English language is the common heritage- 

=Allbutt. Op. cit. Page 144. 

July 26, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


alike of the American and the Briton, both of whom 
debase it with vulgarisms and colloquialisms that are 
Understood only locally or regionally. In order that 
technical literature may pass current wherever our lan- 
guage is spoken, and even in foreign countries whore it 
has to be translated laboriously, it is our duty to dis- 
card local terms or provincial phraseology. For ex- 
ample, 'reef as used for 'lode' in Australia and "ledge' 
as used for 'vein' in California are both objectionable 
terms. An orebody underground has no resemblance to 
the rock that imperils navigation, nor does a vertical out- 
crop resemble a shelf. 3 The Australian put his 'mullock' 
[waste rock] in a 'paddock' [enclosure] while the Amer- 
ican puts his 'dirt' [ore] in a steel 'tank' [bin]. The 
'mullocker' at Bendigo is equivalent to the 'mucker' at 
Tonopah, and each is a 'shoveler' in good English. I 
need not multiply examples of bucolic terms and incon- 
gruous localisms. They disfigure technology and obstruct 
scientific thought. Why should a scientific man — for 
that assuredly describes the mining engineer — go to the 
illiterate workman for his terms? If you wish to learn 
how to break rock ask the Cornish or the Italian miner, 
by all means, but if you wish to use the delicate instru- 
ment of expression accurately ask those who are trained 
in the art. As graduates of a university you are ex- 
pected to obtain your terminology from the library, not 
from the stope; you should shape your phraseology on 
that of the college, not on that of the bunk-house. 

(90) "These tanks [steel bins] have proved satisfac- 
tory, especially to the mill-men, who are relieved of all 
ore-bin mucking." 

He means that they are relieved of the labor of shovel- 
ing inside the ore-bin. 

Such adoption of local vulgarisms by careless writers 
may be defended by shallow critics as one phase of that 
absorption of new elements by which a language grows. 
Of course, the English language is a living organism fed 
continually out of the varied human experience of our 
peoples — the American and British predominantly, but 
also the others who speak it across the seven seas. All 
of which in no wise excuses a literate engineer in dis- 
placing recognized technical terms by half-baked pro- 

To write well you need self-restraint — a grip on your- 
self. The notion prevails in some quarters that it is 
effeminate to use words with nicety, that the practical 
man is expected to fling them about him with careless 
vigor. That is a mistake. An educated man is dis- 
ciplined in words as in conduct. Indeed, the self-dis- 
cipline of writing is a splendid training for any engineer. 
It teaches him how little he knows accurately, and spurs 
him to gain a more thorough understanding. The turbid 
pulp in a mill is made clear by passing through classifiers 
and settlers, so that the metallic particles are separated 
as a clean assorted product. Similarly ideas, odds and 
ends of information, stray bits of observation, if passed 

3 A 'ledge' of oil-slate is correct, because the shale is 
nearly horizontal and projects from the face of a hill like a 

through the mind in the act of writing are co-ordinated, 
classified, and systematized into workable shape, into 
definite form, ready for immediate use. 

In technology we should try to keep each term for a 
specific duty. 

'Locate' and 'location' should be restricted to the de- 
limiting of a claim. If we use these words in other 
senses, we cause confusion. 

(91) "He located the mill on Deer creek." 

Did he 'locate' a mill-site or did he build a mill on the 
creek ? 

(92) "The superintendent located [found] the ore- 
shoot on the fifth level." 

(93) "He is now located at Silverton." 
"He lives at Silverton now." 

(94) "The mine is located in Northern Rhodesia." 
Delete 'located', or substitute 'situated'. 
'Carboniferous' and 'carbonaceous' have different 

meanings. They should not be used interchangeably. 
'Carboniferous' referred originally to the geologic di- 
vision of time associated with the formation of coal, but 
all Carboniferous strata do not contain coal. It is now 
simply the name of a geologic period, and is given a 
capital 'C 'Carbonaceous' means carbon-bearing, or 
containing carbon; it may be used to describe a black 
shale. A rock may be both Carboniferous and carbona- 
ceous, as in Missouri, where a limestone belonging to the 
period immediately succeeding the Devonian is black 
with the product of decomposed vegetal [not 'vegetable'] 

'Calcining' and 'roasting' are not synonyms. The 
first should be applied to a process for removing carbon 
di-oxide from carbonates, such as limestone, or for de- 
hydrating a hematite ore ; the second should be restricted 
to a process for the expulsion of sulphur by heat in the 
presence of oxygen. 

'Tank' is a term sadly over-worked. It means a large 
vessel used for storing liquid. A large vessel employed 
for conducting a chemical process may hetter be called 
a 'vat'. This distinction is not often observed, but it 
can be made to advantage in technical writing. Lately 
the word 'tank' has been used for a cylindrical steel ore- 
bin. This use only serves to confuse. An engine of war 
lately devised has been called a 'tank', although it is 
more like a glyptodon or some other monster of the 
primeval slime. We can forgive the men in the trenches 
anything, but not the metallurgist that calls an ore-bin 
a 'tank', as if in mockery of these dry days. 

A 'chute' is a sloping passage down which material 
is passed; a 'shoot' is an orebody of recognizable shape 
and inclination in a lode. 

Those who consider such distinctions of no consequence 
will call a machine for getting rid of slime a 'slimer', 
ignoring the fact that the suffix 'er' indicates an agent, 
so that a 'slimer' is a thing that makes slime. The proc- 
ess of 'de-sliming' is conducted on a 'slime-tahle'. The 
same scribbler would talk of 'dewatering' a shaft, ignor- 
ing the fact that we use 'unwater' to signify that opera- 
tion, while we use 'dewater' to indicate the removal of 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

excess water in a pulp. Again, consider the difference 
between 'recovery' and 'extraction'. In subjecting a 
copper ore to concentration the percentage of the cop- 
per in the concentrate is a 'recovery', but it is not an 
'extraction', for that is the work of the smelter. By 
using technical terms thoughtfully we increase our vo- 
cabulary; the careless use of words means the loss of 
distinct meanings ; on the other hand, the discriminating 
use of words assists accurate expression. 

'Section' is often used impz - operly. A section is a 
division of the public land containing 640 acres. It is 
also the view along an imaginary slice of anything, like 
a geologic section or the section of a machine intended 
to exhibit the interior. We ought not to use it as a 
synonym for 'region', 'district', or 'locality', as in: 

(95) "The South-West is an arid section [region]." 

(96) "In this section [district] the mines produce 
gold only." 

Engineers should keep technical words for appropriate 
uses, otherwise they lose their special significance. A 
'tunnel' is a gallery or bore that goes through a hill or 
mountain from daylight to daylight, as a railway tunnel 
does. A level that enters a mountain from the surface, 
to become the main artery of a mine or to drain the water 
from the underground workings, without going through 
to the other side of the mountain, is an 'adit' — a tech- 
nical term used by miners from time immemorial. 

It is well to note that mistakes are rarely solitary ; 
like sorrows "they come not single spies, but in battal- 
ions." Let me impress upon you the fact that if you are 
careless about one detail — apparently unimportant — 

you are likely to take no thought about others. Whether 
or not you accept my dictum concerning the use of this 
or that word or the rejection of this or that method of 
statement is of minor importance as compared with your 
acceptance of my general argument: that it is worth 
while to use words precisely and to build sentences 
logically. The man that learns to master the little words 
will acquire mastery over the big phrases. Genius has 
been called an infinite capacity for taking pains. The 
definition is incomplete, but it recognizes the first requi- 
site of all good workmanship : the effort to be thorough. 

Mine timbers are subject not only to insect attack, 
but also, what is more important, to the action of gases 
and fumes that customarily occur in mines. These dif- 
ferent destructive agencies cause the decay of the wood, 
and as a result it is only six or seven years, on an average, 
before such timbers become so weakened that constant 
repairs are necessary, even if they do not need to be re- 
placed. It has been found that the life of the timbers 
can be doubled and even trebled by coating them with a 
creosote compound that fills all the pores on the surface 
of the timber and thus prevents gases and fumes from 
reaching the wood. The coating is a simple process, is 
not expensive, and tends to eliminate repairs to the tim- 
bering of shafts and other mine passageways that have 
a comparatively long life. 

Anaconda output of copper for June amounted to 
10,500,000 pounds, against slightly in excess of 24,000,- 
000 for the corresponding month of last year. 

1907 1903 1909 1910 1911' 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 


.InIv 26. 1919 

MIXING .,„„' .Surnlih, I'Kl SS 


Carnotite in the Gateway District of Colorado 

and Utah 


Gateway, to Mesa county, Colorado, is merely a post- 
office at a ranch situated in the valley of the Dolores 
river, near the mouth of its tributary, West creek. The 
valley, and consequently the surrounding country, which 
I will designate as the Gateway district, is practically 
virgin because I was told that the first white settlers 
entered the valley less than twenty years ago. The post- 
office is the terminus of an automobile stage-line operat- 
ing from Grand Junction and Whitewater, both in Colo- 
rado, on the Rio Grande railroad. 

The Gateway district covers an area of about 15 miles 
square, extending into Utah as far as the Beaver Creek 
rim. and consists chiefly of high mesa, having a topog- 
raphy of successive terraces cut deeply here and there 
by canyons and dry gulches, all of which lead down to 
the Dolores river. It is an arid tract, every one of the 
few springs being well known and protected from de- 
struction by wild animals or cattle. There are small 
areas of a dense growth of pifions and cedar. 

Briefly, the geological formation of this district is 
sandstone of a calcareous nature in the upper strata and 
ferruginous in the lower, and a silicious limestone. There 
are three distinct strata of sandstone and the lower dark 
red stratification being exposed near the valley-level 
assumes many striking appearances. One of these is a 
natural double gateway, of vast proportions, through 
which the Dolores river and West creek flow before unit- 
ing. From a point upon the mesa, the view down one of 
the canyons is of indescribable beauty, as the intense 
green of the valley is framed within the dark-red per- 
pendicular walls of the Gateway. 

Carnotite is the only mineral exploited in the district 
and although it is associated with the three principal 
sandstone strata, the most important deposit is the one 
associated with the middle one, known as the La Plata 
sandstone. The ore occurs in blanket formation, slightly 
inclined f ro7n the horizontal ; it averages two and one- 
half feet in thickness and lies just above the limestone. 
It is practically a contact deposit and underlies the whole 
district. This impregnated sandstone is not uniform in 
character or quality, and therefore cannot be mined 
'just as it comes', nor without considerable experience. 
The ore rich enough to ship occurs in pockets, as is char- 
acteristic with most infiltrated formations. A pocket has 
been known to produce a carload of commercial ore, but 
most of them will yield a few sacks, or a ton at most. 
A miner may do days of 'dead work' after cleaning out a 
pocket and suddenly open up another, while on the other 
hand a few shots may expose another pocket of large or 
small proportions. The ravines cutting the strata 

throughout the district expose the same ore-formation 
for miles and it is along the outcrops that the claims have 
been staked and the prospect-holes and tunnels have 
been driven. The sandstone is easily worked, though 
hard on steel and picks. Light blasting is required, the 
lower grade ore, including some limestone, being re- 
moved underneath while the richer grade is picked down 
upon canvas to save the fine. 

The ore is generally of a dark-brownish appearance, 
colored here and there with light-yellow patches and 
streaks along the seams and cracks showing the result of 


changes due chiefly to weathering. Color does not seem 
to be a desirable means of estimating the contents of the 
ore, as similar pieces have shown widely varying per- 
centages of uranium and vanadium. 

Unfortunately the man accompanying me, and for 
whom I sampled several workings, insisted on mailing 
the samples to his office. I learned that the "pretty 
pieces" had been analyzed and distributed to the public. 
Therefore I cannot give the reported results, as they are 
of no value. However, I estimate from what I learned 
through talking with the several persons engaged in min- 
ing and shipping the ore that it will average 2|% U 3 O s . 
I was told that the vanadium ore, so-called, averaged 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

4% V 2 5 but was thrown over the dump, as the buyers 
would not take it, and that 10% U 3 8 and 8% V 2 5 were 
often found. 

Most of those engaged in the industry are ranchers, 
who develop their claims between times, getting out small 
sacked shipments occasionally, but at present they are at 
the mercy of the ore-buyers, who represent either East- 
ern firms, a Western sampling-works, or some unprin- 
cipled promoter. These miners, who operate in a small 
way, told me that the ore-buyers make a pretense of abid- 
ing by "fair sampling" of the shipment, (a grab sample 
is taken out of odd sacks in the presence of the shipper 
at "Whitewater, Colorado, on the D. & R. G.). The buyer 
pays an estimated percentage, cash, to the shipper on the 
uranium content of the ore, but no consideration is taken 
of the vanadium content, much to the profit of the ore- 
buyer. The final payment is made on the buyer's 

The so-called mines are 7 to 15 miles from the Gate- 
way post-office, where the ore is brought in sacks by pack- 
train over difficult trails and stored, for shipment by 
automobile 47 miles to Whitewater. 

It appears, from the pockety nature of the ore, which 
necessitates a large amount of dead work ; from the fact 
that portions of the outcrop have been covered by slides ; 
from the great distances, the scarcity of water, and the 
present means of marketing the ore, that carnotite will 
not be mined by individuals or companies on a large scale 
in this district except as a means of obtaining the ore for 
individual use, as is done at present by two or three com- 
panies whose operations have not reached large propor- 
tions, but generally have begun with an open-cut, with 
continued slicing and caving, until a method of tunnel- 
ling similar to the room-and-pillar of coal mining has 
proved necessary on account of the depth reached in 
following the ore. 

If the different individuals who own claims and all 
those interested in mining carnotite in the Gateway 
district would co-operate, and form an association, they 
could get out their irregular shipments and employ an 
agent to protect their interests so that the ore could be 
properly sampled, sold for the double content, and ship- 
ped in carload lots. Such an association would attract 
other small operators into the district. Mining of this 
nature is similar to 'pocket-hunting' in California, for 
it can be engaged in intermittently with profit, because 
no great amount of capital is tied up and the co-opera- 
tion of the small miners and prospectors would ensure 
a respectable tonnage of ore. 

A total of $5,031,500 in gold coin has been withdrawn 
from the subtreasury for shipment to foreign countries. 
Gold coin to amount of $1,290,000 in addition to that 
previously reported as withdrawn from subtreasury has 
been withdrawn for shipment to Spain and $156,500 in 
gold coin to South America. Total withdrawals of gold 
coin from subtreasury and gold bars from United States 
assay office aggregate $91,643,000 since gold export em- 
bargo was lifted. 

A Hanger for Plans and Maps 


The survey office in which I was working had a small 
amount of space available, and when it became necessary 
to examine several plans at once, the task was difficult. 
Consequently the plan-hanger shown in the sketch was 
devised and fitted with blueprints of all plans in cur- 
rent use. It carries a large number of plans (twice the 
number of sticks that can be placed on the iron pin), and 

has the merit of folding up compactly against the wall 
when not in use. 

The principal support is a piece of 3 by 2-in. timber 
4 ft. long, which is affixed to the wall. An iron pin f in. 
diam., with two shoulders shrunk on, is made as shown 
in the sketch ; this pin, being threaded at the lower end, 
is bolted through the timber six inches from the end with 
one shoulder bearing against the wood while the other 
serves as a support for the screw-eyes in the ends of the 
sticks that carry the plans. The sticks are one inch 
square and of a length suited to the plans, in the present 
instance 5 ft. In the end of the stick is a screw-eye that 
slips over the iron pin. These screw-eyes are separated 
by 2-in. ferrules cut from j-in. pipe. Finally, strings or 
wires, leading from a screw-eye near the top of the timber 
support, are fastened to screw-eyes placed about four 
inches from the end of the sticks on the rear side (B). 
Two blueprints, back to back, are then attached to the 
front side of the sticks (A) with drawing-pins. 

Thus it will be seen 1hat as each stick is swung back 
like the leaf of a book, two plans are disclosed. This is 
an advantage when the plans have a relation to one an- 
other as shown in the sketch. 

Ax American Petroleum Institute has been formed to 
promote co-operation between the industry and depart- 
mental or legislative organizations of the Government. 

Julv 26, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Production of Copper 



•The smelter production of primary copper in the 
United States during 1918 was 1,908,500,000 pounds, 

•Advanced statement issued by U. S. Geological Survey. 

which, if compared with the production in 1917, 1,886,- 
000,000 lb., shows an increase of 1.17%. The total value 
of the output in 1918, at an average price of 24.7 centat 
per pound, is .+471.408.000, against $514.911, 000 for 1917. 
In tin' following table the production is apportioned to 
the Slates in which the copper was mined. The figures 

tThe average price of 2,283,500,000 lb. ot copper de- 
livered in 1918, as reported to the U. S. Geological Survey 
by selling agencies, was 24.683c. per pound. 

PRODUCTION OF COPPER IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, AND 1918 

[Smelter output, In pounds fine] 













New Jersey 

New Mexico 

North Carolina... 



South Carolina. . . 








Undistributed . . . 






423, 070 
052, 104 

8, 711, 490 







29, 784, 173 


5, 875, 205 

12, 248 



60, 122, 904 







489, 654 

057, 450 


46, 961 

732, 742 

362, 235 

64, 204, 703 



422, 741 


34 272 

160, 589| 660 

17, 753 

683, 602 





432, 467, 690 


7, 272, 178 



238, 956, 410 


268, 263, 040 






38, 971 










9, 536, 193 





377, 575 

352, 139, 768 












2, 473, 481 


1,224,484,098 1,150,137,192 1,388,009,527 1,927,850,548 1,886,120,721 1,908,533,595 


84, 759, 086 











115, 028, 161 

107, 593, 615 














769, 521, 729 

44, 150, 761 




501, 169 

231, 096, 158 

232, 073 

326, 426, 761 

106, 266, 603 












primary and secondary copper produced by regular repining plants and imported in 
1913, 1914. 1915, 1916, 1917, and 1918, in pounds 

















6 236, 757..062 

21, 555, 129 







268, 508, 091 





Pig and best 


Foreign (elec- 

Foreign cast- 
ing and best 



o 246, 498, 925 


oc 555, 000, 000 

oc 492, 181, 364 














78, 585, 296 



37, 222, 759 






Total output 







o The separation of refined copper into metal of domestic and foreign origin is only approximate, as an 
accurate separation at this stage of manufacture is not possible. 

6 Some Lake copper was refined at seaboard plants and doubtless marketed under some brand other 
than Lake. This has been excluded from the Lake copper. 

e Includes refined copper imported. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

represent the content of fine copper in the blister pro- 
duced and the smelter output of ingot and anode copper 
from Michigan. 


The total production of new refined copper in 1918 
was 2,432,000,000 lb., an increase of 4,000,000 lb. over 
that of 1917. 

The reports from plants that treat secondary material 
exclusively are incomplete at this date. A statement of 
the secondary production will be published as soon as the 
figures are available. 

In addition to their metallic copper the regular re- 
fining companies produced Milestone having a copper 
content of 7,917,696 pounds. 


Returns from all producing companies show that their 
stocks of electrolytic, Lake, easting, and pig copper on 
hand at the beginning and end of the year were as fol- 
lows : 



January 1, 1919 180,000,000 

January 1, 1918 114,000,000 

Increase during 1918 66,000,000 

In addition to the stocks of refined copper on hand 
January 1, 1919, 562,600,000 lb. of blister copper and 
material in process of refining were reported as at smelt- 
ers in the United States, in transit from smelters to re- 
finers, and at refineries, against 411,000,000 lb. on Janu- 
ary 1, 1918. This does not include copper in stock at 
foreign smelters or in transit from foreign smelters to 
refineries in the United States. 


The apparent consumption of refined new copper in 
the United States in 1918 was 1,662,000,000 lb. In 1917 
it was 1,316,000,000 lb. The method employed in de- 
termining the quantity of copper retained for domestic 
consumption is shown in the following table, which does 
not include stocks of copper held by consumers : 

New Cornelia 

The New Cornelia Copper Co. is constructing an ex- 
perimental flotation plant which it expects to complete 
by the first of next September. This new addition is not 
being erected, however, for an immediate increase in 
copper production, but rather to give the company ade- 
quate facilities for the thorough experimentation of some 
of its semi-refractory ores. At present the company is 
operating all departments at about two-thirds capacity. 
It is keeping one eye on the copper metal market and one 
on the capacity gauge of the property. On 24 hours 
notice it can get back to full capacity. Indeed, it will be 
easier for New Cornelia to get into its full stride than 
for the deeper mines, as labor is not such a great factor 
in the operation. The company is preparing now to 
strip quite an extensive body of high-grade ore. This 
will be uncovered by steam-shovel instead of under- 
ground operation and at an obvious saving in time and 
expense. New Cornelia had its second birthday last 

In June 1917 it made its first shipment of commer- 
cial ore and since that time has obtained an average 
extraction of 80% of the copper content of its ore. 
Without allowing for depreciation, depletion, or a re- 
serve for excess profits taxes, the company is 'making' 
its copper today for approximately 13c. per pound. It 
has sold a substantial amount of its surplus metal, yet 
has held back enough to take advantage of the present 
market at 20e. Now that the metal market has begun 
to approach a level where something more than a new 
dollar for an old can be made, it is logical to expect New 
Cornelia to resume dividends on its 1,800,000 shares of 
stock. Last November it inaugurated payments with a 
distribution of 25c. per share. Right after, the copper 
market went into the doldrums and, of course, New 
Cornelia has paid nothing since. Of its total outstand- 
ing capital, Calumet & Arizona owns 1,200,000 shares, 
or 70%, and this latter company has been the guiding 
hand that has led New Cornelia so rapidly to success. 









Total supply of new 

1,615, 067; 782 

90, 385, 402 





Stock at beginning of 

Total available 




2, 341, 816, 981 



Copper exported 

Stocks at end of year 

90, 385, 402 



o 784, 006, 486 
128, 055, 229 

o 1,126,875,368 

6 704,715,714 
180, 000, 000 

Total v. ithdrawn 


1, 013, 721, 423 





Apparent consumption. . 

812, 268, 639 

620, 445, 373 

1, 043, 497, 328 

1, 429, 755, 266 



o Exports of pigs, ingots, bars, rods, etc., reported by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 
6 Exclusive of manufactured copper. 

July 26. 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRPSS 



.1 ; 



arizoxa , ml I,, ,i,.taii by II. Kciiyon l'.mi-li, and ii is anticipated 

Copper Qieex Powee-Line.— Denn-Abizon \ Mora.— " Iilt the eom P«»y ul " '"' '" Position to call for bids with- 
er it t^ in ilit- next 30 days. No details in connection with the 
Silver Virgin Developments. .,, , , ... ,„, ,. 

mill have been made public yet. I he power-une from 

Bisbee. — Plans for the construction of the Copper Hie Copper Queen smelter in Douglas to the company's 

Queen concentrator near "Warren, to handle the output properties in the Warren district is one-third completed 

of low-grade ore from Sacramento hill, are being worked and will be ready for operation about October 1. The 

UTAH .. .;. 

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v i r ■-— js^-- ----a 


J ( V ! 


' • ( Y (Si 

1 Benlley I / ) 



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Hassayampa W^^ — ^^ Ts«-^< Miami ^~~^Xk Metcalf / 

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Castle Dome \ ^ f ^^-^^ \^ sS ^^* , t f 'y ^v\ \ M 


S ni^^^~-r^ S Bend c^-o^^. rX ^X \ 

y fijl^-^^-""^ J "C "£\ Jy \ 



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o / Vekof rfNi, ^t) \ 



La Fortuna / Silver Bell ^\, A y- *^A. i 


*"-*-. Ajo V, "£\ Wilco* / BowTe**- 

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" " _ .oov,,,„ — ..^ Tju„ CAlce KV-^-V 6 ^ 



las i 

"-^_-Sl— " "/Naco / 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

steel towers on which the power-transmission lines will 
be strung will form a direct line between Douglas and 
Bisbee. The towers are only about 100 yards from those 
carrying the Calumet & Arizona power-line, erected sev- 
eral years ago. The Copper Queen line will be supple- 
mentary to the power-plant at Bisbee, the increase in 
power being necessitated both by present large operations 
and increases planned for the future. The power-house 
of the Copper Queen smelter, in addition to supplying 
current for the operation of the big reduction works, sup- 
plies the city of Douglas and, by means of a power-trans- 
mission line 70 miles in length, drives the mine and mill 
machinery of the Lucky Tiger company at El Tigre, 
Sonora. Silver leases on the Copper Queen properties 
at Tombstone continue to be sought eagerly and there has 
been considerable increase in the number of lessees at 
work there within the last few weeks. This has given rise 
to reports that the company intended to resume work on 
its properties at Tombstone on a large scale, but this is 
denied. Only a small force is at work on company time, 
getting out low-grade ore used as a flux. 

L. C. Shattuek. managing director of the Denn-Ari- 
zona mine, has announced a strike of more than usual 
importance on the 1700-ft. level. The extent of the ore- 
body has not been fully determined, but at present more 
than 3000 tons has been blocked out. Assays show silver 
and gold in addition to the copper. Because of the in- 
crease in mineralization with depth, it is the intention 
of the company, after finishing the development of the 
1700-ft. level, to drive on the 1800 to develop the ex- 
tension of the orebody believed' to be there. Larger 
pumps, however, will have to be installed before the plans 
for development below the 1700-ft. level can be carried 
through. At present the pumping equipment is handling 
800 gallons per minute. The Denn mine came into the 
hands of the Shattuck-Arizona interests in 1906 and up 
to date more than $4,000,000 has been expended upon its 
development. During the war period it produced half a 
million pounds of blister copper monthly, but for sev- 
eral months it has made small shipments owing to con- 
centration of the working force on development. This 
policy has proved effective in the development of the new 
orebody, which not only is important to the company, 
but also to the entire "Warren district, by proving that 
the mineralized zone extended farther east than had been 
proved previously. 

Douglas. — The Silver Virgin Mining Co., a Douglas 
corporation operating at Ajo, has opened an excellent 
orebody on the 100-ft. level, according to J. J. Adair, 
superintendent, who came here recently. He brought 
with him selected samples which run high in silver. The 
property is in the Quijotoa mountains 85 miles north- 
west of Tucson. The west drift on the 100-ft. level has 
broken into lime, and by cross-cutting it is expected to 
break into, the orebody already developed by a drift ex- 
tending southward from the shaft. Mr. Adair states 
there is 10,000 tons of ore proved carrying an average of 
$56 in silver at present market prices. The company 
was incorporated here a few months ago imder the laws 

of Arizona with a capitalization of $150,000. The officers 
and directors are: A. B. Murchison, president; Joseph 
F. Deitrich, vice-president ; S. W. White, secretary ; Fred 
E. Cadwel^ treasurer; J. J. Adair, superintendent; J. E. 
Shaw and H. D. Maynard. It is planned to construct a 
mill in the near future. An excellent road leads from 
Tucson through the Papago Indian reservation to the 



Cripple Creek. Stock transfer books of the Portland 
company closed July 12 preparatory to the payment of 
the regular quarterly dividend of 2 cents per share, 
which will amount to $60,000. The company is mining 
ore from two rich and strong shoots at the Roosevelt tun- 
nel level, from the Lee 5 and Portland No. 2 veins. The 
depth is 2131 ft. from the surface. Net profits of the 
Cresson company for May, as shown in the July report 
of A. E. Carlton, the president, were $60,546. In con- 
cluding his monthly report Mr. Carlton stated "The 
labor supply, while somewhat improved, is not yet satis- 
factory and 63% of the production in May came from 
broken sources." Al Osberg and J. S. Christiansen have 
purchased the Tambourine group at Wall Street in the 
Boulder County mining district, one of the oldest and 
best known producers of that district. A contract has 
been made with the Golden Cycle Mining & Reduction Co. 
at Colorado Springs for the treatment of the Tambourine 
ores, and production is already w r ell under way. The 
Anderson and Benkelman lease of the Trail mine of the 
United Gold Mines Co., one of the most profitable both 
to the operators and the owning company in the history 
of the district, has but four months to run, but it is esti- 
mated that although there remains 300 feet of cross- 
cutting to tap the ore-shoot, the cost will be more than 
paid for in the first 30 days, thus leaving three months 
for profits even should no extension be secured. Ander- 
son, Benkelman, Eby, and Orrison, partners in the lease, 
have all made fortunes from the ore sales, while the 
United Gold Mines Company has secured more than 
$110,000. The Beacon Gold Mines Co., H. M. Gilbert 
manager, continues shipping high-grade ore from its 
lease of the Index mine of the El Paso Extension Gold 
Mining Co. The leasing company is shipping about 
three cars per week and the ore is reported to average 
$40 per ton. The Rose Nicol mine on the north-west 
slope of Battle mountain, owned by the Rose Nicol Gold 
Mining Co., and operated under lease by the Reva Gold 
Mining Co., is shipping about 100 tons per week. The 
settlements are stated to be from $20 to $30 per ton. 
Two shoots are furnishing the ore, one on the eighth and 
the other on the ninth level of the main Rose Nicol shaft. 

Leadvtlle. — Stilwell Conner, a former successful Crip- 
ple Creek operator now leasing the properties of the 
Pearl Consolidated Mining Co., will soon commence ship- 
ping to the Leadville smelter. The Pearl Con. property 
is at Buffers, near Climax, in the strip in litigation be- 

July 26, 1919 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


fcween Lake, Park, and Summit counties, and has long 
lain idle. Mr. Conner determined to prospect a narrow 
veil of ore snowing in the lower tunnel, which had been 
driven to cut the vein and shoot that produced heavily 
in the shallow shaft workings, but which had apparently 
missed the vein in depth. He followed this streak ami it 
widened with every round, until he is now breaking 
seven feet of ore with the foot-wall only exposed. Sam- 
ples are reported from 20 to 36 oz. silver per ton. Last 
week he visited Denver and made satisfactory arrange- 
ments with the Colorado & Southern Railroad for the re- 
construction of the loading switch, which will enable him 
to ship at least a car per day to the Leadville plant. He 
has also sampled the old shaft dump and estimates there 
are 400 to 600 tons of ore available that will average 23 
oz. silver or better per ton. This ore will be sorted and 
also shipped. The Bowman group in the Red Mountain 
district will soon be shipping to the Leadville plant. C. 
Harvey, the lessee, has opened up a strong vein by tun- 
nel. The Wolftone in the same district has been re- 
opened after long inactivity and is producing sulphides 
and carbonate of zinc. The company has contracted to 
deliver several thousand tons of the ore before the end 
of the year. J. H. Samin, operating a property owned 
by him on the south-western slope of Mt. Massive, has cut 
a strong vein of gold ore that is reported to average $6 
per ton over a width, of 10 ft. A trial shipment is to be 
treated to test the ore thoroughly and if results are satis- 
factory a cyanide plant will be constructed- 



The operating mines in the Copper Country, including 
the Calumet & Hecla, Isle Royale, Quincy, Mohawk, 
Osceola, Ahmeek, Champion, Trimountain, Baltic, and 
Allouez, are adding underground men, principally min- 
ers and trammers, to their working forces, and it is ex- 
pected that the total personnel will he increased 3000 
men by the end of August. The first openings are being 
given to former employees, either underground or sur- 
face. It is quite generally understood, however, that 
this change of policy in employing men does not fore- 
shadow any immediate increase in the production of 
copper, nor does it mean any increase in the number of 
surface men. The additional men will be put to opening 
new ground wherever possible. Calumet & Hecla and 
its subsidiaries do not intend to produce over 50% of 
normal, and it is not expected that the others will ex- 
ceed 80%) of normal for the present. The change of 
attitude on the part of the largest producers in the dis- 
trict reflects, however, the marked betterment in the out- 
look for the copper market, and has been received with 
pleasure throughout the district. The general belief 
seems to be that the situation has turned for the better, 
and that the turn is a permanent one for future pros- 
perity. There has been a noticeable return of workmen 
to the district, but it will be some time before the re- 
turning men equal those who left during the slump in 
the copper market last winter and spring. 

The production "I' on- I' ruin some of the principal mines 

during June is as follows: Champion, 36,000 tons; Baltic, 
19,00(1; Trimountain, 15,500; Wolverine, 21,800; Mo- 
hawk, 44,000; Michigan, 5320; .Mass Consolidated, 6082; 

• Is. hi Consolidated, 46,000; Ahmeek. 36,000; Centen- 
nial 1500; Allouez. 8700; Isle Royale, io.oOO. 



(inuiFiEi.n. — Ore sampling $15 to $22 per ton is show- 
ing across the entire face of the main drift and stope on 
the 200-ft. level workings of the Red Top mine of the 
Goldfield Consolidated, now operated by the Goldfield 
Development Co. A single blast recently shot down 3000 
tons that sampled $67,200. At this point ore-reserves of 
200,000 tons have been estimated to average $7 per ton. 
The management is planning to increase the capacity of 
the Consolidated mill to 2000 tons per day, and to place 
the plant in commission early in August at its present 
capacity of 1200 tons. Two ball-mills and other equip- 
ment will be sufficient to increase the tonnage to the de- 
sired point. The company is preparing to work exten- 
sively the north half of the Florence-Goldfield, recently 
taken under lease, and the mill for several months will 
operate principally on ore from the Red Top, Florence, 
and Mohawk. Meanwhile the cross-cut from the main 
drift on the 380-ft. level of the Combination mine is near- 
ing its objective. "With its completion arrangements will 
be made to work the 1,500,000 tons of low-grade ore in 
the Combination by the caving system. It is estimated 
2,200,000 to 2,500,000 tons of ore is exposed, representing 
approximately $11,000,000 to $12,000,000. Late work in 
the Red Top and Mohawk proves the ore will run better 
than the average grade indicated. A. I. D Arcy is man- 
ager and F. Dean Bradley mill superintendent. 

Carson City. — The vein recently opened on the South- 
west Comstock, seven miles south-west of Virginia City, 
has widened to five feet of $50 silver-gold ore. It has 
been opened to a depth of 70 ft. and prospecting has 
shown that ore occurs on both sides of the walls. Cop- 
per has almost entirely disappeared and the gold content 
is steadily increasing. The ore is declared to be typical 
of that found on the Comstock Lode in surface workings. 
Arrangements are being made to increase the force and 
carry on development on a broader scale. Thurman 
Roberts is president and Walter Baldy secretary. Com- 
stock Superior has started work on ground adjoining 
Southwest Comstock on the north-east. The formation 
is the same character as that occurring on the Southwest 
Comstock, and the owners expect to intersect the Roberts 
vein at shallow depth. Somewhat further toward Vir- 
ginia City, ground has been acquired by the Eagle Com- 
stock Co., in which Canadian people are interested. G. 
S. Clack, of Reno, is manager. Several groups of claims 
have been located since discovery of the Roberts vein, 
and preparations for much prospecting are being made 
by Reno and Carson City people. 

Denio. — D. C. Pomeroy reports discovery of a large 
deposit of gold ore in his Deegan & Cowden mine. At a 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 26, 1919 

depth of 50 ft. the vein was opened by a drift and stated 
to be of milling grade with the ore the full width of the 
drift. Construction of a small mill has begun. 

Inlay. — Arthur Perkins and A. E. Springer have 
taken under lease and option the Santa Clara silver-gold 
group near Inlay. The property was a good producer 
when known as the Michigan Nevada. It is owned by 
"Warren & Hawkins of Winnemueca. 

Tuscaeora. — The Holden Mining & Milling Co. is 
erecting a 50-ton experimental mill on its property in 
this district. The plant will start work soon and a large 
mill is to be installed as soon as a suitable process for ore 
treatment has been determined. Developments are prin- 
cipally restricted at present to the Nevada Queen mine, 
formerly a large silver-gold yielder. C. C. Griggs is gen- 
eral manager. The Rose group has been purchased by 
F. L. Reber and associates of Winnemueca for $10,000 
and a stock consideration. The property has been suffi- 
ciently worked to expose a strong vein of ore said to be of 
shipping grade. Extensive work is to start at once. 



Reference has been made to the dissatisfaction of the 
independent shippers of British Columbiawith the treat- 
ment charges of the Canadian Consolidated Mining & 
Smelting Co. at its Trail smelter as set out in what is 
known as Schedule B. This, it will be recalled, led to an 
investigation by a special committee, whose report was 
issued a short time ago. The matter was discussed at the 
recent mining convention at Nelson, when it was an- 
nounced by J. J. Warren, the company's general man- 
ager, that a new schedule was being prepared and would 
be issued shortly. That schedule now has been published 
and is effective. It provides the promised reduction in 
ore rates and more especially affects those ores contain- 
ing zinc and sulphur. The schedule is as follows, the 
introductory table being the basis of payment for silver 
and lead: 

Silver Lead 

payment, payment, 

% % 

10% zinc or under 95 90 

Over 10% and including 11% 94} 89 

"11 " " 12 94 88 

"12 " " 13 93} 87 

"13 " " 14 93 86 

"14 " " 15 92} 85 

"15 " " 16 92 84 

"16 " " 17 91} 83 

"17 " " 18 91 82 

"18 " " 19 90} SI 

"19 " " 20 90 80 

"20 " " 21 89} 79 

"21 " " 22 * 89 78 

"22 " " 23 88} 77 

"23 " " 24 88 76 

"24 " " 25 87} 75 

Silver will be paid for on the fire-assay at the average 
of the quotations for the second calendar month succeed- 
ing the date of sampling at Tadnac, B. C. In no ease Trill 

the deduction from the silver assay be less than one-half 
ounce per ton. 

The lead contents will be determined by the wet 
method of»analysis, deducting 1-J units to arrive at the 
dry lead assay. Lead will be accounted for on the dry 
lead assay to the extent shown by the above schedule; 
provided, however, that in no case will the deduction he 
less than one unit, or 20 pounds, per dry ton of ore. The 
price for lead to he used in settlement will be the sales 
price delivered at destination in Canada less li cents 
per pound for refining and marketing as in effect under 
the existing pooling scheme, which will be continued. 
There will be deducted also, from the delivered sales 
price, $2.30 per ton on sales at Toronto and common 
points, $4.50 at Montreal and common points, and similar 
differentials to other points. This freight adjustment is 
to cover actual increases in freights ; for example, should 
sales in any month be 2000 tons and, say, 1200 tons for 
delivery at Toronto and 800 tons at Montreal, the freight 
adjustment would be three-fifths at $2.30 and two-fifths 
at $4.50, or $3.18 per ton of lead. 

The pooling scheme is outlined as follows : 

(a) Settlement is based upon sales price as above pro- 
vided and only to the extent of actual sales from month 
to month. 

(b) Whenever sales are sufficient to settle for a full 
month's lead receipts this is done promptly. 

(c) Lead from our own mines is pooled with that pur- 
chased from others and is treated in exactly the same way. 

(d) Each month a statement is issued showing the 
condition of the pool. All shippers have been sent a copy 
of the last one issued. 

The charge for smelting per dry ton of material is to 
be $9.50 as a base rate, which will be modified in ac- 
cordance with the following formula : 

1. Add to the base rate per ton, 60c. per unit for all 
zinc contained. 

2. Deduct from this result the total units of silica, iron, 
manganese, lime, and magnesia at 9c. per unit. 

Provided that in no case shall said base rate be re- 
duced more than $4 per ton as the net result of the said 
additions and deductions. 

Provided also, that in making the above computation, 
iron, silica, and lime if 1% or under, and manganese and 
magnesia if 3% or under, will be disregarded. 

A charge will be made in addition to the above for all 
sulphur contained in excess of 2%, at 30c. per unit per 
dry ton of material, provided that such charge shall not 
exceed $3 per ton in any case